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New York : Eaton & Mains 
Cincinnati: Jknmngs & Pys 

Methodist Review. 

JULY, 1901. 


By John Wesley's will liis manuscripts were given to Dr. 
Thomas Coke. Dr. Whitehead, and Henry Moore, " to be burnt 
or published, as they see good." At the time of Wesley's 
death Coke was making one of his episcopal tours in Amer- 
ica and did not hear the news until he and Asbury reached 
Port Royal, Virginia, For nearly a day so stunned was he 
that he ''' was not able to weep ; but afterward some refreshing 
tears gave him almost inexpressible ease. 1 ' After Wesley's 
burial by torchlight, early in the morning to avoid the great 
crowds— fully ten thousand having come to see liis placid face 
as his body lay near the entrance of City Road Chapel the 
previous day — his funeral sermon was preached in the chapel 
by Dr. Whitehead, who had retired from the itinerancy and 
had long been Wesley's favorite physician, being then a local 
preacher in London. Henry Moore, the companion of Wes- 
ley's travels and his confidential friend, to whom he spoke with- 
out reserve, was then preaching at Rath. Word reached him 
from London that John Pawson had taken upon himself to deal 
with the letters and other manuscripts at City Road in a most 
unwarrantable manner. Moore, as Wesley's executor, wrote 
at once to Pawson to put a stop to this destruction. Pawson 
replied that he was only destroying old and useless letters. 
Moore replied, forbidding him to deal in any further way 
with any of Wesley's books or manuscripts, which he was 
about to destroy, as lie " thought they did not tend to edifica- 
tion. Among these was 'Wesley's own copy of Shakespeare, 

With notes, for even his journal written in Georgia tells of his 


Methodist Review. 


fondness for Shakespeare at that early day. Pawson replied : 
" It was not my design to give you a moment's pain by what I 
have done with Mr. Wesley's papers, etc., etc. However, I 
will send you all — among them a curiosity, some little books 
written in his own shorthand, which you understand much bet- 
ter than I do." These c£ little books" proved to be none 
other than "Wesley's daily and hourly journals, the originals 
from which he afterward made such extracts as he deemed de- 
sirable to be published, the latter now known as his famous 
Journal, and more read and more interesting than Xenophon's 
Anabasis or Ciesar's Commentaries. 

Of these little books which thus narrowly escaped destruc- 
tion only one is known to be in existence, and that is now in 
America, where it was written in 1736-37, during the time of 
Wesley's labors in Georgia, and whence he took it back to Eng- 
land, a hundred and sixty-three years ago. Having been sacredly 
preserved by him until the time of his death — after narrowly 
escaping destruction at the hands of Pawson — it had been in 
the possession of only two families after it left the hands of 
Henry Moore, until 1897, when it was purchased by Mr. 
Thursfield Smith, J. P., Whitchurch, Salop, England, from 
whom it was recently bought by the writer, while fraternal 
messenger to the British Wesley an Conference. As the fly 
leaf shows, Mr. Moore gave it, in 1817, to Miss Elizabeth 
Taylor, of Carmarthen, who left it by will to Rev. John Gould 
Avery, in 1847, with the inscription, " From his much obliged 
and ever affectionate friend, Elizabeth Thomas, late Elizabeth 
Taylor." The family of Mr. Avery, a distinguished and able 
Wesleyan minister, naturally set great value on this unique 
treasure, pronounced to be " the most precious Wesley docu- 
ment in existence," and retained it in their possession for fifty 
years. Mr. Thursfield Smith, a retired iron manufacturer who 
has the largest collection of Wcsleyana of any private individ- 
ual in England, regarded it as the most valuable Wesley docu- 
ment known, refusing all offers for it until convinced that it 
should be brought to America, where it was originally writ- 
ten and where six millions of Methodists now have their home. 

Before this wonderfully interesting manuscript volume l«ft 
England for America, Rev. Richard Green, late Governor ol 


£/ r-,: 

* 7 


1901.] Wesley* 8 Original American Journal. 515 

Didsbury College and the author of the Wesley Bibliography, 
and one of the best known and most accurate of England's 
antiquarians, had it in bis possession some six months for care- 
ful study, making a translation, where necessary, of many of 
the abbreviations used by Mr. "Wesley in putting so much in 
small space. The entries of a few days are in Byrom's system 
of shorthand, which Charles "Wesley urged his brother to learn 
that their correspondence might be conducted in it for the same 
reasons of privacy that led them often to converse in Latin. 
Mr. Green's knowledge of Byrom's system has enabled him to 
translate an occasional entry, as where under date of December 
10, 1736, Wesley inscribes, partly in shorthand, on a fly leaf 
of the journal certain personal rules, as follows : 
In Nomine Dei. 

1. To be more watchful before and in prayer. 

2. To strive more to be thankful for what I eat. 

3. [A piece of mild asceticism as to abstinence from ''choice" food; 
not decipherable.] ^ 

4. Every hour you may — watch, strive. 

5. Look into no book but " V. 6 " until Christmas. 

6. From 12 to 4 p. If., parish. 

7. Speak no unkind or unintended word. 

The abbreviations for the most part are such as are used to-day 
in some universities in taking down lectures, a system known 
as " abbreviated longhand." For instance, the first entry of 
the day is usually "p. p.," which means " private prayer," fol- 
lowed bv "p. w. D.," meaning " prayer with Delamotte." u Lr. 
br." means " letters to brother" — his brother Charles. " Lr. 
0.," or » Wt. lr. O.," means " Wrote letter to Oglethorpe." 
When this entry occurs — " br. B." — it means " breakfasted on 
bread." " Kp. x." means " read prayer and examined." " Xtw." 
means "interview." One of the most striking abbrevia- 
tions is " y," used for " hearers." Thus, " 55 y " gives the size 
of the congregation. Sometimes, as when Wesley preached 
in Charleston, he is able to enter "about 300 y;" but Savannah, 
with its small population, rarely furnished more than "120 y." 

On the page facing this is a facsimile page of the journal, 
showing the odd mixture of long and shorthand. How it 
happens that the records of two days so far apart as July 8 
and December 23, 1736, arc on the same page, dors not appear. 


Methodist Review. 

The following letter from Rev. Richard Green tells the esti- 
mate in which this manuscript journal is held in England : 

Birmingham, Nov, 19. — Dear Bishop Hendrix: Mr. Thursfield Smith 
ha3 forwarded to me your letter to him of the 8th inst. You express a 
wish that I should write you my full and candid estimate of your pre- 
cious little MS. Pocket Journal. Let me first say that — though I think 
the little treasure should be in the keeping of the American Methodist 
Church, because the book was written in America and relates to work 
done in that country; because the American Methodist Church is so large 
and influential ; and because your brethren in America do take so deep an 
interest in the past history of Methodism, and in all the things relating 
to John Wesley — yet I begrudge your having it ; for, first, it is not a rec- 
ord of Methodism, but solely of John Wesley's years' work before Meth- 
odism (as we think of it) had a being; second, and John Wesley was an 
Englishman, and belongs to England and was one of the greatest of 
Englishmen; third, in my judgment it is the most interesting relic of 
Wesley's that we possessed. However, it is yours now, with its many in- 
teresting details and secrets locked up in the curious contractions and the 
stenography. In order to its full translation some one must devote him- 
self to the comparing the entries of one day to similar entries on other 
days. In this way I succeeded in making out a number of contractions. 
My " translation " you will find in the large manuscript book which I 
prepared, and which I understand Mr. Smith gave you with the 

I am indulging the hope that when we get possession of Wesley's 
full Journal (now in manuscript only) we shall be able to translate the 
diary more accurately. 

In the proceedings of the Wesley Historical Society, Vol. 1, Pt. 3, I 
have given an account of your little book. Allow me again to point out 
the relation of your little volume to the published journals: 

First : Wesley for many years wrote for his own use an account of his 
occupation during every hour of the day. Of course he was driver, to 
use contractions in writing, that he might crowd the whole into small 
space. Yours is oue of the many volumes he must have written; and it 
is the only one known to exist. 

Second : At intervals — you will find reference to this iu your volume- 
he wrote out at full length not only an account of the principal acts of 
his life, but also his reflections on men, books, etc., etc. Several por- 
tions of this (Wesley's common Journal) arc known to exist. Mr. Kelly's 
(to which reference is made iu the Recorder article that you name) is one 

Third: Wesley's printed Journal, so well known throughout the worM, 
is (as he states in every portion) a number (21) of extracts made by him 
from the manuscript journal, No. 2. 

Again let me say that you have a priceless treasure; that 1 grieve wfctt" 

1901.] Wesley 1 s Original American Journal. 


ever I think of the fact that lean spend no more time in the little volume 
over which I have pondered for so many long hours. 

]t now occurs to me to suggest that the whole volume might be copied 
bv the " process printing." This, I should think, would pay in your 
enterprising country, and it would give Methodist students through the 
world the opportunity of studying Wesley's daily, hourly life during the 
time it embraced. 

This pocket diary or journal of Wesley, now in America, is 
a volume six and a half inches long by four wide, stoutly bound 
in calf, and contains one hundred and eighty-six pages of su- 
perior note paper. One hundred and seventy-five of these pages 
are both numbered and dated, the dates also including the days 
of the week. These pages are filled with Mr. Wesley's neat 
and clear writing. Each of the numbered pages is devoted to 
the doings of a single day, and each line to the work of a sin- 
gle hour, save when voyaging in rough weather between Savan- 
nah and Frederica, or between Savannah and Charleston. The 
whole gives a minute account of how he spent every hour of 
every day, during the period embraced in the journal. This 
habit, he tells us in the Preface of his printed Journal, was be- 
gun many years before, in pursuance of the advice given by 
Jeremy Taylor in his Rules for Holy Living and Dying, so 
that he might account to himself as well as to God, for how 
he employed every hour of his time. This little twelvemo he 
accordingly carried about with him, most of the time in his 
pocket, that he might make the entries without fail. In a 
book of Memories and Anecdotes, published in 1790 by 
"Philip Thicknesse, late Lt. Governor of Land Guard Fort," the 
author mentions several interesting reminiscences of Wesley, 
to whom he brought a letter of introduction in Georgia. lie 
was with him in a small boat on his way to Charleston, when, 
despite the officer's remonstrance against the captain's excess of 
sail and Wesley ? s against his exceeding profanity, he increased 
both, the more he was pleaded with, until finally the mast 
broke and they were all about to be capsized. Mr. Thicknesse 
relates that Wesley calmly opened his trunk and took out a lit- 
tle book which he said he was anxious to preserve. This he 
placed in his pocket, so as to have it on his person should they 
have to abandon the boat. As the pocket journal records 
minutely this incident of the broken mast, it i> quite probable 


Methodist Review. 

that this is the very book which he was so careful to preserve 
and which has survived until now. It is not strange that some 
of Wesley's spiritual children, following the example of Bev. 
Richard Green, on first seeing a book most closely connects 1 
with Wesley's person, have kissed it. It is John Wesley's best 
portrait painted by himself. There is nothing in all literature 
comparable to this self -revelation — a life written by hours ! 

Happily, the eighteenth century was one in which keeping 
diaries or journals was quite common. It were difficult "to 
write satisfactorily the history of Methodism without the jour- 
nals of Susanna Wesley and her gifted sons, the journals of 
Whitefield and Coke and Asbury. They are as essential as 
the " field notes " of the surveyor or pioneer. Governor 
Stephens, who succeeded Charles Wesley as secretary and 
General Oglethorpe as governor of the colony in Georgia, 
kept a journal of which only seventy copies were published — 
a work or series of volumes (for there were several) of untold 
value to the trustees of the colony for whose benefit it was 
kept and to all who have had access to its pages. As Wes- 
ley's contemporary during some months of his stay in Georgia 
the governor gives a somewhat minute account of his preach- 
ing and habits at that critical period of his history. Wesley 
is, however, his own chief biographer in recording what took 
place, not only on the Sabbaths when Governor Stephens has 
pictured him, but also during the hours of every day. 

The daily life of Wesley usually began at four o'clock in 
the morning, and, according to the faithful record of In- 
hourly journal, the first hour is given to " private prayer." 
Sometimes even this first hour is also marked by " prayer with 
Delamotte." His morning hours are spent for the most part 
at his desk and among his books. His Greek Testament is In- 
constant companion on land and water, so that he early acquired 
a familiarity with it which enabled him all his life to quote 
from the original any text of Scripture whose English render- 
ing in the King James Version he had for the moment for- 
gotten. If, in after life, he adopted as his motto, " The world 
is my parish," it is evident that when he had a parish of his 
own — and this Savannah parish is the only one he ever had— 
his motto was, "My parish is the world." II is wondei 

1901.1 Wesley* s Original American Journal. 519 

journal gives the names of his parishioners whom he faithfully 
visited every afternoon. Light is thrown on the family life of 
that little town of wooden houses, each sixteen by twenty-four 
feet in size, with the neighboring Indians — Tomo-chichi at 
their head as mico, or chief — making their frequent visits. 
Now, he finds a family quarrel in progress ; and at another 
time he writes the will of a sick parishioner whom he follows 
a few days later to his grave. Xow, he is greatly encouraged 
about one of his flock whose career he has been watching with 
hope ; then, with an aching heart, he makes the entry, " Mark 
Ilird intoxicated, alas ! " Charles "Wesley writes from Frederica 
how the quarrels of two brawling women have disturbed the 
peace of the village, and John willingly exchanges duties with 
him for a while. Charles is almost overawed by preaching to 
a hundred at Savannah, while John's journal records a Holy 
Thursday's experience at Frederica as follows : 

Being Ascension-Day, we had the Holy Communion; but only Mr. 
Bird's family joined us in it. One reason why there were no more was 
because a few words which a woman had inadvertently spoken had set 
almost all the town in a flame. Alas ! how shall a city stand that is 
thus divided against itself ? Where there is no brotherly love, no 
meekness, no forbearing or forgiving one another, but envy, malice, re- 
venge, suspicion, anger, clamour, bitterness, evil-speaking, without 
end ! Abundant proof that there can be no true love of man unless it 
be built on the love of God. 

One stormy afternoon at Frederica is given by hours, where 
"Wesley records the quarrelsome temper of " M. II." and his 
wife — apparently the woman who had so disturbed the com- 
munity a few days before. Before dinner she is " angry." He 
dined with her, and she is reported as " milder" at two o'clock. 
At three she became " very angry," " quarrelled." At four 
she is reported as " a little milder." By five she is " very 
angry, quarrel alas ; " and by six she " could not hear." Her 
quarrel seems to have been with her husband, who was present ; 
for it was a couple to which Oglethorpe said he would rather 
give a hundred pounds than have them come to America, he 
having been ovcrpcrsuaded in giving his consent. After 
studying her case thoroughly and seeking in vain to help her, 
Wesley records a few days later: " She utterly renounced my 
friendship. Be it so ! " Such an entry recalls that other one, 


Methodist Review. 


when the virago was one of his own household, "Non earn 
rcliqui; non dismisi; non revocabo." Could Charles Wesley 
avoid recalling his experience in Frederica when, years after- 
ward, he saw much of this person — " a woman with a sorrow- 
ful spirit" — who sought the society and counsels of the 
Methodists ? He wrote to his wife, " I called two minutes 
before preaching on Mrs. W. at the Foundery, and in all that- 
time had not one quarrel." 

Such encounters disturbed the spirit of John Wesley far 
more than his perils in the wilderness, of which his journal 
gives so minute a record. At times we find him wading in 
the swamps with the water breast-deep and compelled to spend 
the night — a December night, too — sleeping on a log without 
covering or a change of clothing, waiting for .it to become 
light enough to find his way, in company with faithful Dela- 
motte and his ignorant guide, to the nearest farmhouse. Only 
the soft air of Georgia could have saved from an early grave 
one who counted not his life dear unto himself, that he might 
finish his course with joy, and the ministry which he had <k re- 
ceived of the Lord Jesus, to testify the Gospel of the grace of 
God." He afterward attributed his being cured of spitting 
blood by living so much in the open air during his life in 
America. His journal shows him frequently at the oars, as he 
makes the inland passage from Thunderbolt, down by Skidoway 
and AVassaw Islands, through Ossabaw, St. Catherines, Sapelo, 
and Doboy Sounds, on his way to St. Simon's Island. More 
than one venerable live oak is pointed out as " "Wesley's tree," 
under which he was wont to preach in the open air. The 
journal that records all these journeys by days and hours 
proved to be most fascinating to Oglethorpe. To him Wesley 
not only mentions sending extracts occasionally, but, under 
date of Sunday, May 23, 173G, we find him closeted with 
Oglethorpe at midnight, reading his journal. The entries for 
the next day begin at midnight. "Twelve: read journal to 
Oglethorpe. He quite open. 1. Talked of M. W. and M. II. 
[the two great disturbers of the peaee, his own and Charles's]. 
He open. Friendly. 2. Talked of Savannah and Frederica. 
lie advised. 3. Talked of his life, etc. lie advised. 4. Slept. 
5:15. Private prayer. Interview with Delamotte." So the 


Wesley's Original American Journal. 


record proceeds, showing that Wesley's sleep that night was 
limited to an hour and a quarter. But he continues his 
Greek Testament, visits, letters, and studies the next day and 
evening until nine o'clock, when, after meditation and prayer, 
he retired to sleep, but " lay without a bolster/' He was more 
fortunate than Charles, if he even had a bed. 

The pocket journal shows that he gave much attention to 
catechising the children. These were not simply catechumens, 
or baptized children, such as have always had some share in 
the thought of faithful pastors from apostolic days. But Wes- 
ley was accustomed to meet, on Sunday afternoon, thirty or 
forty children such as Delamotte taught during the week, to 
carefully instruct them in the Bible, and also to ask them 
questions on what they had been taught. He thus formed a 
Sunday school in America some fifty years before Robert 
Raikes formed one in England. Many of these children taught 
in that first Sunday school were doubtless orphans, and were 
afterward gathered into Whitefi eld's orphanage a little later 
under his faithful Habersham, who succeeded Delamotte in 
charge of the school. At this time the journal shows Wesley 
much given to reading Abbe Fleury, in whose Instructions to 
Children he finds so much good that he adapts and publishes 
it later, to be used in preference to some catechisms. 

The literary industry of "Wesley was something prodigious, 
even at that early period. His journal tells of an Abridged 
French Grammar that he was then preparing. He published 
the first Methodist hymn book in Charleston, in 1737. This 
rare book, entitled Collection of Psalms and Hymns, was re- 
produced in facsimile some years ago from the only copy of 
the original edition known to be in existence, which brought 
$102.50 at a London book sale. The manuscript journal 
shows the hours which Wesley employed in selecting and 
even translating hymns for this collection. Three of the four 
hymns in his own handwriting on the fly leaves of the man- 
uscript journal now in America were his translations or 
adaptations from the German, and are published in 1 1 1 i s first 
hymn book. One of them has a most interesting history, aa 
showing how much his own poetry became the vehicle of his 
Christian aspiration and even his experience. The year of his 


Methodist Review. 


return to London — when Peter Bohler was instructing him in 
the doctrine of the witness of the Spirit — after Wesley had 
heard him and others give their experience he stood up and 
said, " We will sing the hymn : 

My soul before Thee prostrate lies ; 
To thee, her Source, my spirit flies ; 
My wants I mourn, my chains I see ; 
let thy presence set me free. 

Lost and undone, for aid I cry; 
In thy death, Saviour, let me die! 
Grieved with thy grief, pain'd with thy pain, 
Ne'er may I feel self-love again." 

Bohler relates that during the singing Wesley often wiped his 
eyes. In his distant American parish Wesley had found 
among the Moravians this hymn best suited to his need, had 
translated it, had written it in his pocket journal, and had 
borne it on his person back to England. There is also in the 
little journal another hymn translated by Wesley and to be 
found to-day in the hymn book of the Wesleyan Methodist 
Church of Great Britain. It begins, 

Jesu, source of calm repose, 
Thy like nor man nor angel knows, 
Fairest among ten thousand fair. 

This original journal of Wesley shows how, amid all his 
trying experiences on land and water while serving the col- 
onists of many tongues in Georgia — being unable to begin his 
coveted missionary work among the Indians, owing to the 
Spanish and French attacks which angered the red men 
against all white men regardless of their nationality — he was 
ever seeking what he beautifully calls " resthood." Law's 
Christian Perfection and Scougal's Life of God in the Soul of 
Man, as well as a Ivempis, are frequentl} r mentioned among the 
books he is reading. Writers like Bishop Potter — who or- 
dained him both deacon and priest — Archbishop Sharp, his 
father's friend Patrick, Bishop Beveridge, Owen, Plato, Mil- 
ton, and Shakespeare are much read. It was Wesley's cus- 
tom to finish one book before beginning another, and to enter 
the date at which a book was finished. The* Mystics and 
even the Church fathers were carefully studied at this time also. 
This Georgian period was marked bv his learning the German, 


Wesley's Original American Journal. 


Spanish, and Italian so that he could readily read the best 
works of divinity in those languages and was able to conduct 
religious service in them for the benefit of the colonists speak- 
ing those tongues. His diligence in mastering the German 
^ tongue, that he might the more perfectly learn the best 
things written by Moravian and other writers, appears from 
the entries in his journal which show him to have spent as 
much as nine hours a day on German, five of these hours 
t without a break. Here is revealed a man as learned as Mo- 
ses — a man, too, gifted in making the songs of the people and 
preparing ultimately to make their laws, but like the great 
lawgiver needing to be seasoned by solitude, trial, self-knowl- 
edge, and knowledge of men, before men could see that by 
his hand God would redeem a mighty people. 

Added interest is given to this priceless manuscript book 
by what Charles Wesley entered on one of the fly leaves just 
before the brothers parted in Charleston, as Charles was about 
returning to England. Under date of July 29, 1736, after 
Charles had been some five months in America and while, 
as the journal shows, they were on their way by boat from 
Savannah to Charleston, John proffers his little pocket journal 
to his brother, that he may make the following memorandum : 
" Half of ye callico (sic) to Mrs. Davison ; ye other half to 
Mrs. Calwell. Half of ye cloath to Mrs. Patison. Desires Mr. 
Delamotte to give Eeed a penknife. Give Mr. Twait one of 
Mr. Burton's Sermons." Charles also wrote several lines in 
Latin — in which the two brothers frequently carried on their 
conversation when they desired it to be private. These sim- 
ple entries, in the handwriting of the poet of Methodism, show 
that lie was unwilling to leave the shores of the new world 
Without some simple expressions of his affection for these old 
parishioners at Frederica, among whom he found some helpers 
M Christ Jesus. Some of these entries recall the closing lines 
penned by Paul, " The cloak that I left at Troas with Carpus, 
When thou comest, bring with thee, and the books, but espc- 
eialjy the parchments." 


Methodist Review. 


Considering the extent to which preachers draw upon the 
out-of-doors for illustrative material it is surprising what a 
dearth of definite first-hand knowledge of the out-of-doors 
exists among them. There is a vast amount of neutral con- 
ventional talk about Nature, generalizings on the seasons 
and spheres, enjoyment of mountains, seas, and days, but very 
little that is personal, vital, fresh, and real. Well-read people 
have come to have an almost irreverent acquaintance with the 
out-of-doors in its wider aspects, and they also possess an 
amazing stock of text-book information ; yet the people •who 
can tell the difference between a sea gull and a fishhawk on the 
wing, who know when and where to look for the hepatica, are 
few. So-called " nature study " has had a recognized place, 
even in the public schools, for nearly a generation— long 
enough at least for the young men now preaching to have 
been led to such a personal acquaintance with the outlines 
of natural history that they should not be led into talking 
about the "king of beasts who roamed in the dark forests of 
Africa." One might expect such a preacher to illustrate his 
next point with polar bears that dwell in the mountain fastnesses 
of America. Inaccurate, indefinite, conventional ; displaying a 
kind of interest in nature, and a certain appreciation, but how 
academic, literary, stale ! We see things because they arc 
pointed out to us ; visit places because others have visited 
them ; enjoy things because told that we ought to. The 
lilies compare with Solomon's robes, in our eyes, and the 
ravens live by a divine providence, only because some one 
says, "Behold!" 

The defect of all this lies largely in a wrong approach to 
Nature. We know too much. We bring a glacial theory to 
bear upon every pebble, and we march up with a long Latin 
tag for every roadside weed, or else we are too rapt and wor- 
shipful j chanting lines from the poets — " Twinkle, twinkle " 
at every star, and " Roll on, thou deep and dark blue 
roll ! " at every stretch of seaheach — like priests and oracl B. 
Science is good ; poetry is good ; the evil lies not in them, but 


The P readier and the Out-of -Doors. 


in our being satisfied with them in place of a personal ac- 
quaintance with the world that they try to explain and portray. 
.Science and poetry are the grammar and literature of the out- 
of-doors ; the real life is to be learned only by living where 
this life is lived. They broaden our understanding and 
quicken our love after we get to ISTature. They are not the 
way, the approach ; that way is the cow path to the pastures 
and woods — the way of personal contact and observation. 
This really is the path of the poet. Before one can climb into 
the swaying tops of the tall trees and rock with the winds ; 
before he can lie beneath their wide arms in the forest silences 
and absorb their breath and spirit ; before he can sink at their 
feet with soul and body weary and surrender to their watch- 
care — before all this he must first get into the woods. Imagi- 
nation is a timid and tardy creature, ever waiting on the dis- 
coveries and conquests of observation. She is like a carrier 
pigeon, swift and beautiful on the wing, but never willing to 
ij until taken away from home. She begins her flight where 
observation liberates her. Imagination without a basis of 
observed fact is hallucination, as faith without a foundation of 
certain truth is credulity. " The stars in their courses," sang 
Deborah. But not the first night man swept the heavens 
with his eye did he see that the stars had " courses ; " they had 
lighted him through centuries of nights before he saw them 
move. And not until their circuits had been burned into his 
sky was he able to sing, " In their courses they fought against 

The elements of the poet's knowledge of the out-of-doors 
cannot be learned for him. He must get them for himself. 

And Nature, the old nurse, 
Took the child upon her knee, 

wrote the poet concerning the naturalist, and just as truly 
might Agassiz have written it of Longfellow. The poet's 
" effortless absorption" of nature must be preceded by a long, 
painstaking training in conscious perception. His senses 
must be taught and drilled into a habit of alertness so sponta- 
neous and automatic that observation becomes second nature. 
No more than one's untrained fingers can bring balance ami 
harmony and unity into a picture Upon canvas can 0:1 


Methodist Review. 


untrained eyes catch and group the pictures of the fields. The 
world is a beautiful confusion, a sweet but meaningless babel 
to the poet who is unskilled by long and careful observation 
and independent interpretation. We must approach nature as 
we approach literature — personally and back at the alphabet. 
We began with ABC; our children are being started in 
with Browning and Emerson. Modern methods are in conflict 
with the old-time notion that the sane and natural beginning 
in learning to read is not with the rules of syntax and the 
philosophy of meter, but with the letters. We did not 
wander blissfully through the green pastures and beside the 
still waters of our Mother Goose the first time it was spread 
before us. We wrestled a long time with ABC first ; we 
repeated those letters over and over till they were photo- 
graphed, chiseled, upon our memories ; till our very cerebral 
twists kinked and crooked and hooked themselves into the 
shapes of the motley crew. Then the weary waste putting 
them together and seeing ideas in them ! and the ideas 
together for thought — to say nothing of the years before a 
suggestion of styde came over us! The patient, persistent 
struggle from the forms of things to their meanings, from 
meanings to the harmony, the wisdom, and the deeper mys- 
teries of creation, is the only method by which we can learn 
to read the book of nature. If its beauty, poetry, and truth 
are to be revealed to us — not to our favorite poet and through 
him to us — we must learn the alphabet of the out-of-doors, 
then how to spell and read until reading becomes eifortlc^ 
and the words become no longer mere words but forms of 
thought, clothed upon with and concealed by their souls of 
truth and beauty. The progress of man's knowledge of 
nature has been one of evolution, its process one of induction 
— from a gradual accumulation of isolated facts to their classi- 
fication, to inference and discovery of order and law. J'n the 
words of Mr. Hamilton Mabic : " Nature first taught man to 
see and hear things; she first discovered to him his Benfl 
and following this discovery woke imagination, and then re- 
ligion, poetry, and art were born." This is the history of tbfl 
race. It must also be the history of the individual. Von 
Baer's law obtains as strictly with our mental and spiritual Ri 

1 901 J 

The Preacher and the Out-of -Doors. 


with our physical development. The heritage of the race is 
llio heritage of the individual, but we are not born to it. Step 
by step we must traverse the long pathway of the race in our 
jKjrsonal development before coming to our own. 

This personal contact, this first-hand study of nature, will 
particularize our knowledge — the only kind of knowledge of 
the out-of-doors that we can really enjoy or use. There is a 
itriking tendency among people who think to the point in the 
Ftudy to go oft* into the clouds the moment they get out of 
doors. Ministers, especially, deal so much with generalities — 
with principles, cycles, systems, worlds, and infinities — that 
when they touch things definite and tangible their terms are 
often vague, their facts general, their thinking watery. Loose 
this merely book-read man in the woods and fields and he has 

Blank misgivings of a creature 
Moving about in w orlds not realized — 

which misgivings resemble those of the poet, however, only in 
their blankness. The preacher who makes flights afield from 
the pulpit, and who never goes on foot from the study, usu- 
ally gyrates among the fog-banks of the Milky Way and gets 
no nearer the earth, where the things are that interest men. 
It is easier to fatten cattle on salt and water than to interest 
men in things in general. If there is one style in writing 
and preaching flatter, staler, deader than all others, it is the 
kind that comes no nearer a date than a decade and that talks 
about the laws of nature and the systems of things. It is the 
definite, the particular, the specific, that gives distinction, force, 
and freshness to literary form. We all appreciate the admirable 
ityle of Professor John Fiske. Speaking recently about his lit- 
erary habits he said : " I give very little attention to the way 
I express my thought. But I hate general terms and hunt 
J "imd till I find the specific word." What need of searching 
much further or giving other attention to expression i u . Seek 
first the specific word (for in it usually is the thought) and all 
"lings else shall be added to your style," might almost be 
taken as literary law and gospel. There is a certain pleasure 
m the sound and the blaze of a sweeping periodic gcuc raliza- 
l:,,n ; a kind of dizzy delight in star-soaring. The preacher's 


Methodist Review. 


Pegasus rarely needs a curb-bit, but spurs rather ; and what 
the preacher needs is to have, besides Pegasus, a Centaur In 
his stables, and on his return from the skies to take the man- 
beast for a canter over the solid, man-inhabited earth. It 
isn't a fault that we see the world too much from poetic 
heights and through the mystic veil of farness, it is our 
right to 

Clasp the crag with crooked hands 
Close to the sun in lonely lands 

as truly as it is the eagle's, but ought we to roost and nc.-t 
there % Because the Rev. Edward Everett Hale never gen- 
eralizes about birds and flowers but mentions the oriole and 
the columbine, and never about men and women, but talks of 
John Black and Sara White, he is always interesting. The 
sight of the world from heights where the wrinkled seas 
crawl below us . is vouchsafed to poets and now and then to 
ministers and common men, yet Pisgah came but once to Moses 
and the pathway ran for forty years through the wilderness. 
We do not stand on Pisgah too often, we simply wander, with 
our eyes open, all too little in the plains of Moab. This par- 
ticularized knowledge of the common outdoor life about us is 
the only preparation for a genuine appreciation of the greater, 
grander aspects of nature. We have to reckon infinite things 
in terms finite ; and what other measure for Mount Washingtun 
and Niagara have we besides the hill in the old home pasture 
and the brook at its feet ? One needs almost to have felt the 
flame of the cardinal flower before he can watch and worship 
as the sun sets in a west of burning glory. 

Usually those ardent lovers of the out-of-doors whose 
thoughts are ever trailing over the edges of the universe, 
climb Mount Washington on the crazy, snorting little engine 
and step at once from the cab into the world above the clouds. 
Better that way than never to stand on the top at nil. Ihe 
railroad is a boon to the old, the weak-headed, and those with 
heart trouble. But the only way for the healthy and vigorous 
is the path up through the spruce to Hermit Luke and 0V< r 
the Head Wall of Tuckerman's Ravine. There is no prepara- 
tion for the summit like the struggle through those narrow* 
forest defiles and the climb over that grim, awful Head V w 

1901.1 The Preacher and the Out-of -Doors. 529 

then, just short of the peak, to stop and pick a tiny sand- 
wort from the Alpine Garden along the very edge of the rent 
and rocky height ! If the majesty of God rolls in upon our 
I mis from this mountain head no less does his infinite love, 
his infinite power, come to us in this little blossom plucked 
oo our ascent. One who can climb the mountain blind to the 
revelation, unaware of the mystery in the humblest flower-cup, 
lias no eyes for the far-rolling mightiness of peak and plain 
and unblurred boundary of sky that revolves about him on 
the summit. But it takes a trained eye to see the sand-wort 
and a deal of special knowledge to know it is a saud-wort, 
while any eye not totally blind can roll around in its socket 
and make out mountains from the top of "Washington. We 
need this special knowledge, this careful training of the senses. 
The poet, artist, naturalist, and the simple unsophisticated 
lover of the out-of-doors come to their love, their discover::-, 
their inspirations, through much observation of the small and 
particular. So long as the nebular hypothesis is a more agree- 
able kind of problem to us than, for instance, the number of 
feet of earthworms that four young robins will swallow in a 
day, just so long shall we be shut out of the heart of Nature. 
This does not mean that we need to be anatomists to feel the 
loveliness of the Ycnus of Melos. The strength aud grace of 
the human form appeal to us all. But it is when we take the 
scalpel and begin to cut that we find we are fearfully and 
wonderfully made. Our love and understanding wait upon a 
]>ersonal acquaintance. " To know her is to love her," said 
Barns of Bonnie Leslie ; and never was truer word said of 
Nature. AVe must know her in particular ; as much of her as 
our dooryards hold, as the trees of our sidewalk, the orchards, 
copses, and fields about us. " He is a thoroughly good natur- 
alist," wrote Kiugsley, "who knows his own parish thoroughly.' 1 
Again, this personal contact with the OUt-of -doors will 
freshen our facts and make what we know our own. We 
have worked to death what the books say. We will go out of 
o it way to read what others have written about the bluebird 
but Dot once think of listening to the little fellow who sings 
every spring in the apple tree by the window. We use the 
Commentary too much. "A thorough knowledge of the text 


Metliodist Bevieio. 

is the best arid only commentary you need," is a favorite Lit 
of advice with one of the most luminous biblical exegetes 
I know. The preacher who will act upon this suggestion shall 
bring forth new things from the Bible as well as old ; and 
even more abundantly laden shall he come with new things 
from the fields and woods. It is impossible to sit down before 
a stupid toad and watch him carefully without discovering 
something fresh and interesting. We have been slapping mos- 
quitoes all our days, and here within the last few months 
some things have been found out about them that are of infi- 
nitely more interest and importance to most of us than a bona 
fide flash-light communication with Mars would be. There 
are no two any things in this world, not even two peas of the 
same pod, exactly alike; no single thing entirely explored. 
To discover this unknown is to be original. 

In a recent lecture on " Pulpit Power," or a theme to that 
effect, the following passage occurred. When the speaker had 
reached the point in his discourse where he was telling the 
part Nature ought to play in the preacher's education lie 
exclaimed : 

Go forth into the beautiful world, and sense the poetry of the Creator. 
Feel the ceaseless flow of life and motion everywhere. The waves of the 
ocean teach the student deep lessons of grace and truth; wings of the 
birds of heaven, branches of the trees, waving grain, floating clouds, 
dashing torrents and majestic rivers flow — all these are God's visible 
poetry embodied for our culture. Nature has sweet voices to thrill the 
dead imagination into life. The voices of the summer are all magical. 
Even the zephyrs come laden with strident insect voices — a gentle sym- 
phony of Nature's orchestra for the soothing of the soul. The countless 
orbs that course the heavens make a great audience and under the W 
torium of the midnight skies great souls listen to the harmonies of the 
spheres with glowing rapture. Once such divine entertainment ap| 
ciated, etc. 

"Without doubt the lecturer had " sensed " this " entertain- 
ment," but we can be pardoned for suspecting his orchc 
was made up of the poets and conducted in his library. 1 d 
not accuse him of purloining a single phrase. Not at all. B«t 
these thoughts have been uttered once for all by a mastei i l 
else said over and over in these conventional forms till they 
are trite; stale as the " vernal spring" and as dead as Raines* 1 1 


The Preacher and the Out~of -Doors. 


This same lecturer (when lie wasn't lecturing) told about a 
new species of ant that he had discovered, and the tale would 
have held the attention of any audience under the skies. It 
is the ant that you have discovered, not the "countless orbs" 
we all have seen, that we are interested in. No matter if it 
is but an ant, no matter indeed if it has been named and de- 
scribed before, if you discover it for yourself you will make 
it new to others. Something of the power of the old Norse 
goddess Hilda, who brought back to life every night her war- 
riors that had fallen during the day, belongs to the independ- 
ent thinker, to the first-hand observer. He may take the 
commonest thought, the most familiar sights, but he puts into 
them new life and meaning. If the air of reality, if the flavor 
of the out-of-doors is to get into the preaching, it must first get 
into the preacher. It will come with the touch of the earth, 
as strength came to Antaeus. One may say many beautiful 
things about Nature from a wide reading of books, without 
much personal acquaintance, but they will be general and im- 
personal, lacking point and force ; poor stuff for sermons. 
The book, Nature and Culture, is of this stamp. Compare 
Mr. Mabie's beautiful chapter on " Personal Intimacy" with, 
say, the whole of Mr. William Long's book, Wilderness Ways. 
The difference is that Mr. Mabie's is about personal intimacy, 
while Mr. Long's ^personal intimacy — a crisp, fresh, stirring 
series of observations that take hold upon us as the most mel- 
lifluous philosophizing^ cannot do. Mr. Mabie goes from his 
study into the woods; Mr. Long comes from the woods to his 
study. The atmosphere of the fields, the dash of dew, and the 
smell of earth about prose and poetry do not come from other 
books, nor from dreams and imaginings about glories and sys- 
tems, but from men who saw and heard and felt the out-of- 
doors life for themselves. 


Methodist Review. 



Speaking of the relation of biology to medicine Mr. 
Huxley once remarked that as the physical sciences develop 
they become more dependent upon one another.* The same 
is true of studies relating to religion. On the one hand 
theology becomes more and more dependent upon historical 
and literary science, the history of religions, and even the 
natural sciences. On the other hand the sciences of man are 
increasingly impelled to take account of religion as a fact of 
human nature and history. The result is increasing commu- 
nity of interest between scientific and religious thought. 
Preachers hasten to appropriate natural science, and men of 
science, whatever their attitude toward dogma, perceive that 
religion is not a by-product of the cosmos, but a prime factor 
of evolution in its moral, social, and economic aspects. Psy- 
chologists even venture to give advice as to the substance of 
religious instructionf and to reprimand the churches for their 

At a moment like this, when tendencies to reorganization 
are rife, there is special occasion for the study of methods 
and points of view, as distinguished from the substance of 
knowledge. It is needful to ask not only whether this or that 
is true, but also how we can 'find out the truth. A\ r e must 
know how the various fields of research are bounded and what 
are the data, the presuppositions, and the procedure within 
each. There are four chief types of method with respect to 
the study of religion. 

/. The Method of Speculative Metaphysics. — Since the 
aim of metaphysics is to ascertain the ultimate reality of the 
universe, its conclusions have been almost invariably regarded 
as vitally related to religion. In the introduction of his En- 
cyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences Hegel remarks that 
the objects which philosophy contemplates are the same as 
those of religion. "In both the object is truth in tl 

* Life and Letters, vol. ii, p. 34. 

t Address by g. Stanley Rail on "Some Principles of Bible and Sunday School 
Teaching," reported lu Boston Transcript, October 31, 1900. 
tH. R. Marshall, Instinct and Reason, i>. 180, ft. 


Methods of Studying Religion. 


supreme sense in which God and God only is the truth." Eat 
the century just past has witnessed the practically complete 
collapse of speculative metaphysics. The methods of the 
sciences have profoundly modified, probably for all time, the 
method of philosophical research, and consequently of the 
metaphysical type of religious thought. Speculation at- 
tempted to deduce the world from a priori principles, and 
hence to say how things must be, the philosopher of to-day is 
content to say what things are as indicated by observation and 
analysis. Speculation moved from ideas toward things; the 
newer procedure begins with things themselves. At its best, 
speculation could do no more than sketch the barest outlines 
of existence in general, and with respect to the supreme 
concern of life, its highest product was a justification for a 
possible religion. The more modern thought, on the other 
hand, insists first of all upon understanding actually existing 

77. The Method of Theology. — Theology in its traditional 
form is closely related to speculative metaphysics. For, first, 
it does not describe religion as it actually exists, but rather 
seeks deductively to demonstrate a logical basis for the religion 
which it represents. ; and, second, it borrows from metaphysics 
several fundamental propositions, such as those contained in 
the proofs for the existence of God. It differs from specula- 
tive metaphysics in that it deals with a particular historical 
religion, and also in that it appeals to intellectual authority. 
Theology of this, the traditional, type appears to be suffering 
the fate of speculative metaphysics. Objection is made to 
both its a priori method and its appeal to authority in matters 
of intellect. As to its method, not only does it stand in aharp 
contrast to other types of research, but its conclusions have 
been again and again overturned by the method of the nat- 
ural sciences. From Galileo to Darwin the method of science, 
lather than that of theology, has been the arbiter on all points 
of dispute between the two. 

That theological method, however, is at last being modified 
m the direction of what was once regarded as its foe will be 
obvious from the attitude of the theologians, presently to be 
described, toward the question of intellectual authority. Bat 


Methodist Review, 


the lateness of the reform, the long insistence that fact must 
be gotten at by some process of deduction from a general idea 
— this has created unnecessary prejudice against the content of 
religious belief. The Bishop of Deny and Eaphoe says : 

The commentary edges out the text. The explanation of the mode in 
which the fact is assumed to be brought about occupies the place which 
of right belongs to the fact only. Probably half the objections which 
perplex young minds and seem to them unanswerable — nay, which, iu 
many instances, really are so — come from this source. They are argu- * 
merits — sharp, fierce, resistless — against a particular explanation or aa 
assumed mode of the fact, none whatever to the fact itself.* 

The appeal to authority, as made by Protestants, has had 
the following traditional form — Purely rational grounds are 
first offered to prove the authority of the Bible. Let it be 
noted that this first step is taken by reason in its ordinary use, 
and that the existence of authority at all " depends on the 
answer which reason makes to the proofs furnished, so that 
reason is the ultimate umpire in the whole case."f After 
proving that the Bible is authoritative the mind's "next step 
is obvious ; it must find out what is contained in the word. JJ J 
Thus reason is held to be competent to accept the Bible as a 
whole before scrutinizing its contents, and we are forbidden 
to apply to the parts of the Bible the rational processes which 
we are invited to employ with respect to the Bible as a whole. 
Newman merely applied this principle with unusual rigor 
when lie taught that the real use of the private judgment U 
to look out for an authoritative teacher. § 

A goodly number of theologians, however, find difficulty 
with the logic of this procedure. First, it is perceived that 
the Bible " is not infallible to us, unless we believe in the in- 
fallibility of the judgment which pronounces it to be infalli- 
ble." I The attempt, by means of certain faculties, to set up 
an authority which shall be superior to them contains within 
itself the seeds of disintegration. For, sooner or later, inevi- 
table differences of opinion necessitate an appeal to CttSar— 
the ordinary reason which is the prius of the whole. £ 

*W. Alexander, Primnri/ Convictions, xii. 

t K. S. Foster. Prolegomena, p, SWT. t Op. cit., p 

§ Essay on 44 Private Judgment," in E$$avs Historical un4 CrUicai, vol. 11. 
lie. M. Mead, Supernatural Revelation, p. 810, 


Methods of Studying Religion. 


pronounced is the dissatisfaction with this particular theory of 
authority that a prominent theologian declares that " authority 
Las not only been misplaced, but so grievously misrepresented 
in its nature that the very word, as employed in the sphere of 
religion, has become an offense to the friends of truth and 
freedom."* The theory occasions no end of embarrassment 
in its application, also. What, for example, it is asked, is 
this infallible authority \ Is it the manuscripts now in our 
possession, or the original manuscripts whose precise contents 
we do not know ? In the latter case the real authority is in- 
accessible and at best only hypothetical. In the former case 
we are confronted with the problem of what to do if we find 
errors in the supposed revelation. One author says : 

The mind, in such a case, will reason thus : (a) The proof is adequate 
that this is a book containing divine revelations which are necessarily 
true; (5) The proof is positive that this statement, as construed or in- 
terpreted, cannot be true ; (c) Therefore, either the text has been misin- 
terpreted or corrupted, or some clew to the original meaning has been 
lost, or this particular passage is not one of the contained revelations. f 

But this, also, tends to make the authority not a concrete, 
ascertained standard at all, but rather an abstract idea whose 
actual application rouses up as many difficulties as the posses- 
sion of an authority is supposed to allay. 

The general approval which thoughtful men have given to 
the use of critical methods in the study of the Scriptures im- 
plies that the right, always conceded to reason, to pass upon 
the source of the sacred writings as a whole is now conceded 
with respect to the origin of each of the parts. The Bible is 
whatever its particular contents are, and the authority of the 
whole must stand the test of each part. " Even if we were 
already convinced upon rational grounds that a dogmatic rev- 
elation had been given, nevertheless each article of this revela- 
tion would continue to be a legitimate subject for research, 
because the truth or falsity of that article would be a part of 
the evidence by which the whole was either confirmed or 
weakened." % 

For these reasons, as well as others growing out of the con- 

*A.B. Bruco, ApotOfftttcs, p. 403. + Foster, ProfapOWUna, p. 274. 

x J. Drttmntond, introduction to tht Study qf Theology, p. S3. 


Methodist Review. 


tents of apologetics itself, the notion of authority is undergoing 
a transformation. The change takes two forms. The first 
identifies religions authority with that of testimony. Thus, 
an English writer, attempting to show that authority and free 
inquiry can be adjusted, says : 

There is an authority which does and should enter largely into the 
grounds for belief, an authority distinct from that which the truths them- 
selves should directly exercise over the mind and conscience. It is the 
authority of the testimony to spiritual facts of multitudes who in greater 
or less degree acknowledge their reality, and more especially of men and 
women whose lives have exhibited exceptional moral power and saintli- 

But it is admitted that such authority does not supersede the 
use of reason at any point. " Our probation in regard to 
matters of faith will not consist only in the process by which 
we choose or refuse an infallible guide, and then, after the 
guide has been chosen, cease forever. It will continue so 
long as there is possibility of progress in truth and spiritual 
knowledge." f 

This aspect of all intellectual work is so obvious that its ap- 
plication to religion is in danger of receiving less recognition 
than it deserves. Surely, the general religiousness of humanity 
creates a mighty presumption that religion is substantially true, 
and the place of the Bible and of Christian beliefs in the lives 
of saintly men and women for many centuries is not likely 
to be founded on illusion. Yet this is only presumptive proof 
which, if challenged, must receive support from the thing it- 
self, and not merely from reports about it. The final evidence 
must be looked for in the content of what offers itself as di- 
vine truth, and in the effects which it works upon our spiritual 
nature. The canon of Scripture itself, it is pointed out, 
was not and cannot be defined by tradition or historical evi- 
dence, but only by the immediate spiritual sense of believers. 
" The divine authority of Holy Scripture consists in the pres- 
ence and power of God in it, and with it." \ Or, as another 
writer says : 

More and more frankly and unreservedly the position is gradually be- 
ing adopted that the essential elements of religion and theology claim 

• V. H. Stanton, The Plata <>/ Authority in Natti ri of ReMptoua Aette/i V- i v - 
t Op. tit* 157. X C A. Krif^s, The Hible, the Church, and the Km*o,i. t • 1- 

|901;] Methods of Study ing Religion. 537 

our acceptance upon their own intrinsic merits, and are to be verified 
primarily, not by an appeal to authority, but by the satisfaction which 
they afford to the highest aspirations and the noblest impulses of human 
B&ture, and by the personal experience of those who honestly accept them 
Kiid practically submit their lives to their guidance and control.* 

Apologetics as a distinct branch of study " is gradually giv- 
ing place to the investigation of the intrinsic merits of the 
specific ideas and propositions which form the contents of 
theological teaching. . . . The true foundation of a system of 
theology, as a science and a philosophy, would seem, therefore 
to be the nature, condition, and needs of man." f What Jesus 
gays about God and man and their relations, declares Bruce, 
i4 needs no elaborate system of evidences to commend it. It 
is self-evidencing. It is rest-giving." \ Or, again, " the au- 
thority of the Scriptures," says another, " is the authority of 
the truth that they convey. The Scriptures are authoritative 
to us because they contain the highest moral and religious 
truth, which has the right to satisfy our reason and bind our 
conscience." § Again, " Christianity is grounded not in the 
inspiration of its documents, but in the reality of its facts. 
Therefore, if the Scriptures should by sound evidence be re- 
duced to the level of ordinary human records, possessed simply 
of ordinary human veracity and correctness, Christianity 
would not be altered thereby." | 

Martineau makes a distinction here which illumines the whole 
question. He admits that religion is founded altogether upon 
authority, namely, the authority of the higher within us which 
commands the lower. " All minds born into the universe," he 
says, " are ushered into the presence of a real righteousness 
as surely as into a scene of actual space." And he further adds, 
"We know ourselves to be living under command, and with 
freedom to give or withhold obedience ; and this lifts us at once 
into divine relations, and connects us with One supreme in the 
distinguishing glories of personal existence, wisdom, justice, 
holiness." I jf The seat of authority, then, according to him, is 
our moral intuition, which he regards as identical with religious 
intuition. But this is authority in religion, not in theology. 

• J. M. Hodgson, Thcologia Pectoris, p. 2, ff. f Oy>. rit., (Mil, 

I Jpologctict, i>. 4(M. § w. N. Clarke, OuttiM <■>/ Christian Thtotogy, i>. 46. 
1 Op. cit., p. 38. 1 J. Martineau, The Scat 0/ Authority in RoUfion, p. r.'.t, f. 

538 Methodist Bevievi. [Julv, 

It is the source of religious facts, but theological knowl- 
edge is to be reached through analysis of these facts by the or- 
dinary processes of intellect. Some such distinction between 
authority in religion and authority in theology underlie? the 
whole movement for reform in the theological point of view. 
Though theology is not likely to accept Martineau's reduction 
of religious intuition to mere moral intuition, it does already 
perceive that religion, like conscience, exists in its own right 
It does not come to us through ratiocination ; it does not wait 
upon our deliberate volition. On the contrary, it is provided 
for in an instinct which responds almost perforce to spiritual 
incitements. And such incitements are inevitable. We live 
in a spiritual environment which certifies itself directly to our 
spiritual nature. As the poet sees, rather than proves, the 
truths which he sings, so every soul has some glimmer of the 
divine within itself. We become aware of it, not through any 
planning of our own, not merely because some one tells us 
about it — it comes not with observation — but as a natural ex- 
pression of what life must mean to creatures like ourselves. 
The scribes relied upon a reasoned authority ; they found a con- 
nection between God and man by means of a syllogism. Lur 
Jesus taught as one having another kind of authority. The 
Sermon on the Mount has an air of finality about it that logic 
could not bestow. It may be asked, furthermore, whether this 
higher kind of authority — the authority of what we are — is 
not essential to the application of any supposed intellectual au- 
thority. AsMartineau remarks, we never acknowledge an ex- 
ternal authority " till that which speaks to us from another 
and a higher strikes home and wakes the echoes in ourselves, 
and is thereby instantly transferred from external attestation 
to self-evidence." * 

This, as nearly as we can set it forth, is the attitude of the 
new thought. It does not destroy authority in religion, but 
strengthens it by transferring it from the ever-disputable 
ground of mere intellect to the inexorable demands of the 
moral and spiritual nature. Herein it merely formulates what 
has always been claimed by a large section of Christians, that 
religious experience is the ground of religious certitude. The 

* Oj). ci(., vi, vii. 


Methods of Studying Religion. 


dogmatic method seeks to control the facts of religious expe- 
rience by its theory of divine grace; the better method em- 
ploys the facts of such experience as data from which to infer 
a theory of divine grace. One proceeds from theory toward 
life, the other from life toward theory. To one, truth intel- 
lectually grasped is the independent and authoritative element ; 
to the other, the independent and authoritative factor is the 
commanding power of religious ideals and experiences, par- 
ticularly under the historic influence of Jesus. In the tech- - 
nical language of logic the new method begins with judgments 
of worth as true data and then looks to see how these data 
can be fitted to a system of existential judgments. Bushnelk's 
proof of the divinity of Christ from the perfection of his 
character is a good practical example. Jesus's formula of the 
relation of knowing and doing expresses the same great idea 
of method, as also his answer to the disciples of John. The 
dogmatic method undertakes to tell us how the facts, on an 
o priori theory, ought to be. The method of experience says, 
" Go your way, and tell . . . what things ye have seen and 

The theology which accepts this attitude goes a long way 
toward assimilating its method to that of other branches of 
research, and secures a new claim to be called the " science of 
divine things." The effect upon the contents of theology may 
be less than is popularly supposed. Certainly the doctrinal 
agitations of our day hardly touch the facts of religious expe- 
rience, or call in question the truth of Christ's teachings. 
They concern, rather, the scaffolding with the help of which 
men have sought to rear a theological edifice. The facts them- 
selves are less in dispute than the reasons offered in proof of 
them, and so we have the remarkable spectacle of strenuous 
labor to save premises that are incomparably more doubtful 
than the conclusion to which they are supposed to lead. 

This transition from authoritative theories to authoritative 
tacts assimilates theology to modern science. Yet theology 
cannot be merely a science as distinguished from philosophy. 
It must go on front the phenomenon to the underlying reality, 
from the worth of religion to the truth of it, from faith to 
knowledge. It must therefore incorporate philosophical ele- 


Methodist Review. 


rnents. It must take advantage of modern critical, as distin- 
guished from speculative, methods in metaphysics, and in 
particular it must ground itself in the rigorous analyses of the 
higher logic and of theory of knowledge. For its basal prob- 
lem is and always will be how to pass from judgments of 
worth to existential judgments. 

III. The Method of the Science of Religion. — The two 
methods thus far described aim to determine the truth of 
religion, rather than to describe the facts of religion simply as- 
facts. The latter aim is that of the science of religion. A 
science of religion is possible because there are observa!>> 
religious facts. Its possible range — since religion is a univer^,! 
human function — is coincident with the mind of man, past and 
present. Its function is not to test beliefs, but solely to 
describe religious phenomena and set forth their relations 
among themselves and to other phenomena. It studies all 
religions, in order to determine the sources and original form? 
of religion, the order and laws of religious development in the 
individual and the race, and the place of religion in the gen- 
eral equipment of man's mind.* Fragments of the science 
religion already exist. It began as the " comparative study of 
religions," later developed into the "history of religion," and 
has lately sent out a new bud called the "psychology of reli- 
gion." "What the history of religion seeks, says Menzie?, is 
"a knowledge of the religions of the world, not as isolated 
systems which, though having many points of resemblance, 
may yet, for all we know, be of separate and independent 
growth, but as connected with each other and as forming 
parts of one whole. Our science, in fact, is seeking to grasp 
the religions of the world as manifestations of the religion of 
the world." f 

As the history of religion thus seeks to grasp religion in its 
unity as well as diversity, so the psychology of religion, fixing 

•The term science is here used in the specific sense of " special science," a< d s« 
tingulshed from philosophy. In ;i larger sense, of course, all methodical kno*a I 
is science, and so Dela S.mssaye (Manual of the. Science of RcH'jion, p. T> includes bol ' 
the history and the philosophy of religion under the term M science of religion. ' 
Tiele, on the other hand, not only excludes metaphysics hut also tht^ history ol " 
gion from the scieuce of religion. To him. " science of religion " reft r< to the infer* 
euces that may he drawn from the material gathered by the history 1 1 religion •« ' 
mmta of the Science of Rtliffitm, vol. I. p. 16, 11.). 

t A. Menzies, History <>/ Religion, p. 3. 


Methods of Studying Religion. 


its attention on the inner process of religious experience in 
fag totality, tries to coordinate the religious with the other 
mental functions so as to exhibit the unity of the mental 
organism. The necessity for this branch of investigation 
grows out of the fact that religion, in its totality, is primarily 
a body of mental states and processes. The sensible monu- 
ments of religion are simply expressions of the religious 

Not from a vain or shallow thought 

His awful Jove young Phidias brought ; 

Never from lips of cunning fell 

The thrilling Delphic oracle; 

Out from the heart of nature rolled 

The burdens of the Bible old ; 

The litanies of nations came, 

Like the volcano's tongue of flame, 

Fp from the burning core below, 

The cauticles of love and woe. 

Temples, sacred literatures, priesthoods, ceremonials, myths, 
and creeds — these are products of religion ; the thing it- 
self is the state of the worshiper's mind. Psychology, 
accordingly, must be the torchbearer for the whole history of 

This point of view is too obvious to be new. It controls 
the ancient notion that fear made the gods. It inspires 
Hume's essay on " The Natural History of Religion," in which 
he begins as follows : " As every inquiry which regards reli- 
gion is of the utmost importance, there are two questions in 
particular which challenge our attention, to wit, that concern- 
ing its foundation in reason and that concerning its origin in 
human nature." The same point of view is present in Spen- 
cer's ghost-theory of the origin of religion. Indeed, irrespec- 
tive of special theory, it is now generally admitted that worship 
arises through mental tendencies and processes far less delib- 
erate than reasoning. " Religion belongs to the normal func- 
tions of human nature; the lack of it always indicates a 
disturbance, whether in the individual life or in the life of 
society."* Thus far, however, the psychological point of 
*iew lias led to more speculation than positive knowledge. 

• P. Paulsen, rthlk, 2te Aufl., p. 873, Compare H. R. Marshall, fnsttnet ami R«*l <■>. 


Methodist Review. 


Theories concerning the origin and early development of reli- 
gion are still somewhat chaotic,* and, in fact, few funda- 
mental questions concerning the psychological content and 
relations of religion can be said to be really settled. The 
probable reason is the belated development of method in 
psychology itself. The scientific study of religion, in fact, has 
largely coincided in time with the transformation of psychol- 
ogy from semimetapliysics to an empirical science. At fc: 
this reform seemed to demand that the study of mind become 
objective like biology. But thoughtful men pointed out that 
the whole evidence for the existence of mental states depends 
upon some one's being introspectively conscious of them. 
Accordingly, the last decade has witnessed a general disap- 
pearance of such terms as " physiological psychology " and 
"psycho-physics," while "experimental psychology" take? 
their place and the method of psychology is declared to be 
that of " experimental introspection." f 

Since introspection is the fundamental method of psychol- 
ogy, and psychological method is fundamental to a science oi 
religion, it follows that introspection of religious processes is 
the necessary groundwork of such a science. Just as we 
know that our neighbor is happy or sad because we see his 
body making certain motions which our own body spontane- 
ously makes when we experience those moods, so the "van- 
ished gods" and the worship offered them can be reconstruct : 
for our thought only through analogy with what we find in 
our own minds. The religious consciousness of the present is 
a portal through which we must pass, then, if we are to com- 
prehend the religions of the past; the religion of civilized 
peoples furnishes the clew to that of the uncivilized ; and, 
finally, the religious consciousness of the investigator him-- 
is his primary instrument of research. To understand 
history of religion we must, says Pileiderer, " project ourselves 
into the spirit of the historical religious societies. Such an 
terpretation of the symbols of the spiritual life of others II 

* Compare, for instance, Grant Allen, Evolution of (he Idea of Qodi 1>. Gk 1 
Religions of Primitive People*} Andrew Lang, The Making of Religion • mmI i 
Jevotis, Introduction to the History of Religion. 

t K. b. Xltcbener, Primer of Peychology, p. 32, Compare the same autii<>i *> 
of Peyehology, p. 341. 


Methods of Studying Religion. 


possible only for him who knows and observes the corre- 
sponding impulses of his own soul." * 

Various writers, ancient and modern, have used spontane- 
ous deliverances of the soul as evidence of the truth of reli- 
gion, as when Tertullian declared, - 6 There is not a soul of 
man that does not, from the light that is in itself, proclaim 
the very things we are not permitted to speak above our 
breath.'' f But it was Schleiermacher who, more than anyone 
else, turned attention to self-analysis as the key to the science 
of religion. We are not to halt, he tells us, at mere broken 
echoes of the original sound; we must transfer ourselves to 
the interior of the soul itself. " Otherwise ye will under- 
stand nothing of religion, and it will happen to you as to one 
who, bringing his fuel too late, hunts for the fire which the 
Hint has drawn from the steel, and finds only a cold and 
meaningless particle of base metal with which he cannot 
kindle anything." % Again, arguing that the reality of religion 
cannot be found in the letter of sacred literature, but only in 
the soul's essential experiences, he exclaims, "If you only 
knew how to read between the lines ! " § 

Herein the study of religion does not differ from the method 
of historical science in general. History is not a series of 
annals of tangible things and visible events ; real history re- 
constructs the past so that it seems real, and this it does by 
causing us imaginatively to live it for ourselves. This point 
of view is also in harmony with that of evolution. For, in 
any conceivable scheme of development, the past has to be 
interpreted by the present. We know what to look for in an 
embryo, and how to understand what we see, because we are 
acquainted with the mature organism. Just so we obtain our 
notion of religion and the problem of its development from 
knowing it as a present fact. ] 

Psychology, then, is an immanent factor for all science of 
religion. There are reasons, moreover, why the psychology 
of religion should be organized as a special branch of study. 

* 0, rfleideior, Evolution and Theology, p. 186, f . Compare J. H. Woods, The ralue 
<•/ Religious Fads. t The Soul's Tcsiimnm/, rtwro, vi. 

I Jtafcn uel» r <he Religion, p. 33. § Op. eit.. B& 

• "Different Methods of Defining Religion!" vol. i. lecture It, of Edward Oatrd?i 
Evolution of Religion, 

5^4 Methodist Review. [July, 

First, the field of the science of religion is so vast that there 
must be division and subdivision of labor. Second, the diver- 
gent character of the material calls for divergent methods. 
One part calls for the analytical processes of the psychologic*] 
laboratory, another -lor the critical sifting of historical materia:. 
The former yields ^hat corresponds to physiology, the latter 
what corresponds to morphology. In addition, only the psy- 
chology of religion is equipped for such minute study of indi- 
vidual men as must underlie all generalizations concerning the 
nature and content of religion."" Besides these specific eoi 
siderations drawn from the conditions of a possible science 
religion, there are still other reasons why the psychology of 
religion may be expected to assume a larger and larger role iu 
the future. On the one hand, both theology and preaching, 
through their increasing reliance upon the religious conscious- 
ness and their increasing emphasis upon the historical Christ, 
find themselves obliged to undertake an empirical determil 
tion of the content and the laws of spiritual life.f On the 
other hand, general psychology has awakened to the fact ths I 
it must not be content with exhibiting merely the elements 
of consciousness and their simplest combinations, but mu 
go on from this mental chemistry to mind as an organism, 
with its laws of development in the child and the race. it£ 
interplay of functions, its racial and individual types, and 
much more. In proportion as psychology thus makes the 
whole man its object it is obliged to take account of the reli- 
gious function. 

Finally, the characteristic practical problems of our day — 
those of education, of social progress, and of Church life — are 
pressing home the necessity of understanding the religious 
element in man's constitution. In particular, the preset ' 
condition of religious pedagogy, both theoretical and prac 

• The study of contemporary oases has been begun by E. P. Starbuek in fflff**'" 
orty of Rtlvjion and Q. A. UM in Thr Spiritual Life, while F. Graujier in The Sou! 
of a Christian has made a study of certain historical characters. 

tF. H. Tt. Frank, Sfyftem der ckriatttchtn GmrfatMC.' Newman Smyth. The 
VfftO¥§ Feelino. K. S. Foster, Philosophy nf Christian Kr/» W<n». U L.U. StMD - 
Thr Kridcnce of Christian fisperiOMCfl i J. C liranb. ry. Kr/terience the Cr<>- 
Evident* of the Christian Rrliyton; F. II. Foster. Christ Kin life and 7'A- •>.'■'' 
W. R. Inpc. Christian Mtyeticism. These titles arc cited, not as examples of p»>- 
etiological method, but of the tendency of Christian thou-tit to look feotlftft > 
for verification. 


Methods of Studying Religion. 

tical, cries aloud for a thorough study of the religious 

IV. The Method of the Philosophy of Religion. — After 
the speculative, the theological, and the scientific methods 
have achieved their utmost, there remains a still further de- 
mand, namely, that the facts in their totality, as presented by 
the science of religion, be exhibited in their relation to a gen- 
eral theory of the world — which the Germans call Weltan- 
schauung. The theological method in its traditional form 
comes short of this result because its subject-matter is a special 
religion ; the speculative method, because it cannot do justice 
to empirically ascertained facts. Hegel's Philosophy of Reli- 
gion was the forerunner, though by no means the realization, 
of this final synthesis whereby the widest knowledge of fact is 
brought to bear upon the question of the ultimate reality of 
the universe. Drive metaphysics out through the window 
and it will come back through the door. In the middle years 
of the nineteenth century metaphysics became discredited 
through the conviction that knowledge of realities as distin- 
gnished from phenomena is impossible, but deeper analysis 
has shown that some knowledge of reality is involved in all 
knowledge whatever. Agnosticism appealed to the conditions 
of a possible knowledge, but those conditions declare that a 
self-consistent agnosticism is impossible. The new metaphy- 
sics, in fact, is a flowering of the theory of knowledge, and the 
metaphysical element in the philosophy of religion is accord- 
ingly no longer speculative and deductive, but analytic and 
inductive in the highest sense of these terms. As physics 
and chemistry are built upon analysis of sense data, so meta- 
physics is built upon analysis of the function and implications 
of knowledge in general. The results thus attained the phi- 
losophy of religion employs in connection with the generaliza- 
tions of the science of religion.f 

The relation of the science to the philosophy of religion, 
therefore, is not one of mutual exclusion. The former ana- 
lyzes particular facts, external and internal, and generalizes 

• As a sign of the times may be mentioned N. M. Butler aud others. Pr 
fti Ugious Education, 

* See John Caird, Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion . Edward OiirJ, Kio- 
tut ion of Religion ; 0. PfleidereiTi Philosophy and Development qfReH Hon, 



Methodist Beview. 


from them various historical and psychological laws. The 
result is a vast picture of the religion and of the religions of 
mankind. But as long as we retain the purely scientific atti- 
tude it is humanity and not divinity which we see in the 
picture. We perceive that man is a worshiping animal, and 
that he believes that the object of worship responds to his ad- 
vances. But is there such a being, and does he respond ; and 
if so, what is he about in this long process of the world's re- 
ligious development ? Is religion true ? Positivism says 
that, having made our widest generalization concerning the 
mere historical process, we have reached the limit of our pos- 
sible knowledge. If so, they are deceivers who teach children 
to worship God belie vingly, for the most that can be said for 
religion is not that it is true, but only that it comforts the 
heart and promotes morality through imagining itself to be 
true. But the philosophy of religion points out that even 
positivism makes assumptions which demand an analysis 
which reaches beyond the sphere of the special sciences. Thus, 
it is assumed (1) that there are facts, (2) that they and their 
laws can be known, (3) that we can know one tiling to be 
better than another, and (4) that we ought to be and do one 
thing rather than another. The contention of the philosophy 
of religion is that a rigorous examination of these assump- 
tions leads to a view of the universe essentially harmonious 
with the demands of the religious heart, so that a synthesis is 
effected between the historical process and the ultimate nature 
of reality. 

How is such a philosophy of religion related to the new 
type of theology described a little way back ? Undoubtedly 
theology is approximating more and more the general phi- 
losophy of religion. On the one hand, it relies, as it always 
has clone and always must do, upon metaphysics for the la- 
ical justification of religion in general; on the other, it exhibits 
Christ and his religion as the culmination and explanation of 
the whole development of religion. If, then, it Lncorp :..*• ; 
into itself both the scientific and the metaphysical elements 
of the philosophy of religion,- how can any ultimate Bepa- 
•Evcn the Ritse&Han theology, which seeks to separate theology from ey t aphyte* 

has to moot metaphysics on it own gfOVnd, nanxly. on the tpu'stion of the rH.1t' 011 
of knowledge to reality. Kitschl remarks that the DffeaeM heated iheoteateol COOtt* 

1001.] Methods of Studying Religion. 547 

ration be possible ? Their problem, their data, their methods 
being the same, they are essentially one. Yet this is rather 
an ideal or a tendency than a realized, fact. The vast field 
requires such division and subdivision of labor that theology 
may well remain for an indefinite time what she is to-day, a 
mediatrix between the contents of the Christian faith and the 
products of a science and a philosophy of religion that come 
just short of including the whole of Christianity within their 

vcrsics hinge upon fundamentally different conceptions of knowledge (Tkeologie und 
Mctaphysik, p. 32. Compare R. A. Lipsius, " Xeue Beitrage zur xcisseiischaftlicheyi 
GruncUcgung der Dogmatik" in Jahrb. /. Prot. TheoL, p. 177)- Similarly, Kaftau 
says: "It may be regarded as an established factthat, to reach a conclusion concern- 
ing the last and highest questions of humau knowledge, it is necessary to start from a 
general discussion of the theory of knowledge. Even theology, in so far as it has an 
apologetic task to perform, neither can nor ought to-day to avoid such discussion" 
(Die Wahrheit der christlichen Religion). 


Methodist Review. 



Voltaire, whose real name was Francois Marie Arouet, was 
born in Paris two hundred years ago. It would be difficult to 
find another prominent historical character concerning whom, 
so long after his death, opinions differ so widely as to what 
manner of man he really was. By some he is regarded as the 
very incarnation of evil ; by others, as a reformer and, in hfs 
time and place, an influential champion of free thought. Pos- 
sibly the execration on the one hand and the glorification on 
the other have been equally excessive. It is, however, not 
the purpose of the present paper to inquire into his character 
and influence, but to show what was his belief in matters per- 
taining to philosophy and religion. 

During the Middle Ages and up to the time of the Refor- 
mation theology and philosophy went hand in hand. The 
scholastic philosophers, of whom Thomas Aquinas was easily 
first, were all churchmen. But the Church became too nar- 
row in its views to admit of the expansion required by the 
progress of science, and so scholastic philosophy became a 
mere juggling with words, without the possibility of life. 
After the Reformation the assimilation of new ideas by phi- 
losophy was again possible in those countries where the re- 
formed faith prevailed, but Catholic countries remained in a 
state of stagnation and had no part in the brilliant intellectual 
movement which characterizes this epoch. The Catholic 
Church was just as eager to prevent the dissemination of the 
teachings of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton as of 
Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin — a fact which must not be over- 
looked in considering the intense acerbity of the conflict 
which Yoltairc waged with the Church. 

In the early part of the eighteenth century the prevailing 
philosophy in France was the dualism of Descartes, who 
taught that man was composed of a material body and a spirit- 
ual substance, the soul, and that this soul was created already 
furnished with certain ideas called innate. This doctrine of 
innate ideas was opposed by Locke, who with a more scientific 
method than Descartes undertook to show that man baa no 


Voltaire's Philosophy and Religion. 


innate ideas, but that all our ideas come to us through the 
medium of the senses. This doctrine, commonly called " sen- 
sualism," was developed in Locke's Essay on the Human 
Understanding^ published in 1690. The author here taught 
that the human mind, like a photographers plate, receives with- 
out discrimination an impression from any object that may be 
placed before it. This theory being admitted, the soul cannot 
he said to have an existence apart from the body. Locke's 
philosophical opinions were brought to the attention of Vol- 
taire, who, having become obnoxious to certain persons in 
power at home, was obliged to go into exile and spent nearly 
three years — 1726-1729 — in England. To send Yoltaire to 
England was a gigantic blunder on the part of the French 
government. If he had been permitted to stay in Paris he 
would probably soon have become a gay corn-tier, occasionally 
writing satiric verses which would never have produced any 
widespread or lasting sensation. But the years which Vol- 
taire spent in England were the most important of his life. 
Newton died during his stay there, and he was in Loudon 
when the body of the philosopher lay in state in Westminster 
Abbey and statesmen, nobles, and scholars gathered there to 
pay their homage to a man whose sole claim to distinction was 
that he had enlarged the bounds of human knowledge. When 
Voltaire remembered that in France even the Cartesian sys- 
tem was forbidden to be taught by a decree of the Sorbonne 
and of the Council of the King, and that he himself was im- 
prisoned and exiled because he was suspected of having writ- 
ten a brief poem which he had not written — when he remem- 
bered these things his mind was in a condition to profit by the 
object lessons in free speech which he received in England. 
M In extreme old age, 5 ' says his biographer, Parton, " his eve 
would kindle and his countenance lighten up when he spoke 
of once having lived in a land where a professor of mathe- 
matics, only because he was great in his vocation, could be 
buried in a temple where the ashes of kings reposed, and the 
highest subjects in the kingdom felt it an honor to assist in 
bearing thither his body." 

The teaching of Newton's system was probably not form- 
ally forbidden in France, chiefly because the authorities there 

550 Methodist Review. [July, 

scarcely, knew that there was such a man as Xewton, and they 
certainly knew next to nothing about his system. Yoltaire 
popularized Newton's writings in France, as well as elsewhere 
in Europe, where the French language was at that time the 
general medium of communication among persons of culture ; 
and it is also to Yoltaire that we owe the preservation of the 
anecdote concerning Newton and the falling apple, which 
apparently trivial circumstance is said to have led to the dis- 
covery of the law of gravitation. Yoltaire, having thus been 
brought into contact with Locke's system, adapted it in the 
main, but held a theory analagous to Descartes's dualism, 
which taught the indestructibility of matter as well as 
the existence of a spiritual principle that Yoltaire called 
the "world soul" — Vdme du monde. Concerning man's 
nature, however, Yoltaire's belief approached more nearly to 
that of Locke. He confessed that he had always found the 
doctrine of man's dual nature an attractive one, but in spite 
of all his efforts to prove its truth he had rather been con- 
vinced of its untenability, and that to his grief. He says, 
" The more I try to convince myself that there are two of us, 
the more I am persuaded that I am only one." 

According to Yoltaire the essential difference between a 
man and a brute is one of ftegree. Archimedes was not dif- 
ferent from a mole, except that the former had a finer organ- 
ization than the latter. Just as from man — the highest organ- 
ism of which we have any definite knowledge — there is a 
gradation down to where we are unable to distinguish the or- 
ganic from the inorganic, so there may be a similar series of 
organisms higher than man, having more than five, even an 
infinite number of, senses. At this point Yoltaire's phi- 
losophy seems not to differ greatly from materialism, but he 
endeavored to guard against such an implication. Material- 
ists regard those phenomena usually called "mental" M 
purely physical. The brain, they say, secretes thought just 
as the liver secretes bile, and thinking consequently is a proc- 
ess analagous to digestion. Yoltaire, however, specifically 
denies that thought and digestion are similar. Thought, ho 
says, is not a function of matter, but a special faculty v. I 
which the Creator has endowed the human organism, lot, 


Voltaire's Philosc/phy and Religion. 


after all, he thinks, our knowledge on these subjects will 
always be very limited, and on this point he asks, " Which of 
us weak automata, whom an invisible hand has set in motion 
on the stage of this world, can see the cords by which he is 
guided % " 

Yoltaire so frequently returns to a discussion of the immor- 
tality of the soul that it is plain his sympathies w T ere in favor 
of the doctrine while his intellect refused to be convinced, 
lie admits that it would be pleasant to outlive one's self, to 
preserve forever the nobler parts of one's being after the de- 
struction of the baser, but finds no solution of the question 
save in the hope of a better life in the future. While he 
admits that God, by preserving some particle of the body, 
might also preserve the function of the soul that was con- 
nected with it, yet the result of his reasonings is practically a 
a denial of the immortality of the soul. The chief reason, 
doubtless, why Yoltaire was unwilling to deny the doctrine 
of immortality was because he saw its usefulness in the moral 
government of the world. In his dialogue Sophronimos and 
Adelos (1766) he says : 

I have long hesitated to proclaim my ideas on this subject because I 
feared the consequences might be dangerous, but I now think I see my 
way out of the labyrinth. We dare not accuse God of injustice because 
the three-headed Cerberus, Ixion's wheel, and Promctheus's vulture are 
mere fictions. There are for the wicked more real and unavoidable pun- 
ishments in this world. I mean the pangs of conscience, which are 
certain, and human vengeance, which seldom fails. I have seen many 
wicked and contemptible persons and they were always unhappy. 

Yoltaire was, nevertheless, not always consistent in his views 
on this matter. His own observations convinced him that the 
wicked were not always miserable nor the virtuous always 
happy, and so he continually returned to the idea of future 
rewards and punishments. 

Whoever holds with Locke that all our ideas come to us 
through the senses will also believe that man is not a free 
moral agent, since he has no more control over his thoughts 
than a mirror has over the images which it reflects. Now 
v Oltaire regarded it as of the utmost importance that the will 
should bo free, and he therefore tried to reconcile Locke's 

552 Methodist Review. [July 

determinism with bis own ideas of free will. To him the whole 
moral government of the world rested on the principle of 
man's free agency. In his Discourses on Man (1734) he says 
that the freedom of the will is the most precious gift of the 
universal Father to his children, and so calls it the "health of 
the soul." About the same time, in a lengthy correspondence 
with the crown prince of Prussia, afterward Frederick II, who 
was an ardent determinist, he vigorously assails the philosophy r 
of the latter. Later in life, however, we find Yoltaire in the 
camp of the determinists, admitting that disbelief in innate 
ideas was inconsistent with belief in free will. What a man 
wills, says he, is determined by impressions received through 
the senses, and over these we have no control. An uncondi- 
tioned act of the will would be an effect without a cause, 
which is an absurdity. " It would certainly be very strange 
that all nature, even the heavenly bodies, should follow eternal 
laws, and that there should be in the world a creature five 
feet high who, despite these laws, could act with perfect free- 
dom and in accordance with his own whims." Man's only 
freedom, according to Yoltaire, consists in his ability to carry 
out his resolutions. He resolves to walk, but this resolution 
is the result of an idea received through the senses. His free- 
dom consists only in this that he can walk or not, as he will ; 
freedom is merely the power to do. Man cannot free himself 
from the necessity that controls his will. If it is objected 
that man thus becomes a mere machine, Yoltaire replies that 
everything in the universe is under the control of fixed laws. 
" We are merely the wheels in the machine of the world." 

Yoltaire clearly foresaw what inferences could be drawn 
from these theories. If the man who leaps into a stream in 
order to save a drowning man and the one who robs and 
murders a lonely traveler both act in accordance with fixed 
laws, how can we speak of one action as virtuous and another 
as vicious? Cannot the evil doer protest that he could not 
do otherwise, since his will was not free? But Voltaire 
thought that morality would nut Buffer by his system, since 
the law of nature whereby vice is vice and virtue is virtue 
would still prevail. One man does good, another does evil 
according to an inevitable law, just as one man becomes 


Voltaire's Philosophy and Religion. . 553 

while another keeps his health. That the former did not will 
to be sick does not make his disease any the less inconvenient 
t ,r painful, nor does a crime become less reprehensible because 
the will of the perpetrator was not free. If a criminal should 
plead that his act was a necessary one, the reply is that his 
punishment is also a necessity. The right of society to punish 
criminals is in no respect restricted by the doctrine of deter- 
minism. Voltaire, however, never wrote a formal treatise in 
which his philosophical opinions were set forth. They must 
he gathered from his writings on a great variety of subjects, 
and since his opinions were likely to be affected by his moods 
we sometimes find him contradicting himself ; but when we 
consider the totality of his writings we need be in no doubt as 
to what Yoltaire thought on any important topic. In all his 
[-peculations Yoltaire had practical morality in view. He 
constantly seeks the connection between philosophy and the 
conduct of life. He declares it to be a noble thought that a 
perishable creature like man could arrive at a knowledge of 
God, but that this knowledge is of no more service than a 
knowledge of algebra if we cannot deduce from it some rule 


of life. 

Yoltaire was not an original thinker, but an eclectic philoso- 
pher. Carlyle said of him that he never uttered a great 
thought. His strength lay in his ability to popularize the 
thoughts of others. Emerson says, "Next to the originator 
of a good sentence is the first quoter of it," and so Yoltaire 
poured light on a variety of subjects and rendered serv- 
ice in 6ome ways to the advancement of learning. His phi- 
losophy is subject to many criticisms both on philosophical 
and religious grounds, yet he seriously and diligently medi- 
tated on the problems of life, and sought to gain and dissemi- 
nate knowledge which he believed would benefit mankind. 

Coming now to speak of Yoltaire's religious opinions, it 
may be remarked in the first place that he has frequently 
been called an atheist. This opinion, however, could never 
bo held by any careful student of Yoltaire's works. As will 
appear, he had a special horror of atheism. It is also Baid 
that even though he did proclaim the existence of God he Wfcfi 
BOt sincere, but preached this doctrine because he thought the 


Methodist Review. 


masses could better be held in subjection if told that God 
would punish their evil deeds, though he thought that a phi- 
losopher had no need of God. Doubtless it would be possible 
to quote passages from Voltaire's writings which would jus. 
tify attributing to him such opinions. True, in reply to 
Bayle's assertion that atheism and immorality did not neces- 
sarily go together, and that a well-ordered community when 
all were atheists might well exist, Yoltaire says that tbitf 
would hold good of philosophers, but that the masses needed 
a strong rein, and that if Bayle had to govern only a few- 
hundred peasants, he would not be slow in proclaiming to them 
a God that rewards and punishes. Therefore, he says, "If 
God did not exist it would be necessary to invent him." 
Speaking of atheism he says : 

In the fifteenth century Italy swarmed with atheists, and what was 
the result ? It was as common to poison as to give a supper, to plungt 
a dagger into the heart of a friend as to embrace him. There were pro- 
fessors of crime, just as there are now teachers of music and mathemat- 
ics. Atheism and fanaticism are the two poles of a universe of honor. 
The narrow zone of virtue lies between these two poles. 

If we pursue the subject further we shall see that Yoltaire 
had not merely practical reasons for believing in God, but 
theoretical ones. If he did think that priests were sometimes 
a great evil, he did not think that God should be held respon- 
sible for the acts of his pretended servants. The teleologieal 
argument for the existence of God seemed to Yoltaire unan- 
swerable. Some things exist, he reasons ; therefore, some- 
thing must have existed always, or something must have come 
out of nothing, which is absurd. The universe is intelligently 
made, therefore it must have been made by an intelligent 
beino*. Every work that shows design must have had a de- 
signer, and the world is preeminently such a work. Now it 
is impossible that an intelligent Creator should have been 
evolved from inert, unintelligent matter. The intelligence ol 
a Newton must have come from another intelligence. 

From the top of the head to the end of the toes all i* art. all la d*' 
sign, means, and end. Really one feels some indignation against the* 
who pretend to deny final causes, and who are BO disingenuous M 
deny that the mouth was made for eating aud talking, that th« I ;> ■ 

190 L] Voltaire 9 s Philosophy and Religion. 


nuurelously arranged for seeing, and the ears for hearing. This audacity 
ii go senseless that I fail to comprehend it. 

Again, in the Dialogue of Sophronimos and Adelos (1777) 
Voltaire writes : 

I have always, with Cicero and Plato, recognized in nature a supreme 
power, as intelligent as powerful, that has arranged the universe as we 
ice it. I could never think with the Epicureans that chance, which is 
nothing, could have made everything. As I see all nature subject to 
constant laws, I recognize the lawgiver, and since all heavenly bodies 
move according to the eternal laws of mathematics I recognize what 
Plato has so aptly called the ''Eternal Geometer." 

44 The watch proves the watchmaker," was his constant argu- 
ment for the existence of God, and it is worthy of mention 
that he used this argument before the birth of Paley, whom 
it served so well. "We thus see that Voltaire's theory of life 
was based on his dualistic philosophy. If matter lias not in 
itself "the promise and potency of life," as Tyndall said, then 
there must be outside and above nature something that gives 
it life and motion. 

Concerning the evil in the world Voltaire had very definite 
ideas. This subject is frequently discussed in his romances, 
which are usually didactic in character. In his poem on the 
earthquake at Lisbon (1766) he contends against the doctrine 
that "whatever is, is right." Evil exists, he says, and it 
would be absurd to deny it. When Epicurus says that God 
either could not or would not prevent the existence of evil, 
Voltaire prefers the former, because he prefers to worship a 
God with limited power, rather than a malevolent one. 
While he considers the origin of evil as an unsolvable prob- 
lem, he thinks that probably the world could not have been 
made any better even by an omnipotent Creator. He even 
*=ays that a world without evil would be as impossible as a 
triangle whose three angles were not equal to two right 
Miglea. Since man is perishable he is necessarily subject to 
infirmity and decay, with the attending pains and incon 
veniences. Besides, man's passions and emotions, which are 
a necessary part of him, sometimes load him astray. 

But Voltaire went farther than to proclaim that God was 
merely the Creator of the world ; he also affirmed that this 


Meth od ist Re v ic w. 


Creator was likewise the ruler of his creation. In his treatise 
on God and Men (1769) he says: 

No society can exist without justice; therefore we proclaim that God 
is just. If the laws of the State punish detected crime, we proclaim a 
God who will punish undetected crime. A philosopher may be a deist 
like Spinoza, but the statesman should be a theist. We know not 
what God is, but we do know that he is just and reasonable, and let 
that suffice. 

He says elsewhere that God has provided for the moral gov- 
ernment of the world just as he had provided for its physical 
government. He who violates natural laws suffers punish- 
ment ; why not also he who violates moral laws ? 

As Yoltaire grew older he took a more serious view of the 
problem of evil, and was more inclined to believe in the im- 
mortality of the soul, as well as in future rewards and pun- 
ishments. Whereas he had formerly held that probabilities 
were against immortality, he now says they are in its favor. 
His arguments, however, are all of a purely negative character. 
Since we do not know what it is within us that thinks, wo 
cannot assert that it will not survive our bodies. Since 
thought is nothing material, why may we not believe that 
God has implanted in us some divine principle that is im- 
mortal ? In the Dialogue on the Soul (1777) he says : 

I do not say that we have no soul, but I say that I know nothing 
about it. I believe that God gives us five senses and thought, and 
he could well have made it so that we should live and move and have 
our being in him, as Paul and Aratus say. 

While Yoltaire had great respect for religion in the abstract 
he rarely speaks respectfully of the Christian religion ; and it 
is precisely his views on this point that have aroused the great- 
est antagonism. True, his hardest blows were directed against 
the Roman hierarchy, which enforced by persecution ita 
dogma that ignorance is the mother of devotion, and so put 
itself directly in the way of all progress, and was, on that 
account, specially hateful to Voltaire, as to many others, Ki 
will appear later, he had great respect for the person oi 
Jesus, but regarded him merely as an honest enthusiast 
tkousiaste de bonne fol. Some of the dogma- of certain th< 

1901 J Voltaire's Philosophy and Religion. 557 

Julians excited his indignation, and in his Epistle to Urania 
(1724) he exclaims : 

Ve immense regions of America, ye people whom God placed in the 
extreme East, and ye of the far North, ye all, whom error binds as with 
a deep sleep, shall ye be forever given over to the wrath of God, because 
ve know not that once upon a time, in a remote part of Syria, the son of a 
carpeuter died upon the cross ? No, such a picture is unworthy of the 
God whom I am to worship. One offends God only by injustice to his 
creatures. He judges us according to our virtues, not according to our 

Voltaire's religion, as well as his philosophy, was greatly in- 
fluenced by his sojourn in England. There he adopted the 
doctrines of the English deists, of which Bolingbroke, Shaftes- 
bury, and Tindal were the chief apostles. Deism was, in fact, 
the general prevailing form of unbelief before the rise of Ger- 
man rationalism and the materialism of the later scientists. 
Voltaire never allowed to pass unimproved an opportunity to 
cast reproach on the Jews and their sacred writings, and there- 
fore emphasized the fact that the Egyptians, Chaldeans, and 
Greeks believed in immortality, whereas the Old Testament 
contained scarcely a hint of it-^which showed what barbarians 
the Jews were as compared with their enlightened neighbors. 
Neither did he have much respect for the New Testament, as a 
whole, although there is much in it that he approved. The 
fact that miracles are there frequently mentioned made the 
book distasteful to him. Concerning Jesus he always spoke 
respectfully, when he spoke seriously. It is true, indeed, that 
his pages are blotted with some ribald jests on this subject, 
lor the shame of Voltaire was that he jested at times on al- 
most everything which he talked about. In the Philosophi- 
cal Dictionary (1764), in the article on " Religion," Jesus is 
spoken of in a manner to which no one could object ; and the 
treatise on God and Men begins by saying that only a rogue or 
a fanatic would say that the light of reason should not be used 
in investigating the history of Jesus. Concerning the author- 
ities on this subject, Voltaire says that the Greek and Roman 
historians make no mention of Jesus, and even the better Jew- 
ish ones, such as Josephus and Philo, are silent concerning him. 
Our only means of information, then, are the gospels on one 


Methodist JZeview. 


hand, and some defamatory Jewish writings on the other. 
Nevertheless, according to Voltaire, we may be certain that 
Jesus was the son of Mary, a carpenter's wife, and that Joseph 
was his father. He came from the lowest class of people and 
professed to be a prophet, like many others. He had the 
power to attract followers, a power possessed only by persons 
of some ability who lead an upright life. He who would be a 
leader must begin by winning the respect of those whom he 
would lead. Jesus maybe called a "rural Socrates." Both 
preached morality, without any special occupation; both had 
disciples and enemies; both said hard things against the priests, 
and both were executed. Again in his Histoire de Jenni 
(1769) Voltaire says: "I believe with Jesus Christ that one 
should love God and his neighbor, pardon offenses, and make 
good what was done amiss. These are the maxims of Jesus. 
They are so true that all legislators, all philosophers have al- 
ways held and always will hold the same." 

Voltaire, through misapprehension, even thought it neces- 
sary to defend Jesus against the assertions of the gospels them- 
selves. Such expressions as " I came not to send peace, but a 
sword " and " If any man . . . hate not his father, and mother, 
... he cannot be my disciple " he declared to be so diamet- 
rically opposed to the general utterances of Jesus that they 
cannot be genuine. Since the gospels were not written until 
long after Jesus's death, Voltaire maintained that we could not 
expect them to be an accurate report of what he said. Besides, 
his language was frequently figurative, and since we in no 
case have his exact words, but only translations or paraphrases 
of them, we cannot always be sure of the precise sense which 
he attached to them. Nevertheless, if we take all the speeches 
attributed to Jesus concerning the meaning of which there can 
be no reasonable doubt, we shall find that he taught love to 
God and man and an unsurpassed system of moral deserving 
of universal recognition. 

The miracles recorded by Jesus were of course a stumbling- 
block to Voltaire, but not as serious a one as might be expected. 
Some of them he believed to be inventions of later linn-, 
while others might have been " pious frauds" on the part 
of Jesus, for the sake of winning adherents to his wholosomo 

1901.] Voltaire^ s Philosophy and Religion. 559 

loctrines — a proceeding which Voltaire regarded as quite 
justifiable under the circumstances. The inhabitants of Judea 
ind Galilee were ignorant and superstitious, demanding signs 
and wonders, and as they could only be benefited by this de- 
ception there was no harm in practicing it. In fact, Voltaire 
was never very scrupulous as to his own methods if he was 
inxious to make a point, and strict regard for truth was not 
one of his virtues. He contended that the Christianity of the 
eighteenth century in France was as remote from the religion 
of Jesus as from that of Zoroaster, and that Jesus himself 
would have looked on it with contempt. 

While Voltaire had but little respect for the Catholicism 
which he saw about him, he did not look on Protestantism 
with much more favor. Admitting that the latter had thrown 
off some of the grossest superstitions of the former, he 
thought these improvements could have been made without 
turning the world upside down, as did Luther and his com- 
panions. In this Voltaire's opinions coincided exactly with 
those of Erasmus, who often expressed himself in almost 
exactly the same words as Voltaire. Leo X, according to the 
latter, was as a man greatly preferable to Luther. Even if he 
was pope, he was at least a man of culture and a promoter of 
the arts, whereas the latter was a rude peasant whose language 
was sometimes so coarse as to be unfit for repetition. Vol- 
taire was, moreover, an ardent lover of peace, and therefore 
thought that it would have been better to have endured all 
the absurdities and iniquities of the papal rule, which would 
have disappeared in time, than to have stirred up a strife 
which set all the nations of Europe by the ears and caused the 
thirty years' war, that most lamentable and destructive of all 
wars. On this point two things may be remarked. One is 
the radical difference between the French and the Teutonic 
mind. It is impossible for one to comprehend the workings 
Ot the other. Voltaire could neither understand nor appreci- 
ate the work of Luther because it was impossible for him to 
look at it from the latter's point of view. For the same 
reason it was impossible for him to appreciate the dramas of 
Shakespeare, whom he regarded as almost as great a barbarian 
M Luther. The second point is Voltaire's utter lack of his- 

560 Methodist Review. [Julv, 

toric sense, which made him fail to see that, even judging l.v 
his own criterion, Protestantism was far preferable to Cathol- 
icism in this, that the latter made free thought a crime ai 
punished it as such when it had the power, whereas Prot- 
estant governments, if not entirely free from the pe 
cuting spirit.-were never guilty of such outrages as character- 
ized the Inquisition. That "the noble liberty of thinking,* 1 
which Voltaire extolled so highly, prevailed in England and 
not in France was due chiefly, if not solely, to the fact thai 
the Protestant religion prevailed in one and not in the other. 

Voltaire has sometimes been charged with expressing a 
desire to destroy the Christian Church, and with boasting i f 
his ability to do this. It would probably be difficult to b! 
that he ever expressed such a sentiment, and it is certain tli I 
he never did so when speaking seriously, as the following 
will show. At the close of his treatise on God and Men he 
says : 

Swift wrote a beautiful book in which he claims to have proved that 
we are not yet ready to dispense with the Christian religion. I . 
with him. True, it is a tree which hitherto has borne only deadly fru 
but we do not desire to cut it down, but to graft it. Let us w< i 
the supreme Being through Jesus, since that is the custom. What d 
it matter whether we offer our homage to that Being through Con- 
fucius, Marcus Aurelius, or Jesus, if we are only sincere ? 

Again in the Philosophical Dictionary, he writes: 

If you say religion has caused thousands of crimes, I reply, not n 
ligion but superstition, the most cruel enemy of the pure worship which 
we owe God. It is a monstrous serpent, throttling religion in Its C 
Let us crush its head without wounding the religion which it InfecU 
and devours. ... A stupid priest excites contempt, a wicked pri 51 
inspires horror, but a good priest is a man whom we should cherish ami 
respect. Let us fear abuses and try to prevent them, but let us 
condemn a custom that is useful to society. That the Jesuits have b< en 
banished from France is no reason for banishing God. Let us rath' I 
love him the more on that account. 

One other point deserves mention. Voltaire in his let! r« 
frequently used the words " Ecrascz Vinf&me" which have 
often been translated " Crush the wretch" and referred 
Christ Now, no one who had studied the subject WOfllM SCO 
in this expression an allusion to Christ. In the first pi* 


Voltaire s Philosophy and Religion. 


M>ltai re himself more than once explains what he means by 
"Tinfume? For example, in a letter he writes: "I wish 
»ou to crush i Vinfdme ; 1 you know well that I speak of super- 
stition. As for religion, I love it and respect it as you do/' 
And d'Alembert in his reply speaks of "the infamous fanati- 
cism which you wish to see crushed," etc. Again, if we ex- 
amine a few of tbe passages in which these words occur, we 
litall see that " Tinfame" is feminine and so could not refer to 
Christ He says, " Si vous pouvez ecraser Vinfdme, ecrasez-l<iP 
Frederick the Great, who knew Voltaire's sentiments, writes, 
''.Vapprouvefort la methode de do?iner des nasardes d Vinfdme 
ai la comllani de politessesP What, then, was this " infamous 
thing " \ In the words of Mr. Saintsbury : 

M Vin fdme n is not God, it is not Christ, it is not Christianity, it is not 
even Catholicism. Its briefest equivalent may be given as "persecu- 
Ung and privileged orthodoxy n in general, and more particularly it is 
the particular system which Voltaire saw around him, of which he him- 
self had felt the eilects in his own exiles and the confiscation of his 
books, and of which he saw the still worse effects in the hideous sulier- 
: ri_:s of Calas and La Barre. 

Voltaire's biographer, Parton, speaking on this same subject 
says : 

It was religion claiming supernatural authority, and enforcing that 
claim by pains and penalties. It was religion that could put an ugly 
U1J pot on the head of a clown, a crooked stick in his hand, and then 
sit him down, squnt like a toad, upon the intellect of France. It was 
religion making an ignorant bishop the censor of Xewton in Newton's 
own subjects. It was religion killing religion, and making virtue itself 
contemptible by resting its claim on grounds untenable and ridiculous. 
It was religion wielding the whole mass of indolence, iguorance, and 
cowardice, and placing it solid and entire in the only path by which 
the human race could advance. It was the worst thing that ever was in 
the world. 



Methodist Review. 



Poetrt is not often thought of as worthy to be considered 
a Madonna and the hallowed mother of an infant God ; she is 
more often regarded as being in many of her manifestations 
a hoyden and light o' love, a whimsical girl of airy and incon- 
stant fancies, at best as a nurse to soothe with rhyme the in- 
fancy and youth of man. As womanhood is mother, wife, 
sister, sweetheart, so may the spirit of poesy range through as 
many varied phases and manifestations. 

The wisest observers remark that the art of poetry, as to its 
brightest, strongest, and most planetary appearances, seems to 
be in eclipse. Mr. E. C. Stedman, our leading critic, regards 
this as temporary, and says : 

I believe that, later than Shakespeare's day, the height of utterance in 
his mode and tongue [that is, the dramatic] is not of the past, but still 
to be attained by us; . . . our own will have its speech again, and as 
much more quickly than after former periods of disuse as the processes 
of action and reaction speed swiftlier than of old. To one bred to look 
before and after, this talk of atrophy seems childish when he bears in 
mind what lifeless stretches preceded the Miltonic and the Georgian out- 
bursts. A pause, a rest has been indicated, at this time especially innoc- 
uous and the safeguard against cloying; meantime our new-fledged gen- 
ius has not been listless, but testing the wing in fields outside the lyric 
hedgerows. In the near future the world, and surely its alertest and 
most aspiring country, will not lack for poets. Whatsoever the progno- 
sis, one thing is gained from a compilation of the songs of many; this 
or that singer maybe humble, an everyday personage among his fellows, 
but in his verse we have that better part of nature which overtops the 
evils in us all, and by the potency of which a race looks forward thatelse 
would straggle to the rear. 

Mr. Stedman thus believes the occupation temporally, wad 
strikes defiantly against the shield of any who declares that 
poetry is not a potent force in the advancement of even the 
century that now begins a hoary year of man. An American 
poet makes a simple stalk of corn 

.... Type the poet -soul sublime 
Thnt leads the vanwurd of his timid time 
And sings up cowards with commanding rhyme, 

1901.] Kinship of Religious and Poetic Impulses. 563 

But the present essay will not regard recent or racial mani- 
festations of the desire of mankind to be soothed or stimulated 
or delighted by the beautiful art of verse, but will rather seek 
to show how closely together in kinship lie the two demands 
pf man's nature — one for religion, the other for poetry. If 
we may not speak of one as a progenitor of the other, we 
may consider them as having common parentage, as being 
well-nigh one in heart and blood. 

At the outset it seems proper to say that back of all the 
flowerings of poetic form in all times and among diiferent 
peoples lies the essential poetic energy, the instinctive impulse 
of man's spirit toward expression, the outgoing of his imagina- 
tion. Among primitive tribes whatever was not connected 
with daily surroundings and bodily needs would readily appear 
to be connected with the supernatural. As soon as the first 
dream or memory came to a man his thought would postulate 
the unseen and spiritual. The recognition of the possible ex- 
istence of divine power outside of man's vision straightway 
impels the creature to prayer. Prayer or worship, in its sim- 
plest form, is an ascription of superiority to the Unseen and an 
invocation for help and sympathy. This instinctive exercise 
of the imagination moved by emotion seems to be in essence the 
poetic energy. And often this poetic energy at once seeks to 
take shape in outburst of sacred song. Goethe says, "The 
beautiful is a primeval phenomenon, which indeed never be- 
comes visible itself, but the reflection of which is seen in a 
thousand various expressions of the creative mind, as various 
and as manifold as the phenomena of nature." 

Omitting reference to books which contain the inferences of 
anthropologists who have studied the conditions of races still in 
savagery, we may consider the internal evidence furnished by 
an ancient race which has contributed more than any other to 
the religious substance of the world, namely, the Hebrews. 
Herein may be found conclusive evidence that, whereas the 
aesthetic tendency was comparatively slight toward the devel- 
opment of other arts, it was strong toward the development 
of sacred song. Professor Toy says : 

The most distinctly characteristic part of Old Testament literature is 
the prophetical. The position of the Israclitish prophet Is unique, Xo 


Methodist Review. 


other people has produced a line of moral and religious patriots who fol- 
lowed the fortunes of the nation from generation to generation and, ami.J 
all changes of political situation, remained true to their cardinal principle, 
which was that no conditions of power and wealth would avail a nation 
which did not pay strict obedience to the moral law and place its reliance 
in God. . . . The prophets are political-religious watchmen who appear 
at every crisis to announce the will of God. . . . They differ from other 
orators in that their audience is not a court of law, nor an assembly of 
the people, but the whole nation; and the question which they discus-; 
is not the interpretation of a statute, or a particular point of political 
policy, but the universal principle of obedience to God. The language 
of the prophetical discourses is for the most part rhythmical and meas- 
ured, and the discourses themselves naturally fall into strophes and 

Professor Toy further adds that " Hebrew poetry,*' by 
general admission, "is characterized as to its form by rhythm 
and parallelism." Rhythm " is the melodious flow of sylla- 
bles. Parallelism, a form characteristic of, and almost peculiar 
to, old Semitic poetry is the balancing of phrases; the second 
line in a couplet being a repetition of the first in varied phrase 
or presenting some sort of expression of, or contrast to, the 
first." Dr. Toy gives many examples of the eloquent out- 
bursts of the prophets, and they all exhibit these elements 
which he says are characteristic of the old Semitic poetry. 
The Book of Job is reckoned among the great poems of 
the world. The Psalms present a complete fusion of de- 
votional and lyrical fervor, each one being a prayer and 
a song. 

But the point is here made that not only in the professedly 
poetical productions is this fusion found, but that it constantly 
underlies almost all the contents of the sacred books of this 
people. It may almost be said that whenever there is strong 
religious fervor there is also high lyric enthusiasm. When- 
ever the thought is intense it is both devout and poetical. No 
lower enthusiasm than this of man's relation to Deity can 
kindle the lyric spark. Coleridge laid down what must be • 
true dictum, that there is no necessary antithesis between 
prose and poetry. In the sense of leaving aside all considera- 
tion of mere constructive form, it may be held that even iu 
the historical books of the Old Testament there is con 8 tan I 

1901-3 Kinship of Religious and Poetic Impulses. 565 

evidence of what has been called the poetic energy. Genesis 
is marked by the presence of its essential elements. 

The same blending is found in other literatures, ancient and 
modern. It is not without significance that Herodotus says 
of Homer and Hesiod, " It was they [the poets] who made 
a theogony for the Greeks, assigned names to the gods, dis- 
tributed their honors and arts, and revealed their forms." 
In ancient India simple hymns are the foundation of the 
sacred Yedas, as scriptures of faith and worship. So, like- 
wise, in Icelandic, the oldest spoken language in Europe, the 
chief Eddas are collections of mythology and poetics. The 
greatest one, Voluspa, or "Prophecy of the Sibyl," is 
deemed worthy to stand at the head of all old Germanic songs 
for beauty and dignity, for language and the inherent worth 
of its material. Its purpose is to give a complete picture of 
the whole heathen religion. It contains the history of the 
universe ; the creation of the world out of chaos ; the origin 
of giauts, dwarfs, gods, and men ; and ends with their destruc- 
tion and ultimate renewal. Everywhere, among all the peo- 
ples, in India, Persia, Germany, Iceland, Babylonia, and 
among the Anglo-Saxons, we find this intuitive association of 
the two efforts of the human spirit. Carlyle calls Dante's 
" Divina Commedia " a "mystic, unfathomable song," " sublime 
embodiment of the soul of Christianity," " the thought that, 
ten centuries lived by, expressed in everlasting music." And 
Dante succeeds in fusing beauty with spiritual teaching ; art 
does not become obscured by doctrine, but beauty and spiritual 
purpose are at one. " In all man's gropings about the roots of 
mystery " the religious instinct and the poetical impulse are 
ardent coworkers. 

Lufcadio Hearn, a student of Japan, has this to -write of 
the Shinto faith — anciently, Kami-no-Michi, The Way of 
the Gods : 

Buddhism ha9 a voluminous theology, a profound philosophy, a lit- 
erature vast as the sea. Shinto has no philosophy, no ethical code, no 
'netnphysics; ... it is a power indefinable us magnetism, invulnerable 
118 air. . . . The reality of Shinto lies not in books, nor rites, nor com- 
mandments, but in the national heart, of which it is the highest emotional 
N?Ugi0U8 expression, immortal and ever young. Far underlying fill the 


Methodist Review. 

surface crop of quaint superstitions, and artless myths, and fantastic 
magic, there thrills a mighty spiritual force, the -whole soul of a race, 
with all its powers and impulses and intuitions. He -who would know 
•what Shinto is must learn to know that mysterious soul in which the 
sense of beauty and power of art, and the fire of heroism and magnetism 
of loyalty, and the emotion of faith, have become inherent, Immanent, un- 
conscious, instinctive. 

This seems to say that only a poetic mind might hope to 
understand this elusive religious faith. In an essay, recently 
published, entitled " From Bacon to Beethoven," Sidney Lanier 
has this suggestive passage : 

Now man strives always to place himself in relation not only with 
those definite forms which go to make up the finite world about him, 
but also with that indefinite Something up to which every process of 
reasoning, every outgo of emotion, every physical activity, inevitably 
leads him — God, the Infinite, the Unknown. The desire of man is that 
he may relate himself with the Infinite both in the cognitive and in the 
emotional way. Sir William Hamilton showed clearly how impossible 
was any full relation of the former sort in showing that cognition itself 
was a conditioning (that is, a defining, a placing of boundaries appre- 
ciable by the intellect), and that therefore the knowing of the Infinite 
was the conditioning of the Unconditioned ; in short, impossible. This 
seemed to preclude the possibility of any relation from man to God of 
the cognitive sort, but Mr. Herbert Spencer has relieved the blankness 
of this situation by asserting the possibility of a partial relation still. 
"We cannot think God, it is true; but we can think toward him. This 
in poiut of fact is what men continually do. The definition in the 
Catechism, " God is a Spirit, infinite, eternal, and unchangeable in 
being, wisdom," etc., is au effort of man to relate himself to God in the 
cognitive or intellectual way: it is a thinking toward God. Now, then 
is a constant endeavor of man, but one to which less attention has b 
paid by philosophers, to relate himself with the Infinite not only in the 
cognitive way just described, but also in the emotional way. Just 
persistently as our thought seeks the Infinite, does our emotion seek the 
Infinite. We not only wish to think it, we wish to love it ; and as our 
love is not subject to the disabilities of our thought, the latter of th< se 
two wishes would seem to be more capable of a complete fulfillment 
than the former. It has been shown that we can only think toicav' th< 
Infinite; it may be that our love can reach nearer its object. 1 
philosophic truth, music does carry our emotion toward the Infinite. 

Robert Browning says, in "Abt Vogler : n 

All we have willed or hoped or dreamed of good, shall exbi : 
Not its semblance, i>ut itself: no beauty, nor good, mm p wftt 


1001.] Kinship of Religious and Poetic Impulses, 567 

Whose voice has gone forth, but each survives for the melodist 

When eternity confirms the conception of an hour. 
The high that proved too high, the heroic for earth too hard, 

Tlfe passion that left the ground to lose itself in the sky, 
Are music sent up to God by the lover and the bard : 

Enough that he heard it once : we shall hear it by and by. 

But God has a few of us whom he whispers in the ear, 

The rest may reason and welcome: 'tis we musicians know. 

Reduced to their simplest terms Music and Poetry have the 
game basis. The essential element of one is the essential ele- 
ment of the other; that is, rhythm. Music is rhythmically 
arranged sounds; poetry is rhythmically arranged words. 
The earliest musical instrument was the human voice, capable 
of uttering sounds and also words. If this analysis be correct, 
it must have, been along the track of song, rhythm uttered 
by the human voice, that primitive man early essayed to 
send his emotion toward the darkness in which dwelt the 
object of his love and aspiration, the Infinite. Song, or 
cnvoiced rhythm, is the earliest manifestation of the poetic 
energy, and it concerns itself with feeling about the Unknown, 
the Mysterious, the Infinite. It is a stream flowing in the* 
same channel as the religious impulse ; it seeks to aid the 
thought of man by bearing it on the bosom of its rhythm 
toward the ocean. 

The perceptive faculties show us the palpable, the visible, 
that which appears ; the imaginative faculties suggest glimpses 
of the eternal realities. Imagination and feeling are wings 
with which the genius of man seeks to quit the actual and get 
into the ideal. "Wherever these two move, the element sup- 
porting them is the poetic-religious. Horace Buslmell says, 
" We shall know that poetry is the real and true state of man, 
the proper and last ideal of soul/' State it differently, and 
somehow poesy is transformed into faith. The daily sacrifice 
of the Catholic Church lias been called a great religious poem. 
The supreme object of religion is to know God or to love 
toward him, and to find brotherhood in humanity. The 
metaphysician shows that Infinity cannot be mentally condi- 
tioned, cannot be known as man knows Nature or the objec- 
tive, that is, in the scientific sense. Spencer says that God is 

568 Methodist Review. [July, 

unknowable; that is, the Unknowable may be Deity. Ernest 
Haeckel seems to say that there is no Deity to be known, no 
personal Deity, none save the Sum of Matter and Force. 
There is an ancient saying, " The fool hath said in his heart, 
There is no God." Haeckel is esteemed an acute thinker and 
scientist. Can we save him from the scriptural designation of 
one who, though learned in some wisdoms, may be yet fool- 
ish ? Perhaps he does not utter this negative in his heart, 
but has merely thought and said it with the mind; never 
having felt the divinity revealed in poesy, perhaps he has 
simply denied him in scientific category. Though we may 
not know T God, supreme object of man, in scientific realm, in 
characterization of mind, or metaphysics, in logical definition 
of philosophy, or in any sensible realization, yet may we not 
know him with the heart ? Reason, metaphysics, philosophy, 
science may seem to have failed to completely demonstrate 
Deity in a personal sense, yet the heart's poesy may reveal 
him. Beyond metaphysics and science, it is in the spiritual 
realm chiefly that faith and poesy are found, and there they 
are as two wings of the human spirit ; by both the soul of man 
is lifted above the ground. 

If it be true that these two impulses of human nature, the 
poetic and religious, show their twinship in the dawning of 
intelligence, in fact suggest a very identity of rootage, it is 
not surprising that the fruits of the tree should display the 
same features of kinship. In other words, the development 
of the poetic energy in the growth and blossoming of the 
poetic art shows numberless examples of the tendency of the 
singers to become spiritual teachers. The Psalms furnish ex- 
ample after example of this fusion of the imaginative and the 
spiritual. Time does not suffice to quote any of these, nor any 
of the wonderful rhapsodies of the prophets. Illustrations 
may be drawn from all of the greatest modern singers. The 
dramatic is said to be the highest form of the art, and Shakes- 
peare is accepted as the supreme master in this form. Is it 
not true that he, who sounded the whole diapason of man's 
complex nature, constantly recurs to this master chord of spir- 
itual aspirations ? With words of tenderness and reverence 
he refers to Jesus : 

1001.] Kinship of Religious and Poetic Impulses. 569 

In those holy fields 
Over whose acres walked those blessed feet 
Which fourteen hundred years ago were nailed 
For our advantage on the bitter cross. 

The pla} r s of the great Greek dramatists graced the impor- 
tant state festivals and were parts of the popular religious 
ceremonial. ^Eschylus was of intensely religious or spiritual 
nature. Browning says, The world is better 

Because Euripides shrank not to teach, 

If gods be strong and wicked, man, though weak, 

May prove their match by willing to be good. 

Pindar believed in genius as the gift of God ; believed that 
the poet had priestly authority, was, in a sense, the voice of 
the .Most High ; the olessed ones are said to have manifested 
themselves to him. Virgil, whom Tennyson calls 

Wielder of the stateliest measure ever molded by the lips of man, 

was religious, mystical, spiritual. The jjEneid was esteemed 
as a bible of classical literature during the Middle Ages, the 
conflict seeming to be a spiritual war and the warrior taking 
on the guise of a priest. Eschenbach, greatest mediseval Ger- 
man poet, covers in " Parzival," the whole circle of religion 
and ethics. He sang of the Holy Grail as a visible manifesta- 
tion of the ever-living Christ, "a light to guide, a rod to 
check the erring, and reprove." 

But such illustrative facts may be found in all the literatures 
of the world. Without dogmatism it may be said, that per- 
haps the religious and poetic impulses of man's soul are of 
identical root, and that, for the loftiest spiritual teaching, we 
may go not only to teachers, but to the makers of thoughtful, 
soulful, melodious poesy. 



Methodist Review. 



There is an ancient legend that Apollo, having fallen in 
love with Cassandra, one of the many daughters of Priam, 
bestowed npon her the gift of prophecy. But she afterward 
refused his suit, and as he could not take back his gift he 
added the curse that no one should believe her predictions. 
The truth underlying this legend seems to be that some kindly 
deity bestowed upon man the power of thought, of reason and 
judgment, and then in a fit of jealousy or fear ordained that 
the race should not trust this divinely given faculty. It has 
therefore become the custom among a certain class of public 
speakers to warn men very strongly against depending on 
their reason or intellectual natures. The intellect, they say, 
is not the highest faculty, its teachings and authority are not 
always to be accepted, and as a guide it is frequently unsafe 
and misleading. We are especially not to trust our reason 
in the province of religion, for intelligence and religious 
knowledge or experience are somewhat fundamentally op- 
posed, the one to the other. These speakers sometimes carry 
the opposition so far as tacitly to assume that no exceptionally 
intelligent man can be really and truly religious, and that no 
sincerely religious man can be particularly intelligent. 

If we are not to trust the intellect — the writer follows the 
old psychology in this discussion — in deciding the most 
momentous questions of life, it is fair to ask, Which one then 
of the faculties of our nature are we to believe and follow I 
The answer, no doubt, of a great part of those who disparage 
the reasoning powers would be, The sensibilities or emotions. 
We get an idea that the man who is controlled by his feelings, 
who is kind-hearted and sympathetic, with an intense reli- 
gious experience, must necessarily be a safe religious guide; 
as though a clear mind was not a prime factor in a pure <>r 
worthy life. "Keep thy heart with all diligence," says Solo- 


1901.3 The Intellect — Its Function in Religion. 


mon, ''for out of it are the issues of life." But note that it is 
the intellect which is to be the keeper and decide upon what 
the heart's affections shall be placed. A young man, in speak- 
ing of John Calvin, said, "His was a theology of the mind', 
while John Wesley's was a theology of the heart." The rea- 
son of one man may, from broader knowledge, wider experi- 
ence, and a richer nature, construct a more worthy system of 
theology than the reason of another man ; but it is the work of 
the intellect, and not of the emotions. We are, it is true, to 
pay much attention to the development and training of our 
emotions and passions, for their strength and intensity deter- 
mine in a great measure the force of our characters and the 
value of our lives. One great aim of education is to learn to 
love and hate correctly, to direct our affections to worthy ob- 
jects, and to despise the little, the mean, and the base. The 
emotions should be strong and elevated in tone, leading to 
manly action; and our first objection to the men who dis- 
parage the intellect and exalt the feelings is that they do not 
train the affections and make them efficient instruments for 
good. They too often permit them to run riot, chasing all 
sorts of vagaries, and yet expect them to bring forth valuable 
fruit; as though the horses roaming wild over the plain will 
in some way produce more and better food for the race than 
the plodding animals which are yoked to the wagon or the 

However strong or richly developed our sensibilities may 
be, they must be thoroughly under control of the reason. We 
have not yet given due attention to the training of the affec- 
tions and of the will as powerful servants, but not masters, 
of the intellectual faculty. We need to be urged to train, to 
control, and to direct wisely the sensibilities with which wc 
ftre so richly endowed, and not to suppose that the man who 
cannot govern himself is the person to instruct others in divine 
truth, as a half-crazy woman placed upon the tripod at Delphi 
^vas supposed to be the appropriate instrument of divine reve- 
lation. The stronger and richer our emotional natures the 


572 Methodist Review. [July, 

more we are inclined to religious enthusiasm, the more we 
need to cultivate our intellects; just as we need the stronger 
reins and cooler head the more fiery the steeds we driw. 
There was plenty of feeling on the field of Waterloo, a super- 
abundance of devotion and reckless courage, but the battle 
was lost from lack of good judgment on the part of the French 
commanders. Upon life's great battlefield the long-headed 
men advance, and the men who discredit the reason and exalt 
the emotional natures are constantly falling to the rear. 
Civilization is not advanced, the world is not saved, the 
Church is not built up by feeling, except as controlled and 
made effective by the reason. To let our feelings easily move 
us to action is a sign of weakness, of lack of will power or 
directing force which is the determining element in our char- 
acter. The man who is led hither and thither by his feelings, 
even though they may be religious, is like a log rolled over and 
over by each succeeding wave, till at last it is buried in the 
sand as an object with which nature is tired of playing. 

However important a faculty the imagination may be, 
probably no one would place it at the head of our soul' endow- 
ments or claim that it should act independent of the reason. 
The work of the imagination is to create for us a world in 
which we are to live and work, the index of our soul's desires 
and tendencies. Its images are, under the reason's guidance, 
to be lofty and attainable ; its ideals, noble — a rational world 
harmoniously constructed for human development. In the 
formation of this ideal world the intellect is to be the con- 
trolling power, as it was when the universe was created and 
God pronounced it very good. It is the world which the im- 
agination constructs and in which we think and act which 
determines our significance as men. }sot only do we con- 
struct this ideal w r orld of our soul habitation, as the nautilus 
does its shell, but we are constantly remodeling the material 
world in accordance with the dictates of our reason. As God 
is forever creating things in his likeness, <>f which we are the 
highest known type, so we are persistently striving to mold 


|90iJ The Intellect — Its Function in Religion. 573 

this visible world into our likeness, to conform it to our 
[bought Man needs a world which he can so transform as 
10 reflect and express himself, and happy will he be if it may 
be said of the products of his hand and brain, as of his great 
Exemplar's works, "In wisdom hast thou made them all." 

Jf the men who seek to discredit the intellect would empha- 
size the will as the chief of all our faculties, we would cer- 
tainly have great sympathy with them. 'Nine tenths of the 
work of education and of preparation for life seems at times 
to be the strengthening and training of the powers of volition. 
Men fail more often from lack of will force than from lack of 
knowledge or feeling. We have scarcely begun to realize yet 
that the will can be educated, that men can make themselves 
act and keep on acting till action becomes second nature. 
But, however well developed the will may be, it must be 
guided by the judgment, and the more vigorous it is the more 
necessary that it shall be strictly under the control of the rea- 
BOii, The will is to be trained to absolute freedom from un- 
worthy motives and to perfect response to the intellect and 
the affections. A man with a strong will is safe or useful 
only when a well-instructed reason sits enthroned as the 
arbiter of his actions. Without that reason he is like a ship 
without a rudder. \\e are not to give up our wills, as some 
teach, but to use them as tremendous forces for life's work. 
Jesus's constant effort was to get the disciples to do something, 
to manifest some energy for the upbuilding of the kingdom. 
Our wills are to be freed, strengthened, and set to work vigor- 
ously and intelligently. God does not want us to humble our- 
selves in the dust, to belittle our faculties. "Gird up now 
thy loins like a man," he said to Job ; "I will demand of thee, 
and declare thou unto me." "Son of man," he said to Ezc- 
Kiel, "stand upon thy feet, and I will speak unto thee." Ho 
Would not increase his own glory at the cost of our shame, but 
would use our faculties developed the most highly possible, 
proud as any earthly father when in the strength of our man- 
hood we have overcome the evil. We can imagine his delight 

574: Methodist Review. [Jtilv, 

as he gathers about him at the last day the bold thinkers am] 
the hard fighters on earth's battlefield, when his promise shall 
be fulfilled, "He that overcometh shall inherit all things." 

That the intellect holds the first place among man's facul- 
ties is shown from a number of considerations. The loss <*: 
the reason is without doubt the greatest calamity that could 
befall one — worse than the loss of sight or hearing or all our 
senses ; it is the taking away of the general power upon which 
the value of all the rest depends. The supreme importance 
of good judgment, or common sense, is the stock in trade of all 
proverbs, those quintessences of wisdom among all peoples. 
"He that getteth wisdom loveth his own soul," while, appro 
priately, stripes are "for the back of fools." Reason is the 
source of enlightenment, of knowledge of God, of men, of 
creation, of all natural and spiritual truths. Any purity or 
moral strength worthy the name comes from deliberate choice 
by the reason and assertion of freedom by the soul. When 
the prodigal son came to himself — that is, when his reason 
was again enthroned — he said, "I will arise and go to my 
father." We often speak of the moral nature as though it 
was independent, to be cultivated by itself apart from the 
intellect or sensuous nature ; but the fact is, the whole person 
must be trained — the physical organs and appetites, the sensi- 
bilities, the will, all under control of the great leader, the rea- 
son. The fruits of the Spirit, in the fifth chapter of Gala- 
tians, spring from a rich emotional nature controlled by the 
intellect, while the fruits of the flesh spring from an equally 
strong emotional nature without such control. Instead of our 
reason being an obstruction to true enlightenment, it ia f 
feelings, the sentiments, the prejudices which keep men from 
seeing and following the truth. Our reason is the most 
precious gift of the heavenly Father to his children, given to 
be the guide and enricher of life. If we mistrust and decry 
it we must not imagine that Cod is going to give U9 ftnotlH r 
and better faculty. As Napoleon among his marshals, Apollo 
among the muses, or Jupiter among the gods, so is tht int< 

IDOL] The Intellect — lU Function in Religion. 575 

among the faculties, and we simply advertise our folly in dis- 
paraging it. Through it the heavens declare to us God's 
glory, history his footsteps, the Bible his handwriting, the 
conversion and sanctification of men his grace and power. 
We must rise through reason up to reason's God \ and that is 
the only Jacob's ladder whose ends rest, the one upon God's 
footstool, the other upon his throne, instead of dangling aim- 
lessly in the air. 

The preacher appeals to men's reason, and would belittle 
himself and his message if he appealed to anything else. We 
are to judge all things — ourselves, God, and the angels — by 
the reason, and wisdom is to be justified by the reasoning 
faculty of her children. "Come now, and let us reason to- 
gether," saith the Lord, as the method peculiarly fitted to the 
subject and to man with whom he pleads. Christ constantly 
avoided signs and wonders and appealed to the intellect of his 
hearers, confusing them because they were weak where they 
thought they were strong. The pulpit preaches Christ, Chris- 
tian doctrines, and Christian ethics to the intellect because 
they are particularly adapted to be grasped in that way. 
Christianity is to the fullest extent reasonable, and that is the 
only certain guarantee of its becoming the universal religion. 
The incarnation, teachings, life, and miracles of Christ — 
with the greatest of all miracles, his resurrection — are pre- 
sented and enforced to the intellect. When Christ talked to 
Xicodemus about the new birth he appealed to his reason, and 
confounded him by showing him that he had not thought. 
"Why should it be thought a thing incredible," or unreason- 
able, "with you," says Paul, "that God should raise the 
dead ?" On the journey to Emmaus the risen Lord ex- 
pounded the Scriptures to the judgment of the two disciples 
till not only their spiritual but their bodily eyes were opened. 
W lien the wonderful story of redemption was to be told the 
world it must be expressed in the language molded and en- 
riched by nearly a thousand years of thought. The great 
thinkers of Greece tried to understand God and man's rela- 

576 MetJwdist Eeview. [July, 

tion to him, to make him cognizable to the intellects of their 
people. For this reason Christianity went to Greek philoso- 
phy and the Greek language for its expression, and to one 
trained in Greek thought to adequately set it forth for tho 
Gentile world. God at that time needed a man versed in all 
the wisdom of the Greeks, just as in former times he had 
needed a man learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and 
that is the kind of men he always uses when he has some great 
work to do. To-day we must go back to the Greek fathers, to 
get a true conception of Christianity and to square our own 
dogmas by those who knew how to use their intellect and did 
not despise its weapons. 

We need to emphasize the exceeding great value of man 
himself as a rational being. It may not be that all the uni- 
verse was made for his development, but that is the limit of 
our thought. Man as a rational being is his own end, the su- 
preme object of all his efforts. The material universe, the 
angels, the holy Trinity are all engaged in building up and 
perfecting this royal child, for whom Deity itself became 
flesh that he might show him his ideal and goal. The chief 
aim of education is to make men morally free, with absolute 
liberty from all enslaving influences and entire devotion to 
spiritual ends and rational methods. There is only one vir- 
tue, the acting with intelligence and good judgment in all the 
affairs of life. The best Christian is not the one who has the 
most feeling, or is in the ordinary sense'the most consecrated 
to God, but the one who is the most intelligent, the clearest 
sighted, the purest and strongest in purpose, the one who 
brings the most things to pass for the benefit of the race. Iu 
no sphere of speculative knowledge is clear, profound, con- 
secutive reasoning so greatly wanted as in matters of religion. 
We need some one of intellect great enough to grasp the truths 
of the Bible and express them in terms of to-day, to interpret 
the Gospel intellectually to the present generation and apply 
its precepts in a rational manner to the problems of everyday 
life. Unfortunately, thinking is an unknown science to all 

1901.} The Intellect — Its Function in Religion. 577 

but the few well-disciplined minds which are the real educa- 
tors of the world. Religion itself springs from, and has its 
basis in, the reason. The fact that we have a form of faith 
and worship, and especially the purity, strength, and effi- 
ciency of our religious belief, depends upon our intellectual 
faculties. Even though it may have been given by revelation, 
yet it must be grasped and interpreted to the soul by the rea- 
son. Religion is not based on feeling or sentiment, but on 
well-defined principles commended to and accepted by the 
judgment. The idea of immortality also has its origin in the 
intellect. Men had to rise above their sensuous natures and 
be governed by their reasons to get a conception of their im- 
mortality. Christ "brought life and immortality to light 
through the Gospel/' but only by showing man his divine 
origin and relationship and that the highest reason demanded 
his reunion with God. Our moral and spiritual natures, if 
not in origin, yet in development, in strength, in practical 
efficiency, depend upon the intellect. Our whole religious life 
— its value, its purity, its power to improve ourselves and 
others — is conditioned by our intellectual comprehension and 

We are to love God with all the mind — an intelligent love 
based on a comprehension of his nature and work through 
study, reflection, and the doing of his will. To approach God 
through the intellect — by which feeling and devotion increase 
as we grow in knowledge of him — is a natural and healthy 
development. A short road through nervous excitement or 
religious ecstasy without such development is abnormal, nar- 
rowing our knowledge and limiting our sympathy. Neo- 
platonism — the idea that there is something above reason by 
which we learn of God and are brought into communion with 
him — has always existed in the Christian Church, and always 
leads to mysticism and spiritual excess. Mystical principles 
which are not accessible to the universal reason are the source, 
not of freedom or progress, but of restraint or despotism. 

Some student of tendencies has said, "There never was a des- 


Methodist Review. 


potism which did not rest on superstition and the muzzling 
of men's mouths, shopworn ideas, and intellectual dishonesty 
are its fruits. Superstition, like agnosticism, is peculiarly 
congenial to minds religiously sluggish, and it seems to be the 
highest wisdom, both for the agnostic and the pietist, to con- 
sider that through which all things exist as the unknowable. 
But to make God an unintelligible quantity, whether a force 
or a spirit, is not conducive to vigor of thought or energy of 
soul. We naturally dislike the intelligent because of their 
superiority to us, but we think we have as much and good emo- 
tion as anyone. From depreciating study and intelligence 
we are led step by step to oppose science, knowledge, order in 
the world of history, abandoning the senses and the reason and 
reveling in mysticism. While the thoughtful leaders of the 
Church are struggling back to primitive Christianity, our 
Neopl atonic brethren are embracing old ideas and sentiments 
which have always been the great foes of the Christian faith. 
One of the greatest struggles of the Church has been against 
that weight of superstition, or dogma, or authority which has 
constantly tended to repress intelligence and destroy thought. 
Religious prejudice and theological narrowness have kept men 
from intellectual effort, and have caused them to impede the 
action of aggressive thinkers, making the Church a laughing- 
stock in its opposition to theplam teachings of science and phi- 
losophy. But religious views which depend for their accept- 
ance on the rejection of our judgment are untrustworthy and 
dangerous. People who reject the testimony of their reason 
and trust in visions and inspirations have already begun to 
decline. They are a type of arrested development, or, like .1 
man in a well, they may be able to see stars at midday, but 
their field of view is exceedingly limited. Having depolar- 
ized the organs of their brain, they have little liking for reflec- 
tion or for books which arouse the intellect and compel 
thought. They want something to move their feelings, to 
feed their morbid appetites. Having accustomed themselves 
to be governed by their feelings, many of these people from 


1901.1 The Intellect — Its Function in Religion. 579 

the paralysis of their intellects and the warping of their judg- 
ments have little power to resist temptation. We naturally 
distrust people who are weak, and thoughtless visionaries can- 
not become the leaders of the Lord's hosts. While those who 
are especially emotional are not to be counted less worthy of 
esteem than other Christian people, the only guarantee of a 
strong, pure, and useful life is a well-instructed intellect, 
thoroughly trained reasoning powers, and good judgment. 

If we believe in special providence and in the personal 
quickening and guidance of the Holy Spirit, must we not be- 
lieve that there is something higher than the intellect to guide 
man ? But in this we mistake the office and work of the Holy 
Spirit. He is not a force which takes control of a man from 
the outside and directs him as an engineer guides his engine 
or a man the horse which he drives. He rather quickens the 
entire man by acting directly upon all his faculties. He ele- 
vates the imagination, rightly directs the feelings, strengthens 
the will, but above all illumines the intellect and seats the 
judgment firmly upon her throne. To be religious we must 
serve God not with one but with all our faculties, and he in 
turn touches and uses all. He guides our reason, strengthens 
our understanding, illumines our thoughts, purifies our feel- 
ings, and sets our will toward moral freedom and nobility of 
character. Christ tries to shine into a man's heart, to reveal 
himself to the man's entire self. He is commended to man's 
whole nature, particularly to the intellect as the controller of 
all. The characteristic of true holiness is strength, not weak- 
ness; activity, not indolence; thought, not sentiment; the 
bringing in of the kingdom, not the idle waiting for its ap- 
proach. The truest test of entire sanctification is develop- 
ment of the power to think rightly, to act vigorously, and to 
influence men largely for good. The sanctified have received 
"the spirit of power, and of love, and of a sound mind." 

We have clearly failed to apprehend the work of the reason 
^n the realm of spiritual things. Professor Davidson in his 
work on the education of the Greek puts it admirably • 



Methodist Review. 


Our reason out of the data brought to it by the bodily senses and 
from its own resources constructs an external physical world in 
which we live; so out of the data furnished it by the supernatural 
sense and from its own resources the reason constructs the inner 
spiritual world in which we also live. Of this spiritual world rea- 
son demands a personal God as ruler, that his will shall be our law 
and that he shall be related to man as Saviour and Friend. 

The spiritual world of each is constructed by the intellect upon 
data furnished by the supernatural sense, and it is to be like 
the new Jerusalem of which God is the light thereof. But of 
all the faculties of the human soul there is none which de- 
mands such careful training, such absolute subordination to 
the reason as the supernatural sense. The entire sum of 
human attainment or endowment might be represented by a 
circle the component parts of which are truth and love. Of 
these the truth is not only the object, the working element, 
tmt the food, the invigorator, the home of the intellect ; while 
love, springing from the emotions largely, yet depends on the 
intellect for its stability and worth. Of this sum of human 
attainment one person cuts off a little segment and calls it 
"natural selection," "evolution," or "higher criticism;" and 
another person, a segment from the other side, and calls it 
"holiness" or the "second blessing," or "faith healing;" just 
as children cut off or dam up a small portion of the Missis- 
sippi Eiver, while the great stream of truth and love flow ever 
onward. The difficulty is not that each of these ideas do not 
have somewhat of truth in them, but that their advocates act 
and talk as though each separate item was the whole circle ; 
and the advance of speculative knowledge and, above all, the 
philosophy upon which human progress depends must wait 
while the partisans on either side squabble over their respec- 
tive theories. 

1901.] Literature as an Element in Chinese Reform. 581 


A few evenings ago, as the writer sat at his desk with 
his forehead on a fao of Chinese books, meditating as to the 
best methods of bringing the Gospel to the Chinese, there 
was a rap on the study door. It was rather late in the even- 
ing for callers, being possibly past nine o'clock ; and, thinking 
it was some member of the compound who had stepped in to 
ask a question, withont rising from the desk we twisted about 
in our study chair and called out, " Come in." The door 
opened, and a strange Chinese gentleman entered the room — 
we say strange advisedly, for he was strange in more ways 
than one. He was dressed in winter garments, mostly fur, 
we believe, though of that one could not be certain, as his 
under-garments may have been "wadded." His body was 
strangely angular. His shoulders were square, and to parody 
the description of Willie's wife, as given by Burns, 

He had a hump upon his breast, 
The twin o' that upon his shouther, 

which gave him the appearance of the little hunchback boy 
who begs in^ront of the foreign hotel and stores on Legation 
Street in Peking, only more so. 

AVe begged him to take a seat, and called for tea, while he 
made various commonplace remarks about the weather, and 
about our health, age, and family, saying at the same time that 
his humble name was " Shu." After partaking freely of the 
tea he remarked that he sympathized heartily with Lu Tung 
in the matter of tea-drinking. " How is that ?" we asked. 

" A seventh cup of tea," the poet said, 
" Is like a gentle breeze beueath my arms, 

Which wafts me to the region of the blest, 
And rids me of terrestrial cares and storms." 

The room being warm, the hot tea, in addition to his fur and 
Padded garments, brought the perspiration out upon his 
brow, and we politely suggested that he lay off his topcoat. 
He thereupon put aside several layers of his garments, which 


Methodist Review. 


left him a short coat of blue cloth fastened under the arm with 
two bone pegs, and, though he looked a trifle less respectable, 
he certainly appeared more comfortable. And as we eyed him 
more closely his face reminded us of the composite photo- 
graphs seen in some of the magazines, which made us think 
of him as a fair representative of his race. We have long 
made it our practice, when a Celestial who knows nothing of 
the flight of time favors us with a call, to secure from him all 
possible information, which, though it is not always reliable, 
is certainly varied and with proper sifting is sometimes val- 
uable as well as interesting and may often be turned to account. 
So we turned the conversation to the subject of our medita- 
tion, namely, the best method of bringing the Gospel to the 
Chinese people. 

" Without directly answering your question," he remarked, 
"I think I can tell you the best method of bringing any sub- 
ject to the attention of the Chinese people. From time im- 
memorial they have been lovers of learning. They reverence 
paper on which characters have been written. The literati 
are to them a race of beings only a little lower than the gods. 
Indeed, a large proportion of their gods are nothing more 
than deified men of learning, while Confucianism, their prin- 
cipal religious cult, is little other than the deification of genius. 
Education, then, is the principal avenue to the Chinese mind 
and heart at the present time. Not necessarily because it is 
the most important thing — perhaps it is not — but because it 
is the most important thing he knows about and loves. He 
knows the uses of, and loves, learning. He has made it the 
thing to be reverenced most of all throughout the empire. 
His greatest and best men from time immemorial have not 
been his priests, but his scholars. To unite the scholar with 
the priest is to make a combination which with but little diffi- 
culty will gain admission to his heart. But, until the priest 
and scholar are united, there is no hope of the establishment 
of a religious system which will supplant Confucianism, or 
which will have a permanent or lasting influence. Show them 
that your scholars know more than their scholars, that your 
knowledge is both more powerful and more useful than theirs, 
that your priests are both wiser and more pure than either 

1901.] Literature as an Element in Chinese .Reform. 583 

their priests or their scholars and you have admission to their 
mind, which is the corridor of their heart." 

"But," we interposed, "it is beyond the power of the 
Church to educate such a vast concourse of scholars." 

" Perhaps so," he answered ; " but that is the most certain 
road to the Chinese heart. This education need not neces- 
sarily be carried on in your schools. That is not the genius 
of the Chinese educational process. They have never had a 
school system. What they have always had are books and 
teachers, and the bulk of the expense of their education has 
been borne by themselves. "What is imperative upon you is 
to prepare the books. The Chinese, as I said, from the most 
remote times have been lovers of literature, and from before 
the time of Confucius until the present the literati have been 
the controlling element in the empire. A man eminent as a 
litterateur is looked upon with great respect, without regard 
to his orthodoxy, as is evidenced by the popularity of Mo tzu, 
Chuang tzu, Hsiin tzu, Yang tzu, Han Fei tzu, Hui !NTan tzu, 
Ts'ao Ta Ku, and a host of others ; and those periods which 
have been noted as literary periods are the most brilliant in 
Chinese history — such, for instance, as the latter part of the 
Chou, the Han, the T'ang, and the Sung dynasties. Ch'in 
Sluh-huang, one of the greatest warriors the world has ever 
known, is execrated as a tyrant ; Liu Pang and Li Shih-min 
are all but unknown ; while such literary heroes as Ssu-ma 
Kuang, Li T'ai-po, and Chu Hsi are looked up to as patterns 
by every schoolboy. . 

" If you would understand the influence that literature has 
upon the Chinese, study the introduction, growth, and devel- 
opment of the great religious movements that have taken 
place within the dominions of China, at the same time remem- 
bering that Confucianism is little more than the Four Books 
and Five Classics, together with what has been developed 
through the study of them. Take, for instance, the introduc- 
tion and growth of Buddhism, a system which has not much 
to recommend it, except that during the darkest of China's 
dark ages— the period from the Three Kingdoms to the T'ang 
—"it deluged China with a literature, most of which, it is true, 
w < k ro translations of books brought from India, some of which 


Methodist Review. 


were good, but most of them very indifferent, and this more- 
over at a time when the making of books was anything but 
an easy task. Introduced about A. D. 65, by the year 
400 the king was such an ardent disciple of the Buddhist 
faith as to call a council of eight hundred priests to assist in 
the translation of books, at which council he himself was pres- 
ent, while at least two of the princes helped to transcribe 
the work of the translators. In A. D. 451 a Buddhist 
temple was allowed in every city, with forty or fifty priests, 
and the emperor himself performed the tonsure for some of 
those who took the vows. In A. D. 467 the Prince of ^Vei 
constructed an image of Bnddha fifty feet high, in winch lie 
used five tons of brass and six hundredweight of gold, and 
five years afterward he resigned his throne and became a 
Buddhist monk. 

" At the beginning of the sixth century there were not less 
than three thousand Indians in China, while the temples had 
multiplied to the number of thirteen thousand, the prince him- 
self discoursing publicly on the sacred books. The first em- 
peror of the Liang three times assumed Buddhist vows, 
expounded the Sutras to his courtiers, and finally gave up his 
throne and entered a monastery at Nanking ; while by A. D. 
730 we are told that 2,278 different works had been 
translated by not less than one hundred and seventy-six dif- 
ferent translators. Such was the growth of Buddhism, it 
being due for the most part to the influence exerted by the 
importation into China of such a vast amount of new thought 
and literature, while it is supposed that the period of the 
T'ang poetry is due to the literary impetus given by the mak- 
ing of tonic dictionaries, the discovery of the four tones, and 
other 6tudy of the language done by the Buddhists in making 
these numerous translations. The thought which I wish to 
impress upon you is this, that the establishment of Buddhism 
was due largely to the fact that it prepared for itself a vast 
amount of literature, and in doing so it enriched China, not 
only by' the literature which it imported and the development 
it brought about, but also by the impetus which it gave to the 
Chinese in the revival of learning, the blossom of which is 
known as the period of the Tang Poetry. 

1901.1 Literature as an Element in Chinese Beform. 585 

"What I Lave said of Buddhism," Mr. Shu went on to 
say, "is likewise true of Catholicism. This, as you know, 
wa3 first introduced into China by John de Mento in A. D. 
1203, but was exterminated by the Ming dynasty a century 
Liter, and was not reintroduced until it was brought by 
Matthew Ricci in A. D. 1589, about three hundred years ago. 
It will be remembered that Father Ricci arrived in Peking 
Jauuary 1, 1601, and by the year 1636 he and his associate 
workers together with their Chinese converts had published 
no less than 1 three hundred and forty treatises, some of them 
religious, but most of them on natural philosophy and mathe- 
matics.' This bookmaking was kept up by Longobardi, 
Schall, Yerbiest, and their associates and successors, the last 
two being the most intimate advisers of the last emperors of 
the Ming and the first emperors of the present dynasty. It is 
not too much to say that the astronomy and mathematics of 
the Chinese were changed so materially as never to go back 
to their old theories, and because of this literary assistance, 
more perhaps than anything else, Catholicism was practically 
established throughout the empire, so that during the first 
fifteen years of the eighteenth century, * in the governor-gen- 
eralship of Kiangnan and Kiangsi alone there were one hun- 
dred churches and a hundred thousand converts. And the 
6urvey of the empire was carried on by the emperor's com- 
mand from 1708 to 1718, under the direction of the Jesuits, 
of whom Regis, Bouvet, and Jartoux were the most promi- 
nent members.' 

" When the missionaries were expelled under Yung Cheng 
we are told that 300,000 converts were deprived of teachers, 
and after the numbers because of persecution had been re- 
duced the missionaries are accused of conducting themselves 
with such ostentation as to be unable to reach the masses. 
The accusation is made by Father Ripa as follows: c The 
diffusion of our holy religion in these parts has been almost 
entirely owing to the catechists who are in the service, to 
other Christians, or to the distribution of Christian books in 
the Chinese language ' — while in 1SS1 we are told that they 
«*d 41 bishops, 661 European priests, 559 native priests, 
1>002,S1S converts, 31 colleges, and 31 convents. Allowing 


Methodist Review. 

for a large overestimate, or for many adherents who were 
weak disciples, we have still a goodly company for three hun- 
dred years' work. The Catholics in Peking are doing no 
small amount of bookmaking at the present time, and what 
they do they do well, putting their volumes up in a form and 
style which would do credit to any press. An examination of 
the catalogue of the Pei T'ang press will indicate the char- 
acter of the work they do. They have in it a list of not less 
than eighty-three books, most of which are for catechumens 
or others wishing to study the doctrines of the Church. The 
work done on their press, moreover, is vastly superior to that 
done on the presses of Tientsin or Shanghai." 

"May I ask if you belong to the Catholic Church, Mr. 
Shu?" we inquired. 

" I belong to no Church," he answered ; " I simply try to 
see things as they are. The Eoman Catholics and Buddhists 
began in the right way to make a success of the introduction 
of their systems into China, and had the former not become 
ambitious for temporal power whenever they beheld their 
efforts more or less crowned with success Catholicism would 
have been far more widespread than it is at the present time. 
Contrast with these two systems the introduction of Chris- 
tianity into China by the Nestorians. These probably came to 
China not later than A. D. 505, or during the period when 
Buddhism was making such monumental literary efforts and 
taking such rapid strides. So far as we know at present they 
have left no record of their presence in China other than the 
self-eulogistic tablet at Hsi-An-fu. To blot out Buddhism 
and Catholicism from China, one would have to destroy a 
large part of China's best literature and learning. For, while 
Buddhism cannot claim a single book which ranks with the 
sacred books of Confucianism and Taoism, she has insinuated 
herself into all the ramifications of Chinese life and literature. 
And, indeed, this Nestorian tablet contains a very compli- 
mentary reference to Buddhism in the description of how the 
priest I Ssu clothed the naked, fed the poor, attended on and 
restored the sick, and buried the dead. If he were a Bud- 
dhist priest, it is a very complimentary reference, and, if not. 
the mention of Buddhism in this connection is still an indicn- 

1001.3 Literature as an Element in Chinese Reform. 5S7 

tion that Buddhists were beyond all others in such benevo- 
lent work. To destroy Catholicism would throw Chinese 
astronomy and mathematics back where they were a thousand 
years ago. Nevertheless, Nestorianism has passed away with 
nothing but the epitaph on a single tombstone to tell of its 
existence. We are told by this inscription that 'the Scrip- 
tures were translated and churches built ; ' and this was done 
4 when the pure, bright, illustrious religion was introduced to 
our T'ang dynasty.' But if the Scriptures were so translated, 
and if other books for the instruction of the people were 
written, they have either all passed away or lie buried among 
the uninvestigated debris of Chinese literature. 

"We are not confined, however, to the Nestorian tablet 
for proof that Nestorianism was both widespread and influen- 
tial. This fact is abundantly testified to by early travelers, 
and especially by Sir John Mandeville, if his testimony is- 
reliable, and Marco Polo, of the general truth of whose testi- 
mony at the present time there is perhaps little reason for 
doubt. In addition to these we have various other testi- 
monies, chief among which is the general belief in the Chris- 
tian prince, Prester John, and his dominions, and in the 
record of Friar Odoric, of Pardenone, the story of whose 
travels in western India and northern China agrees in the 
main with the record of Sir John Mandeville. Neverthe- 
less, as we have just said, although the Nestorians were 
numerous during the Yuan dynasty, at the present time with 
the exception of the stone tablet not a trace of them is left. 
Such could not have been the case had they been as diligent 
as the Buddhists in the preparation of a good literature. 

"What I have said of the Nestorians may be said with 
e( l ua l emphasis about the Mohammedans. 'Very little ii 
known by the common people ' — says Doolittle — 1 about the 
Mohammedans and their worship and creed. The Mohammed- 
ans are exceedingly uncommunicative on subjects relating to 
themselves.' When their system was introduced into China, 
and how, it is difficult to say. It is attributed by Archdeacon 
Gray to Wos-kassm, a maternal uncle of the Prophet, between 
six and seven hundred years after Christ. Dr. Williams says 
*W as early as the T'ang dynasty the Mohammedan mission- 


Methodist Review. 


aries came to Canton and Hang-chou. The system was not 
introduced, however, merely at one place. It was carried by 
sea to the southern cities and by caravans of traders from 
central Asia to the northwest, west, and southwest provinces. 
It will thus be seen that the Mohammedans have been in 
China for not less than twelve or thirteen centuries. In all 
the border provinces they are numerous. Their customs in 
regard to pork, wine, and idols are very strict. They have -a 
school connected with almost all the large temples, for the 
study of the Koran in the native Arabic. But they seem not 
to have learned the influence of literature upon the minds of 
the people and its disintegrating power on Chinese life, and 
so they are practically without books for the instruction of 
the masses, and without a distinct literature as a representa- 
tive of the sect. Consequently they have made less progress 
as an integral factor in Chinese religious life in thirteen cen- 
turies than Buddhism did in five. It is not improbable that 
when the Xestorians were cut off from the mother Church 
by the rise of the Moslems and the conquests of the Mongols 
they gradually amalgamated themselves with the Mohammed- 
ans, since they had long since ceased to maintain the purity 
of their faith, as well as to circulate the Scriptures which we 
are told had been translated into the Chinese. 

" Protestantism began with literature. It would seem almost 
as if some mysterious Power was directing the pioneers of 
Protestant missions in this particular direction. First, they 
were shut out from preaching to the people, their efforts being 
directed toward the making of dictionaries and other books 
which would assist them in the translation of the Scriptures, 
and toward the compilation of books which would help the 
people to understand the Scriptures and give them some idea 
of the world as it existed outside of the Middle Kingdom. 
This, however, is only one form that literature took with 
Protestant missions and missionaries. And this was one 
great advantage which they had and still have over the 
Romish Church, which withholds the Scriptures from the 
common people. Let me recite to you some facts which are 
as familiar to me and to a large proportion of educated Chinese 
as they are to you. The various Bible societies wore among 

1901.3 Literature as an Element in Chinese Reform, 589 

the pioneers in taking up this work. ^Nevertheless, those who 
were engaged by the Bible societies did not confine themselves 
to this one line of work. It is not necessary to call attention 
to the success which the Society for the Distribution of Gen- 
eral and Christian Knowledge has had, and how, when the 
emperor, Kuang Hsu, turned his attention to foreign learn- 
ing, there was such a demand for its publications that it was 
unable to produce books fast enough to satisfy the demand. 
You are familiar with the recommendations made by the 
viceroy, Chang Chih-tung, in his famous book, China! s Only 
Hope, in which he advises that Chinese members of legations 
to foreign countries should study the languages of the coun- 
tries to which they are sent, and translate the best works of 
those countries into Chinese, and in which he commends the 
work done by some of the leading missionaries and others, 
urging that printers be encouraged to issue large editions of 
these works for general distribution throughout the empire. 
And, if you have been noticing, you will have observed that 
this book is advertised by yellow posters pasted upon walls, the 
game as foreign medicines, dentistry, and various other articles 
of less usefulness. 

" You are aware of the amount of pirating of foreign books 
that is going on in Shanghai. Books prepared by various 
writers have scarcely issued from the press before, by the pho- 
tographic process, they are reproduced by native shops in the 
city. Legge's Four Books may be had in a pirated form for 
an equivalent of $1.75, and the American Board has just 
taken the plates away from a firm of pirates who have been 
printing Williams's Syllabic Dictionary and selling it at a 
phenomenally low price. 

" All these things indicate the appetite the Chinese have 
for learning, and especially do they show the way in which 
the teachings of any system — the truths of Christianity, if you 
please — may be brought to them through literature. I need 
not call your attention to the work that is being done by the 
various tract societies, and the education that is being carried 
°n by them among the lower and middle classes ; nor need 
I remind you that in China the lower classes of to-day may 
h ( - the middle classes of to-morrow and the upper classes of 


Methodist Review. 

next week. Missionary societies do a wise thing when they 
transfer those missionaries who have literary ability to this 
particular work, relieving them from all other duties. I ven- 
ture to say that most of the missions all over China have had 
a common experience in this matter, namely, that persons 
come and apply for admission into the Church who were first 
led to take this step by the reading of Evidences of Chris- 
tianity or some other book of a like nature. All those who 
have the ability to make such books should do their utmost 
to produce as many of them as possible. 

" In addition to the various Bible societies, tract societies, 
and societies for the distribution of general and Christian 
knowledge, there are a number of individuals who issue their 
own works. There is an Educational Association which pub- 
lishes a large number of valuable scientific and other books. 
There are institutions of learning which issue publications 
used not only by themselves, but by other institutions as well. 
There are missions which issue books from their own presses, 
all of which help to swell the ranks of what may properly be 
termed Protestant Christian literature. 

" The style of literature, however, which is doing as much 
perhaps as any other to disintegrate the old order of things is 
that which goes under the name of poo — newspapers and 
magazines. They are new to the Chinese. Although this 
nation has had a newspaper longer than any other, it has not 
been issued for the use of the common people; nevertheless 
it has whetted their appetite for news to a keen edge, and so 
they read this style of literature with an avidity which they 
manifest for no other. These papers need no bookseller to 
handle them. They make their own weekly or monthly visit. 
They come to a larger number of homes and are read by a 
v larger number of people than any other one kind of books. 
They contain, moreover, the kind of food the people want — 
something light, something about the present time, the pres- 
ent condition of affairs. They point out to them the errors 
of the past, the prospects of the future, and advise them how 
to avoid the one and attain the other. They further contain 
variety, and are thus highly attractive to a great mass of peo- 
ple who have neither the time nor the ability to read long 

1901.] Literature as an Element in Chinese Reform. 591 

books. China is like a great mass of lime, and books are the 
water which is slaking this heap ; or, shall I say, which is- 
dropping on a vast amount of calcium carbide, thus generat- 
ing a g* 18 wmcn when lighted will illuminate the empire. 

44 The empress dowager may order the exclusion of all the 
new learning from the present examinations, but she cannot 
prevent its acquisition by the people. She cannot stop the 
disintegration of the old order of things and the old order of 
thoughts which is going on in the minds of hundreds of thou- 
sands of young scholars throughout the whole empire. They 
must keep quiet for the time being, but when this dowager 
has passed away, as she will by and by, and a new emperor 
comes upon the throne who sees or is forced to see the neces- 
sity of progress, he will find a host of young men grown old 
in the study of foreign things and ready to give him advice 
which it will be safe for him to follow in the development of 
the new empire." 

We could not but hold our breath a large part of the time 
while Mr. Shu was making this many-colored speech, partly 
because we did not want to break the thread of his thought, 
j^artly because of his surprising knowledge of China's religious 
literature and the way it had been created, and partly because 
of the fearless way he attacked the conservative party. "When 
he said " the new empire," we started with surprise, the fao 
of Chinese books slipped from under our forehead, and we 
awoke to find that Mr. Shu, who buttoned his blue coat under 
the arm with two bone pegs and looked like a composite 
Chinese, was nothing more than the fao of Chinese books on 
which our head had been resting and which had inspired this 
peculiar dream. 


Methodist Review. 



The closing decades of the nineteenth century witnessed 
the uprising of many and various classes of people each de- 
manding its " Rights," and nothing more sharply accentuates 
the era just finished than the leveling up and leveling down 
process by which slaves and serfs and unfortunates of even- 
class were brought upon substantially a common footing of 
industrial and social privilege with others. However wel- 
come and, in the main, wholesome this ferment may be, it is 
not without its regrettable incidents and real dangers. Among 
these may be mentioned the tendency to be more concerned 
with rights than with duties, more energetic in exacting legal 
and moral claims than in discharging the overdue obligations 
imposed by new conditions of enlargement and opportunity. 
It is probably true that our nation, well-nigh intoxicated by 
unexampled material prosperity, is in serious danger of for- 
getting Him " who giveth the power to get wealth/' The sad 
state of the pagan world, the piuching poverty and hunger of 
the great mass of idol worshipers, is rooted in moral rather 
than material causes. They are people who illustrate the de- 
scent of man from better conditions. " Because," says St. 
Paul, " that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as 
God, neither were thankful ; but became vain -in their imagi- 
nations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing 
themselves to be wise, they became fools. . . . For this 
cause God gave them up," etc. Since this darkeniug of the 
mind issues in those terrible conditions which we find practi- 
cally everywhere outside of our Christian civilization, how 
great the need to beware " lest the light that is in thee be dark- 
ness." One of the bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
recently, in ordaining a class of young men to the Christian 
ministry, said, " The great majority of mankind went to bod 
hungry last night, and will go to bed to-night again with 
their hunger still unsatisfied, and this condition has continued 
through the ages, and will continue until our Gospel has boon 
preached to all nations and to every creature." Christian 

1901.1 Shall Christianity Save a Fair Trial? 593 

missionaries have abundantly proven that the hunger of the 
great masses of the heathen people is founded in ignorance 
»nd inability to utilize natural resources all about them. 
The Rev. W. H. Hollister, of the Kolar Industrial Mission in 
i>outh India, has raised crops of wheat three to five times as 
Urge as the natives are able to produce by their defective 
methods of agriculture. It is easy to show that the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ means better and more abundant food for man- 
kind, better clothing, better homes, better education, a fuller 
life, and a larger hope. 

It is by no means clear, however, that the average man has 
pondered the twin relationship of spiritual and material good. 
He is inclined to grasp eagerly at the latter, while remaining 
stolidly indifferent, if not hostile, toward the former, at least 
a* represented by the creeds and confessions of the organized 
Churches. It is a curious but not unprecedented consequence 
of this attitude toward revealed religion that the Christian 
community is held sharply accountable for any existing laxity 
of morals, as well as the troubles of labor and capital and the 
continuance of war. The tyrant of old who demanded bricks 
without straw of the enslaved Israelites was not more unrea- 
sonable than many a man who is now discussing Christianity 
in a patronizing way or assuming the role of censor toward 
those who hold its essential tenets. Before committing them- 
selves to the notion that Christianity is a failure, men would 
do well to ponder the reply of Dr. George P. Fisher, " Chris- 
tianity has never been tried." It has been experimented with 
—in a small way. A few nations have tolerated it. No 
country has adopted it throughout in any lull and satisfactory 
*ense. A few people here and there have been " sanctified 
in 6pots," but the overwhelming majority of the human race 
never heard of Jesus Christ, while in countries nominally 
Christian, the unchristian sentiments and practices of the 
pvat majority practically nullify the statutes which accord 
Christianity a place among their institutions. Every church, 
er cn in the most favored communities, is like a sanitarium 
located in a vast swamp where miasmatic vapors obscure the 
•nil, and slimy, stagnant pools, filled with all manner of un- 
C&noj, living creatures, wait to engulf the convalescent who 

594 Methodist Review, [July, 

makes a single misstep. Even under such adverse conditions 
a few individuals may arrive at tolerable health and sound- 
ness, but may we fairly reckon on a large per cent of cures 
or justly discount the healing art for accomplishing so little 
amid such surroundings ? Moral sanitation is as much an 
essential of moral improvement as the physical sort is of 
normal bodily health. That men should be slow to grasp this 
important truth is not so much to be wondered at, when we 
recall the ignorance and perversity with which many people 
even now assail boards of health and those wholesome quaran- 
tine regulations whose value has been proven by scientin'e 
knowledge and large experience. The proposition may be a 
startling one, but sober truth must justify the affirmation that 
no nation on the globe is really trying Christianity or is 
according to the followers of Christ those rights and immu- 
nities which belong to them in a land where Christian princi- 
ples are acknowledged to be the basis of the common law. 
There is more concern in many quarters about the rights of 
negroes, workingmen, Indians, and Filipinos than about the 
interests, legal and moral, of that class whom Christ desig- 
nated as u the salt of the earth and the light of the world.'' 
If society were bent on destroying the savor of the salt and 
quenching the World's only light in utter darkness, present 
conditions might be well understood, but they are wholly in- 
explicable in the presence of a purpose to give Christianity— 
I do not say encouragement, but merely a fair trial. Doubt- 
less there are situations in which it is a weakness rather than 
a virtue in a Christian community to consent passively to 
further infraction of its constitutional and statutory rights. 
St. Paul took no personal advantage of the dilemma in which 
his persecutors at Philippi had placed themselves by their 
illegal and brutal treatment of himself and his companion ; 
but his assertion of his Boman citizenship on that occasion 
alarmed and humbled the men who had looked upon the fol- 
lowers of Christ as " sheep " in a sense never intended by the 

"Why are you leaving the church?" I asked of a railroad 
man who desired me to erase his name from the roll of mem- 
bership. "Because the railroad company compels me to W< 

1901.] Shall Christianity Have a Fair Trial? 595 

on Sunday, and no man can do that and be a Christian. I 
cWt know anything but railroading," he added, " and don't 
know any other way to keep my family." The man was one 
of a great and growing army of employees forced, against their 
desire originally, into a practical defiance of God's law of the 
Sabbath, until callousness usurps the place of conscientious 
temple, and the greed of the wage earner is only matched by 
that of the employer. The vast volume of Sunday traffic, 
crowded Sunday excursions by rail and steamer — wholly at 
variance with statute law in most of the States as well as with 
the higher law of God — attest the indifference of the general 
public as to even the continuance of Christian worship or the 
existence of Christian ideals among us. The state or nation 
which permits this shameless violation of the Sabbath may be 
coquetting with Christianity, but is not serious in its purpose 
to give it a fair trial — has not adopted Christianity as its rule 
of life, and is perpetrating gross outrages upon its best class 
of citizens by exposing them to this epidemic of permitted 
and encouraged immorality. 

One of the clearest rights of a Christian family in a land 
like this is the rearing of children without unnecessary danger 
from evil moral influences. This right is denied as really as 
was the claim of a negro slave to liberty through large sec- 
tions of the country in the ante-bellum days. And this is the 
more remarkable when we consider the increasing vigilance 
taken to guard the young against influences inimical to health. 
Children are warned nowadays by printed notices, and re- 
strained, if necessary, by officers of the law from entering 
homes where scarlet fever, diphtheria, etc., exist, yet in these 
very communities public authority not only does not post the 
faloon, the bawdy house, and the gambling hell, but actually 
sells permits to at least a portion of these corrupters of the 
young to prosecute their nefarious work. Children may not 
^alk the streets on the way to school or church without run- 
ning the gauntlet of these snares spread in the open day for 
their unwary feet. That some of the rising generation es- 
cape the worst ruin that these licensed and unlicensed de- 
stroyers can inflict, is as marvelous as that some of the 
Armenians escape the ferocity of the Turk. In the latter 

596 Methodist Review. [July, 

case, if many fall by the sword and fagot of the destroyer, 
there is at least a limit to his reach ; he cannot touch the 
higher nature nor quench the hope of the life immortal. Yet 
all about us in this splendid and opulent civilization of ours, 
as by a strange anachronism, lurks a survival of ancient or 
mediaeval savagery, blighting the bodies and souls of the in- 
nocent and the helpless, every hour of the day, and every day 
in the year. On every hand are broken, gray-headed fathers 
and pale-faced, weeping mothers, who asked only the privi- 
lege of rearing their children in respectability and honor. 
Yet society turned loose on those children a pack of greedy 
cormorants, in open denial of any right of Christian parents 
to surround their little ones with the well-known safeguards 
of a Christian civilization and to keep constantly before them 
the higher ideals of the Christian life. When Mr. Cudahay 
offered $25,000 to the abductors of his boy to restore the 
child every parental heart approved the action, while joiniug 
with all classes in the hope that summary justice might be 
meted out to the perpetrators of this bold and distressing 
crime. But suppose a legislature, State or national, should, in 
a fit of aberration, or for a u consideration," propose to issue 
licenses to the abductors of children ? Can anv imagination 
portray the eruption of fiery indignation which would over- 
whelm such a legislature, and in a single day compel the un- 
doing of its nefarious work ? That a similar burst of popular 
and public indignation has not long since overtaken the liquor 
traffic and related evils is the sufficient proof that society at 
large, if not essentially pagan at heart, is still unwilling to see 
its ancient gods dethroned and to commit itself to the higher 
standards of Christ and the Church. Can such a nation be 
called " Christian," or claim without hypocrisy to be accord- 
ing Christianity a fair trial ? 

Then, too, every human being struggling up out of evil 
conditions into a better life, like a wrecked mariner reaching 
the shore half dead, may surely ask of his fellow-beings active 
sympathy and real help in right living — general good example, 
an atmosphere impregnated with prayerful influence and tonic 
spiritual force. Yet, does society at large recognize anv obli- 
gation to take such a man to its heart, to safeguard him 

1901. J . Shall Christianity Have a Fair Trial t 597 

against spiritual enemies, to feed him with the bread of life, 
and build him up in righteousness ? That " there is joy in 
the presence of the angels of God over one sinner that repent- 
t«th," is one of the sweet and thrilling revelations of Jesus 
Christ, and that there i6 corresponding joy in a small circle 
00 earth is a well-attested fact. There are those who with 
outstretched hands and melting hearts and moistened eyes wel- 
come the returning prodigal, standing ready to do their utmost 
to make his reformation real and permanent. But will the 
general influence of society be helpful ? May he hope to find 
himself surrounded by praying men who live in daily illustra- 
tion of the life of faith on the Son of God ? May he hope to find 
instruction in things spiritual in the current books and multi- 
tudinous issues of the daily press, thick as autumnal leaves all 
about him? If he had turned Mohammedan and lived in a 
Mohammedan country, he would hear the voices of high 
officials daily calling him to prayer, and see the multitude fall- 
ing prostrate all about him, on the streets and in the market 
place ; but, being a Christian, shall he find the multitude help- 
ing him to learn the way of life after the Christian pattern ? 
lie may find it difficult, perhaps impossible, to secure even the 
most menial employment whereby to earn his daily bread, be- 
cause he believes in the law of the Sabbath and the right of 
Christian worship on God's holy day. Has this man any 
rights which society at large feels bound to respect ? 

One of the anomalies of our nineteenth century civilization 
h the persistency with which that small minority of the popu- 
lation known as the Christian element is held responsible for 
the condition of morals and the present-day continuance of 
hoary evils whose lurid trail of destruction runs through all 
the ages. One may easily account for the wild fulminations of 
the ignorant and embruited classes, on the principle which led 
tlie Emperor Nero of old to charge upon the Christians of his 
day unspeakable crimes, including the burning of the city of 
Home. For these alleged crimes Christians were torture J, 
thrown to wild beasts in the ampitheater, and otherwise mal- 
treated to the / death, as the chief attractive features of the 
prcat spectacular shows provided for the amusement of societ y. 
History is well aware that Nero burned the city himself, and 

598 Methodist Beview. [July, 

that no ink is black enough to write the vices of this inhuman 
monster. Yet why should the blind, unkempt pagan ferocity 
of the first century against the Christian community survive 
through the nineteenth, tempered only by the spirit of the 
age ? Why, for instance, should Frederick Harrison, in the 
closing issue of the North American JRevieiv for the century 
just expired, hold the Church responsible for war — the Eng- 
lish Church especially, for the war in South Africa ? The 
priests of that Church are, he declared, "a sort of black 
police that has to stand by the government right or wrong. . . . 
!No medicine man, no witch-finder in Central Africa would 
utter a more atrocious blasphemy than these men are guilty 
of" in their patriotic sermons and prayers. He questions 
whether " Christianity is a civilizing and moralizing force," 
whether it " prevents us as people from injustice and oppres- 
sion, and as men and women from the pride of life and the 
lusts of the flesh." One cannot help asking again, how Chris- 
tianity is to do its work on people who reject it. Can the 
medicine on the shelves of the apothecary cure the man who 
will not take it ? or abundant harvests stay the death of people 
bent on self-starvation ? The activities of the Churches are 
an offense to Mr. Harrison and his school of thinkers. The 
charities, reforms, missionary enterprises, and the quiet, godly 
lives of the many under their influence count for nothing; 
these all, including the noble volumes written in exposition and 
defense of present-day Christianity, especially Mr. Balfours 
Foundations of Belief, are parts of " a theological confidence 
trick." " What have the Churches done to purify and check 
all this \ " asks Mr. Harrison, after enumerating a list of present- 
day evils. But why not belabor free thought, agnosticism, 
and the various other " isms," which, together, make up the 
vast majority of mankind? none of them being hampered bv 
Christian dogma, and all as like to one another as peas in a pod 
in holding themselves aloof from every form of Christian 
effort. Are we to understand that only Christians are callous 
or impotent in the presence of the corrosive evils gnawing at 
the heart of our civilization ? 

. The stain of paganism surviving into the life and literature 
of our day is apparently as blind and impervious t<> fact and 

1001.] Shall Christianity Have a Fair Trial f 599 

as little capable of doing justice to Christianity as of yore. 
Our cultivated pagans have made little progress in one hun- 
dred years. Almost without change of a sentence one might 
apply to them, at the close of the nineteenth century, the 
strictures which Porson, Prescott, Milman, and others visited 
npon Gibbon for his wholly inadequate and notoriously unfair 
treatment of Christianity in The Decline and Fall, which 
appeared in the closing years of the eighteenth century. Of 
that great work Porson observes, after paying a high tribute 
to the intellectual ability and industry of the author, "He 
often makes, when he cannot readily find, occasion to insult 
onr religion, which he hates so cordially that he might seem to 
revenge some personal injury." Milman, in the preface to 
his edition of Gibbon, remarks : " Who would obscure one 
hue of that gorgeous coloring in which Gibbon has invested 
the dying forms of paganism, or darken one paragraph in his 
splendid view of the rise and progress of Mohammedanism ? 
But who would not have wished that the same equal justice 
had been done to Christianity? . . . Christianity alone re- 
ceives no embellishment from the magic of Gibbon's language ; 
his imagination is dead to its moral dignity, it is kept down 
by a general tone of jealous disparagement, or neutralized by 
a painfully elaborate exposition of its darker and degenerate 

"Who of our elegant agnostics at the opening of the new 
century is ready to acknowledge the substantial benefits which 
Christianity has wrought during the century just expired? 
Whence came the inspiration to liberate slaves and abolish 
serfdom, to minister to the poor of great cities in the present 
large and liberal way, to establish farm colonies and college 
settlements, rescue missions, homes for the aged, hospitals for 
the sick, etc. ? The Christian community is only a small element 
numerically of society as a whole, but count the number of in- 
stitutions devoted to higher learning which have come from 
the heart of the Christian Church, as well as those whose aim 
it is to give elementary education and manual training to wails 
and strays. Compare these with the organized efforts of our 
critics for the promotion of education, benevolence, and moral 
reform, and see if Christianity need blush for her record in 


Metho'dist Beview. 

these particulars? It would be interesting indeed to see a list 
of nineteenth century charities, education enterprises, and moral 
reforms originated and maintained by that school of thought 
which affects to deplore the inefficiency of the Christian 
Churches. When compelled in any way to take notice of the 
helpful Christian activities of the century, one may still dis- 
tinctly note the change of style of which Milman complains in 
Gibbon — from the warm, lofty, and glowing periods which 
portray the rise of Mohammedanism to the 44 frigid apathy,'* 
the bare, hard, patronizing, lack-luster description of the work 
and progress of Christianity in our day. One cannot help 
asking whether the paganism of the twentieth century — as- 
suming its survival — will be any more competent or willing to 
do justice to Christian effort and achievement than that of 
the century past? 

A still more important question is, Will it take a fair share 
of the much-needed work which Christianity is doing for the 
prevention of vice, the proper care of the sick, and the up- 
lifting of the submerged classes, either jointly with Christian 
workers or on independent lines ? If its scholars, its men of 
eloquence, its men of wealth will cease their useless wailin^s 
over the narrowness and inefficiency of the Christian Church, 
and gird themselves for real service by leading their fol- 
lowers into organized effort on educational and benevolent 
lines, what wonders of social and moral improvement may 
mark the twentieth century ! A Robert Ingersoll Memorial 
Hospital in each of the great cities will do more to commend 
agnosticism and free thought than' volumes of disquisition 
on the weaknesses of Christianity, especially, if, in such insti- 
tutions, the poor can have surgical treatment and skilled nurs- 
ing absolutely free, as in many of the hospitals founded by 
the Churches. Then such schools as the evangelist Moody 
founded at Northfield, for the education and manual training 
of the young who lack the care of parents and guardians — 
what a field of activity this for our brilliant agnostic*. 
Further, the work of temperance reform, the plague of the 
60cial evil, and the corruption of our young men, either with 
the connivance of city officials, or through their guilty indif- 
ference. It cannot be that moral and social health can eotne 

J901.3 Shall Christianity Have a Fair Trial? 601 

in the twentieth century while cancer planters operate for gain 
without let or hindrance on all classes of the population. In- 
stead of asking, as Mr. Harrison does concerning the little 
^roup of nominal Christians, " What have the Churches done 
to purify and check all this?" rather let him ask, "What 
has the great majority done, led on by the writers and lec- 
turers who agree at least in excoriating the Churches ? " The 
methods of Christianity may not be the best, and the results 
attained not wholly satisfactory, yet surely it has made some 
impression on the giant evils of the day. Not a few sots, 
wife beaters, and cruel fathers have been reclaimed, as missions 
of the Jerry McAuley type in every city of the land, and 
men restored to a lost manhood sitting comfortably in the 
midst of their happy families, bear testimony. It has also 
palsied the hand of many a conscienceless ward worker and 
rural magnate who took advantage of the public apathy to 
advance himself by granting immunity to the worst forms of 
vice. Movements of the kind instigated by Dr. Parkhurst 
and Bishop Potter have their counterparts, with less of noto- 
riety and public parade, in many a small town and country 
village from ocean to ocean, and substantial fruits have been 
reaped in this w T ay. It is noticeable, however, that the men 
who have organized and led these movements to victory have 
not been the agnostics, or other representatives of the 
great majority. 

Christianity has done something on its own particular lines, 
vet 6urely a new propaganda of civic and social righteousness 
is sorely needed. The harvest is great and the laborers are 
few. Will our cultured critic join us in a prayer to the Lord 
of the harvest, that " he will send forth more laborers into 
the harvest" ? This will mean that their eloquent lecturers 
•hall take the platform after the manner of John B. Gough 
&»d Father Matthew, and side by side with thousands of Gos- 
1*1 preachers and devoted women, who are slowly but surely 
molding public sentiment into an attitude of resistance to 
the wanton evils that prey upon our generation. It will mean, 
too, that sympathetic, hand-to-hand uplifting contact with sots 
a nd Manrdalens which Jesus illustrated, and which is practiced 
Uxlay in his name by the loving hearts and tender hands of 


Methodist Review. 


his professed followers, and in which work they stand prac- 
tically alone. I repeat, the lines of Christian effort may be 
faulty, but what surer way of securing the best methods can be 
devised than for those who affect to deplore the callousness or 
inefficiency of Christian people to take the held in person, and 
become the allies and tutors of the Churches in the sublime 
art of winning men to sobriety, industry, and the higher ideals 
of life ? If they will not join us in this confessedly much- 
needed work, ought they not in justice recognize the progress 
of the work, and now and then drop some word of encour- 
agement to the workers % 

What if the Christian element should become discouraged 
in the twentieth century — chilled by the cold north wind of 
ungenerous cynicism which has blown steadily upon it from 
infancy until now? This has happened before over large 
areas, and it may happen again. In that event, who will 
carry on the vast educational enterprises, the reforms, and the 
various works of charity and mercy which now stand to the 
credit of the Christian Church ? Can any one of the various 
schools of free thought, or all of them combined, be relied 
on for this service ? Such a suggestion, if the subject were 
not so serious, is well calculated to provoke a smile on the 
faces of men and women who, having given themselves to the 
service of their fellow-beings in a practical way, have had 
abundant opportunity to learn how little sympathy with this 
work is to be found among unbelievers in the Christian reli- 
gion. An elephant attempting to suckle and - rear a human 
baby would not present a more incongruous image to their 
minds. But should Christianity win in the twentieth century, 
despite its unpropitious environment — lack of moral sanitation, 
lack of just appreciation of its purposes and efforts, the bad 
example and covert or open opposition of many who should 
themselves be doing the work at which it aims — in that event, 
many of the sparkling lucubrations of the free thought of 
our day may become just as ridiculous as the coarse and blatant 
deism of the eighteenth century is now. Thomas Paine a 
loud boast, that he had gone through the forest of Christian 
ity and cut down every tree, and the famous prophecy of th<J 
greater Voltaire, that Christianity would be extinct in one 


1001J Shall Christianity Have a Fair Trial ? 603 

hundred years, make " interesting reading " at the close of the 
nineteenth century. Church membership has steadily ad- 
vanced upon the population in this country through all the 
century, while the Holy Scriptures, which one hundred years 
ago were circulated in fifty tongues, are now translated into 
four hundred languages and dialects, and the circulation goes 
forward steadily in all the four quarters of the globe. 

The century which has just dropped into the eternity behind 
us witnessed such growth of Christian organizations and such 
advance of Christian ideas as none other ever saw, and, to the 
eye of faith, the future is luminous with promise. It may be 
that Christianity will win in the twentieth century even with- 
out the fair chance for which we plead, and that free thought 
will undergo a change of heart. Otherwise it must die of 
shame for its inability to comprehend the higher ideals of 
life, and its refusal to give practical help in the work of the 
world's betterment. Said King Henry the Fourth to one of 
his tardy generals after a great victory — as quoted by William 
James in The Will to Believe — " Hang yourself, brave Crillon ! 
we fought at Arques, and you were not there." 


Methodist Iteview. 




Scarcely anyone can be found to-day who dares dogmat- 
ically declaim against the probability of a future life. This is 
the more remarkable as it is not twenty years since even some 
reverent students persuaded themselves that they could not 
discover the doctrine of immortality in the Old Testament. 
Though there have been no supplementary revelations, yet 
scholarly men to-day see the writings of Job, David, Isaiah, 
Daniel, Ezekiel, and Hosea scintillating with brilliant pro- 
phetic flashes of a life beyond. In this discussion it is my 
purpose to show, if possible, the relation of the world of 
thought to this oldest and most invaluable of all the gracious 
doctrines of the Holy Bible. Dr. Martineau wisely remarked, 
"Man does not believe in immortality because he has ever 
proved it, but he is ever trying to prove it because he cannot 
help believing it." If we shall be compelled on the threshold 
of the argument to confess that there has not been a scientific 
demonstration of a future life, we are reassured in our faith in 
immortality because physical science has been powerless to 
prove anything against it ; the opponents of a future life have 
gained nothing by any negative arguments. " No future event 
can be scientifically demonstrated," says Washington Gladden ; 
"the future, to the scientific man as well as to the reli- 
gious man, is the domain of faith, not knowledge." Is there 
any probability, however remote, of a future life ? When 
Bishop Butler startled the unbelief of a hundred and seventy 
yeare ago, by his colossal and invincible argument for immor- 
tality from analogy, he did not claim that his logic demon- 
strated a future life, but that it established a probability ; and 
that " if there is any probability, however little, for, and none 
against this view, this probability ought to be made our rule 
of action." As suggested by Professor Cooper of Rutircrs 
College, "in our daily life we are compelled to act on what in 
the main has the greater degree of probability, since there art 
but few matters pertaining to our action which afTord demon- 
strative proof. Here comes in the force of analogy." 

I901J 1 s Man Immortal t The Answer of Science. 605 

First, then, there is a strong probability of a future life 
because in the natural world annihilation is a myth. Your 
bouse burns down but no force is destroyed. By a slow 
process of growth the soil and rain and sunlight and atmos- 
phere are transformed into the tree which furnishes the build- 
ing material. Combustion simply releases these forces and 
they go to their original condition. There are transformations 
of energy, but the physical law of the persistency of force 
prevents destruction. So it was at a point in creation, out of 
materials then in existence, God made man's body, and out of 
Lis infinite resources fashioned man's soul. Death is com- 
bustion. The body, in death, returns to the earth from which 
it came, and the soul released flies out to the region of its 
nativity. !No diminution ! Iso annihilation ! Experimental 
psychologists are believing to-day that there is no reason to 
conclude that the mind dies when the body dies. They say : 
"The evolution of mind has built up mental aptitudes, and 
these aptitudes have built up a physical basis for them to rest 
upon. The rising scale of organic evolution has thus been 
due to the development of mind." It is the mind that is the 
man ; and mind is spirit and cannot die. 

Again, chaos and confusion precede order and symmetry. 
In the physical universe, from disorder and gloom, by meth- 
ods of development, have been marshaled the mighty hosts of 
suns, planets, satellites, animal and vegetable life, until all is 
capable of perfect classification ; also in the universe of 
thought. In their earlier periods principles were followed 
hke phantoms in the breaking dawn. To-day, astrology, with 
iu Pages and magi, has given away to astronomy, which, with 
inebriating fascination, handles the telescope and the spec- 
trum. Alchemy, with its witches and wizards and boiling 
caldron, has given up its homely chrysalis for the gay plum- 
*tfe of an indisputable science. So we look for order in the 
taaral government of the universe. Here is moral confusion ! 
Peaks of holiness rise higher, but canyons of vice grind 
deeper! What one holds dear, another defames ! The laws 
*'liich some obey, others deride. Here, the good sutler, the 
tad prosper. The Psalmist discriminatingly writes, " My 
tope had well-nigh slipped, when I saw the prosperity of the 


Methodist Review. 


wicked." Here, too, are many monstrosities which feed upon 
the pains and aches of their fellows. Order must come, but 
another world will be necessary ! Tears enough are wrung 
from broken hearts by evil influences to run the water wheel 
of immortality forever ! Another life will be required to cor- 
rect the irregularities of the rewards and punishments of this 
life. Creation is a colossal failure if there is no immortality. 
Better to have been a brute on the hillside than a man, if 
there be no life after this ! If the Bible doctrine is a myth, 
then life is a burlesque, integrity a burden, and conscience a 
curse ! Persuade all men that there is no life after this and 
the human family would be hurried to extinction by suicide ! 
In the future world virtue will be rewarded, and those who 
here have suffered for the right will be crowned by the Judge 
of all the earth, who can make no blunders ! 

Again, the superb consummation of all development and 
evolution is man. Is there not a strong probability that the 
Creator, after spending an eternity of time and an omnipotence 
of power on the preparation of the world for man's coming 
and the creation of man in the likeness of God, has more in 
store for man, this masterpiece of Infinite Genius, than a 
transitory career of a few suffering years, and then oblivion \ 
Let us inquire of some scientists what may be their conclu- 
sions concerning this extraordinary question. Professor Le 
Conte says : 

Nature, through all the whole geological history of the earth, was 
gestative mother of spirit, which after its long embryonic development 
came to birth and independent life and immortality in man. Is there 
any conceivable meaning in nature without this consummation ? All 
evolution has its beginning, its course, its end. Without spirit immor- 
tality this beautiful cosmos, which has been developing into increas 
beauty for so many millions of years, when its evolution has run ita 
course and all is over, would be precisely as if it had never been— w 
idle dream, an idiot tale signifying nothing. I repeat, without spirit 
immortality the cosmos has no meaning. 

It is no more than ten years since Professor Lc Conte thus 
boldly asserted his faith in immortality. His chivalric Mid 
logical argument has probably affected the scicntilic mind 
more than any other influence, and has given the DPObabi) 

1901.] Is Man Immortal? The Answer of Science. 607 

of a future existence a place in nearly all scientific treatises of 
the present. Dr. Lyman Abbott adopts the same argument 
and 6ays : " Immortality is not a demonstrated fact but it is a 
necessary anticipation. Without it all evolution would be 
meaningless. It is inconceivable that God should have spent 
all the ages in making a Gladstone, a Lincoln, a Jefferson, a 
Shakespeare, only that he might make a body with which to 
till a grave." In his little book, Through Nature to God, 
Professor J ohn Fiske reaffirms his well-known strong belief 
in a future world. He says : 

So far as our knowledge of nature goes the whole momentum of it 
carries us onward to the conclusion that the Unseen World, as the ob- 
jective term, in a relation of fundamental importance, that has coexisted 
with the whole career of mankind, has a real existence. The lesson of 
evolution is that through all these weary ages the Human Soul has not 
been cherishing in religion a delusive phantom, but it has been rising 
to the recognition of its essential kinship with the ever-living God. Of 
&11 the implications of the doctrine of evolution with regard to man, I 
W-lieve the very deepest and strongest to be that which asserts the ever- 
lasting reality of religion. 

This thought has been treated by nearly all recent writers on 
the subject of immortality, but by none more beautifully than 
by Dr. Gordon, when he says : " Man is nature's last and cost- 
liest work. Can it be that this last and finest product of 
nature, this result of intelligence and love, aimed at from the 
beginning and reached at a cost immeasurable, shall not be 
conserved in growing beauty and power forever? Physical 
evolution finds its goal in man, and the process that hereupon 
begins finds its end in the complete realization of his ethical 
and spiritual nature." Dr. Komanes was recognized by the 
scholars of Europe as a most versatile scientist, and his return 
to the fullest acceptance of the Christian faith, just before his 
unexpected death, accentuated his belief in a future life from 
the standpoint of a conscientious modern evolutionist. 

We have entered upon that era in the history of scientific 
research when there arc few antagonisms between science and 
^h'gion, and when the seekers for light are becoming pre- 
disposed to discern and reinforce mutually helpful truths. 
Science was never so reverential and religion never so Intel* 

608 Methodist Review, [Julv, 

lectual as in the studies of these eventful days. It augurs well 
for the growth of the truth when leading thinkers of the 
scientific school put themselves on record in words like these : 
" Bnt as for myself, having studied as earnestly as I could 
these momentous problems, I have become convinced that the 
final answer of science will but deepen, fortify, and exalt our 
human faith in God as an intelligent, self-conscious Being, in- 
finitely more tender and benign than our loftiest conceptions 
of human love ; and I trust it will strengthen and purify and 
elevate our human hope of immortality as continued individual 
existence." All science tells us to-day about the " arrest of 
the human body ; " and because the laws of development have 
produced a perfect body and thus closed one chapter of ad- 
vancement, the evolutionist looks with an enthusiastic antici- 
pation, that reminds us of the exuberant expectation of the 
exponent of Gospel truths, to the further perfecting which 
may be logically expected in man's spiritual nature. 

Again, there is a strong probability of future life because 
of a universal and instinctive longing for immortality. To 
live again is the hunger of the soul. As the babe instinc- 
tively takes nourishment at the mother's bosom, so men with- 
out instruction have reached out for a future life. Let us go 
back along the years and put our question, " If a man die, 
shall he live again ? " There is but one response. The Hin- 
du, the Chinese, the Persian, the Grecian, the Eoman, the 
Egyptian, the continental, the islander, the savage, the phi- 
losopher, all answer with a generous affirmative, more force- 
ful and insistent as they have been advanced and cultured. 
Socrates speaks for his age when he says : " I believe a future 
life is needed to avenge the wrongs of this present life. Those 
who have done their duty, in that future life shall find their 
chief delight in seeking after wisdom." Cicero speaks for 
his age : " Yes, O yes ! But if I err in believing that the soul 
of man is immortal, I willingly err ; and if after death I shall 
feel nothing, as some philosophers think, I am not afraid that 
some dead philosopher shall laugh at me for my mistake." 
Man's soul is in exile. Like the homing pigeon, when he ifl 
released, man flies back to God. The race is homeeiok. M*B 
is not forever satisfied with humanity; divinity is planted 

1901.1 Is Man Immortal ? The Answer of Science. 609 

within him. With Yictor Hugo and every true man, the nearer 
he approaches the end, the plainer he hears around him the 
irmphonies of the world which invites him. Man knows 
death does not end all, because when he approaches the grave 
he feels, with Hugo, that he has not said the thousandth part 
of what there is in him. Is not immortality a first principle ? 
Romanes said that all first principles are known by intuition. 
The soul intuitively reaches for life, and the God who gives 
man this reach will see to it that it comes to his grasp. Eryant 
believed that God would be as good to the man as he was to 
the bird of whom he sang : 

He who from zone to zone 

Guides through the boundless sky thy certain flight, 
In the long way that I must tread alone 

Will lead my steps aright. 

This instinctive expectation led Franklin to write as his 
epitaph, " The body of Benjamin Franklin, like the cover of 
in old book, its contents torn out, and stripped of its leather 
and gilding, lies here food for worms ; yet the work itself 
thall not be lost, for it will, as he believes, appear once more 
in a new and more beautiful edition, corrected and amended 
by the Author." It inspired Addison to say : 

It must be so, Plato, thou reasonest well, 

Else why this pleasing hope, this fond desire, 

This longing after immortality. 

'Tis the divinity that stirs within us, 

*Tis heaven itself that points out an hereafter 

And intimates eternity to man ; 

and George Eliot to breathe the prayer : 

may I join the choir invisible 
Of those immortal dead, who live again 
In minds made better by their presence ; live 
In pulses stirred to generosity, 
In deeds of daring rectitude, in scorn 
For miserable aims that end with self, 
In thoughts sublime that pierce the night like stars, 
And with their mild persistence urge man's search 
To vaster issues ; 

*ad the dear Quaker Whittier to utter these trustful words : 

And so beside the silent sea 
I wait the muflled oar ; 



Methodist Review, 


No harm from Him can come to me 
On ocean or on shore. 

I know not where his islands lift 

Their fronded palms in air, 
I only know I cannot drift 

Beyond his lore and care. 

And thou, God ! by whom are seen 

Thy creatures as they be, 
Forgive me if too close I lean 

My human heart on thee. 

Nor are we surprised when the superb soul who could say, 
" One law, one element, and one far-off divine event, to which 
the whole creation moves ; " and who could pen immortal lines 
that smooth the path from the infinite heights down to man's 
ignoble nature, comes to the sunset edge of life, he should 
summon his waning strength and sweetly sing : 

Sunset and evening star, 

And one clear call for me ; 
And may there be no moaning of the bar, 

When I put out to sea ; 
But such a tide as moving seems asleep 

Too full for sound and foam, 
When that which drew from out the boundless deep, 
Turns again home ! 

Twilight and evening bell, 

And after that the dark; 
And may there be no sadness of farewell 

When I embark ; 
For though from out our bourne of time and place 

The flood may bear me far, 
I hope to see my Pilot face to face, 

When I have crossed the bar. 

True love also insists upon a future life. David Hume used 
to say that he believed in immortality when he thought of his 


Notes and Discussions. 




Jesus scathingly rebuked the scribes and Pharisees for their 
unwarranted exactions and impositions, for teaching as doc- 
trines the commandments of men, and for laying on men's 
iJioulders heavy burdens grievous to be borne. This tyrran- 
izing unwisdom has not ceased its irritating operations. Wher- 
ever nonessentials of belief or conduct are insisted on as if 
they were essentials, moral and mental confusions ensue; mis- 
understandings, resistance, and conflict are inevitable. Richard 
Baxter long ago wrote the following wrise w r ords, whose wisdom 
has to-day even a wider applicability than to the matters referred 
to in his particular statement: 

Two things have set the Church on fire and been the plagues of it above one 
thousand years: 1. Enlarging our creed, and making more fundamentals than God 
ever made. 2. Composing, and' so imposing, our creeds and confessions in our own 
vords and phrases. "When men have learned more manners and humility than 
to accuse God's language as too general and obscure, as if they could mend it, and 
have more dread of God, and compassion on themselves, than to make those to be 
fundamentals or certainties which God never made so; and when they reduce their 
confessions, (1) to their due extent, and (2) to Scripture phrase, that dissenters 
may not scruple subscribing, then, and, I think never till then, shall the Church 
have peace about doctrinals. It seems to me no heinous Socinian notion which 
Chillingworth is blamed for, namely, Let all men believe the Scripture, and that 
otily, and endeavor to believe it in its true sense, and promise this, and require no 
more of others ; and they shall find this not only better, but the only means to 
•oppress heresy and restore unity. 


Now that the carefully appointed Committee of Nine are 
wrestling with the extremely difficult problem, how to give us 
» smaller Hymnal and yet a better one — increasing the value 
W diminishing the price, making room for many new pieces 
a "d yet leaving out none of the truly excellent among the old 
—and are appealing somewhat widely both in private and in 
public for helpful suggestions that shall make their cornpleh d 
w ork the conspicuous success which we expect it to be, it Menu 


Methodist Beview. 


in order to call attention to the riches we have in the Hymnal 
so soon to be superseded, and also to say a few words concern- 
ing the importance of the right use of hymns for the promotion 
of the spiritual life. 

Not all Methodists, we fear, know what a treasure they have 
in the book which for nearly a generation has ministered so 
effectively to their public worship and private devotion. We' 
are disposed to think that it has no superior, among similar col- 
lections, for genuine merit and close adaptation to its purposes. 
And we are fortified in this opinion, which might otherwise be 
set down to a somewhat pardonable bias in favor of that made 
familiar by daily use and associated with denominational pre- 
possessions, by two facts strongly confirmatory of our judgment. 
Drs. Philip Schaff and Arthur Gilman, compiling in 1S80 their 
Library of Religious Poetry, a book of one thousand octavo 
pages, which they call " a collection of the best poems of all 
ages and tongues," unconsciously paid a high compliment to 
our Hymnal by including more than half its contents in their 
book. Dr. James Freeman Clarke, so long a leading Unitarian 
preacher of Boston, and no mean authority in literary matters, 
in his Lowell Institute lectures for 1880, says: 

The Wesleyan hymns I am inclined to put at the head of literature of hymnol- 
ogy. For depth of conviction, truth of sentiment, spontaneous flow, they are no- 
where surpassed and rarely equaled. The hymns of Watts have a stately march ; 
those of Doddridge flow out calmly and solemnly from a deep source ; the hymns 
of Montgomery have a poetic charm ; Faber's are like the notes of a lark out of 
the depth of the sky ; such hymns as those of Heber, Bowring, Pierpont, are 
typical of high culture filled with religious life ; but for the union of love and 
light, spiritual insight and poetic freedom, there is nothing to compare with the 
best hymns of Charles Wesley, which spring pure and transparent, like some divine 
water, out of the ground of Methodist experience. 

Our present Hymnal, ordered by the General Conference of 
1876, succeeded the one prepared in 1848, as that in turn had 
superseded the one authorized in 1820, which was itself con- 
sidered fourth in the official series, so far as the Methodist 
Episcopal Church is concerned. The Wesleys themselves, it is 
well known, set the musical ball rolling, so to speak, in the very 
beginning of the great movement called Methodism — clearly 
perceiving the vital importance of getting the truth Bung by the 
people as well as listened to from the mouths of the preachers 
— and it has rolled on with ever-increasing volume ami momen- 
tum from that day to the present; so that we inherit the ripe 


Notes and Discussions. 


re sults of the labors of large numbers of the most pious and 
gifted minds. The edition of 1820, including the supplement 
prepared by Dr. Bangs and added in 1836, contained 697 
hymns in all, and had very little in it except the compositions 
of the Wesleys. The 1848 book contained even more of Wes- 
leys' hymns (564 of Charles's and 37 of John's), but room was 
found for selections from 123 other authors by making the total 
number 1,148. The editors of 1876 yielded to the broader spirit 
of the day by greatly enlarging the list of authors culled from, 
making it 336, of whom 196 supplied only one hymn each. Of 
Charles Wesley's hymns 256 were dropped, leaving 308, and of 
John's 6, leaving 31. With two hymns from Samuel Wesley, 
father of the brothers, and two from Samuel, Jr., this makes a 
total from the family of 343 out of 1,117. It is wholly safe to 
predict that there will be in the forthcoming volume a still 
further excision of this class of hymns, many scores that are not 
really up to the mark being removed to make room for larger 
selections from the immense wealth of modern and ancient 
hymnology outside our own denominational bounds. The truths 
for which we have so strongly stood have now made their way 
*o widely and have become incorporated so commonly in the 
writings of those not following our banner that there is the 
less need for us to be exclusive or narrowly restricted in our 
range. Charles Wesley's preeminence above any other one 
writer, both in our Hymnal and in the general estimate of the 
more competent judges, is not at all likely to be overthrown, 
hut we may freely concede that it is not granted to any one 
writer, however marvelously gifted, to produce a very large 
number of really first-class hymns, and the best effect is ob- 
tained by a wide comprehension of varied endowments. It is 
very interesting and instructive to note how wide is the range 
of Church affiliation among the 336 authors contributing to our 
present hymnal. No less than fifteen Unitarians and as many 
Koman Catholics have a share in the volume. A good many 
hymns' are taken from the Roman Breviary — that is from the 
Grayer Book of the Roman Catholic Church. The translation of 
» Latin hymn by Gregory the Great, Pope of Rome in the 
tixth century, is incorporated in our Discipline and made part 
of the ordination service for elders. We sing hymns by popes, 
cardinals, bishops, abbots, priests, and monks; hymns by kinirs, 
Viceroys, generals, lawyers, doctors, and business men; hymr.s 

614: Methodist Beview. EJiily, 

by Congregation alists, Baptists, Episcopalians, Lutherans, Mo- 
ravians, and Quakers. Not a jar nor touch of strife mars the 
delightful harmony. There is a very signal agreement of Chris- 
tian hearts in the midst of the disagreement of their minds. It 
is surely a foretaste of heaven, where the ransomed hosts shall 
come up from all ages, all nations, and all beliefs, and unite to 
chant the high praises of God around the throne. " Ten thou- 
sand thousand are their tongues, but all their joys are one." 
" Names and sects and parties fall, but thou, O Christ, art all in 
all." This blessed unity and catholicity is exceedingly refresh- 
ing and unspeakably soothing to the soul wearied with the dis- 
cordant notes of wrangling theologies. A glance at any of the 
larger Hymnals proves unmistakably that in every communion 
multitudes of true Christians, trusting in the one great name of 
Jesus, though they may spell or pronounce it differently, are 
on their way to the one sweet heaven which he has prepared 
for those in every land and of every name that truly love him. 

A few years ago a London periodical invited its readers to 
send in lists containing what in their judgment were the best 
one hundred hymns in the English language. A prize was 
offered for the list that should most nearly correspond with the 
general verdict. More than 3,400 lists were received. These 
lists revealed some interesting facts, among others that the 
most popular hymns are those which have the most to say of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Toplady's " Rock of ages " received 
3,215 votes. The second in point of popularity was Lyte's 
"Abide with me;" the third, Wesley's "Jesus, Lover of my 
soul." The last hymn upon the list, Cowper's " Sometimes a 
light surprises," had 886 votes. The list contains hymns from 
fifty-five different authors, headed by Wesley and Watts, who 
each contribute seven. " When I survey the wondrous cross " 
stands first among those by Watts. Cowper and Bonar have 
each five; Heber and Neale four each; three are given severally 
from Tate and Brady, from Doddridge, from Montgomery, 
from Faber, and from Charlotte Elliott. A large number of 
authors are represented on the list by one hymn only. The 
chosen version of the twenty-third Psalm is that of Sir Homy 
Baker, "The King of Love my Shepherd is," composed only in 
1868, but widely popular both in England and America. 

Rich as are the standard Hymnals of the great Churches, lie 
who wishes to get the greatest amount of help for his own |><>r- 

Notts and Discussions. 


poo*] growth must not confine himself to these. There are a 
pn-at many collections of religious poems suitable for devotion 
betides those appointed to be read in the churches. Indeed a 
Up^c part of those that touch the individual heart the closest 
are for that very reason less adapted to the general congrega- 
tion, and can scarcely be set to music. The periodicals and 
ja}>crs also publish from time to time fugitive pieces that often 
strike happily a chord with wide vibrations, or sympathetically 
express just the mood in which we find ourselves at the moment 
of reading. It is a good plan to form books of such extracts, 
each for himself, culling here and there from standard authors 
or occasional writers just the lines that best meet the individual 
need. Such a book may be a source of strength and consola- 
tion in many an hour of trial. Some of those most eminent in 
piety, John Fletcher for one, have done this, and commend the 
practice to our imitation. 

Among modern poets who have been able to minister to large 
numbers in things of the soul, and whose works are best worthy 
of a place near the Bible, there are few if any to equal Frederick 
William Faber and Frances Ridley Havergal. The former 
especially well deserves to be called the poet of the spiritual life. 
He was at once a poet of high rank and a saint of the most 
genuine sort. There is in his verse a flavor quite distinct from 
all others. It has a peculiar sweetness and tenderness of senti- 
ment joined with marvelous smoothness of flow. Its melody 
lingers in the ear and captivates the mind, while its profound 
spiritual truth stirs the soul. There seems to be in his poems 
what one might call an odor of Saint John. There is a close 
intimacy, a familiar acquaintance, a freedom with God, that 
reminds us of the disciple that leaned on Jesus's breast. They 
who greatly admire the rugged strength and grandeur of 
Luther's lyrics, or the sedate solidity and biblical exactness of 
Watts's hymns, will not be so likely to fall in love with Faber. 
Hut they whose favorite book of Scripture is the Gospel or the 
epistle of John will find delicious food in these lovely lines. 
They abound in sentences that are sermons. AVhole treatises 
are compressed into single words. Thoughts are suggested, 
affections are kindled x and desires stimulated in a way seldom 
surpassed. All who wish to become acquainted with the 
deepest, sweetest things in the Christian life, and wish to have 
KMnetiling by them through which tin y can at any time test 


Methodist Review. 


their attainments, cannot do better than to commit to memory 
Faber's most heavenly hymn, beginning " I worship thee, sweet 
will of God." It contains lessons as to close walking with God 
and full fidelity to him, lessons as to the gain of loss, the blessed- 
ness of self-sacrifice, the destruction of disappointment, the joy 
of absolute acquiescence, the power of weakness when it trusts, 
the privileges of complete partnership with the Almighty, the 
secret of true freedom, the possibilities of devout obedience, 
that, properly conned, will inevitably transfigure the soul. In 
wealth of thought, beauty of expression, and felicitous descrip- 
tion of the glory of union with the Lord, it leaves nothing to 
be desired. Thrice blessed he who ponders well its meaning, 
adopts its lofty ideals, and presses rapidly on toward its com- 
plete realization. 

Miss Havergal, whose rich experience has become well known 
to the general Church, and who has laid that Church under 
deep obligation by her little books of Scripture meditation, will 
doubtless be remembered longest by her hymns. Those hymns, 
written from her heart, have reached other hearts in large num- 
bers. Taught by manifold tribulations, through all of which 
she grew strong, never faltering in her allegiance, she became 
able to strike with a firm hand notes that loftily ring and widely 
echo. What multitudes have profited by her deep hymn of 
dedication, "Take my life, and let it be consecrated, Lord, to 
thee." What hosts have sung, and will sing for many years to 
come, " I know I love thee better, Lord, than any earthly joy." 
Her " Secret of a happy day " has thrown light on the pathway 
of multitudes. And from hundreds of thousands of throats has 
triumphantly sounded forth her 

True-hearted, whole-hearted, faithful aud loyal, 
King of our live3, by thy grace we will be. 

If we were asked to select two stanzas that should express the 
very essence of consecration, and that might be repeated with 
great benefit an indefinite number of times, we should choose 
two from her pen — first this : 

In full and glad surrender we give ourselves to thee, 

Thine utterly, and only, and evermore to be ! 

Son of God, who lovest us, we will be thine alone, 

And all we are and all we have shall henceforth be thine own t 

and next this : 


Notes and Discussions. 


Only for Jesus ! Lord, keep it forever 

Sealed on the heart and engraved on the life ! 

Pulse of all gladness, and nerve of endeavor, 
Secret of rest and the strength of our strife. 

The treasures of hymnology are practically inexhaustible. Ad- 
ditions are made to them all the time. Doubtless some of the. 
best are yet to come. Wise is he who gives much time to the 
exploration of this interesting country, the cultivation of this 
fruitful field, the utilization of this useful means of grace. He 
** shall mount up with wings as eagles," he "shall run, and not 
be weary," he " shall walk, and not faint." For a hymn is a 
wing by which the soul soars above earthly cares and toils into 
a purer air and a clearer sunshine. And when the hymn is 
married to such melody as is its fitting mate we have two wings 
with which to speed our flight toward the heavens. Naught 
can better scatter the devils of melancholy and gloom, of doubt 
and fear. Praise predominates in the hymns that are dearest to 
the Christian heart, praise and prayer. Both these sentiments 
are greatly intensified by being wedded to music. When they 
have passed through some poet's passionate soul, and he has 
fixed them in a form of expression where beauty is united to 
strength, then these sentences, at once concentrated and orna- 
mented, meet the deep needs of great numbers. They bring out 
into clearness what before was vague, only half felt because un- 
expressed. Our feelings are not only poured forth through them, 
but greatly stimulated by them, and so we gain a double benefit. 

The attitude of praise is a victorious one in the Christian 
life, because it implies faith and trust, hope and love. The 
unbelieving and desponding heart never sings. They only 
whose spiritual vision pierces the dark and perceives the Almighty 
Father sitting serene above the storm can burst forth with paeans 
of anticipative triumph. And no one can question but what the 
outward act helps to produce the inward feeling. Songs on the 
lips tend to work their way down into the soul. Emotion grows 
as it gains utterance. We cannot afford to omit this powerful 
ally in overcoming depressive influences. Even if at first the 
words have to be somewhat forced, and a strong effort of will is 
needed to make them flow, the cheerful sounds will soon react 
upon the desponding spirit and drive away the demon of sad- 
ness. When we have sung through certain ringing stanzas, 
iuch as 

618 Methodist Review. [July, 

God is my strong salvation, 
What foe have I to fear ? 

and many others that might be mentioned, we shall be in a 
different frame of mind. There is no better antidote to " the 
blues than a hearty Hallelujah, and if the paean of our praise 
be prolonged through half a dozen verses it will be all the more 
likely to make a deep and lasting impression. 

Vagabondia is an unmapped region, never caught in the net 
of latitude and longitude, lying between here and Arcadia, bor- 
dering Bohemia on one side and Philistia on the other — though 
without boundary lines, for the god Terminus never visited that 
land, where, in fact, the worship of any Divinity of Order is 
prohibited by law. Its most settled population consists of peo- 
ple who are like gypsies, of whom 

Somebody says they have come from the moon, 

Seen with their eyes Eldorado, 

Sat in the Bo-tree's shadow. 

Wandered at noon 

In the valleys of Van, 

Tented in Lebanon, tarried in Ophir, 

Last year in Tartary piped for the Khan. 

A wild desire to visit Vagabondia — a fever of unrest which 
the Germans name wanderlust — sometimes seizes even reputable 
earthlings. What the tourists through that region are not is 
easier to say than what they are. They are not, for example, 
logicians; for sweet unreason is their only rationale. They are 
not moralists; for their sense of responsibility frequently aban- 
dons them and goes straying off by the road of By-and-By 
which leads to the town of Never. They are not mathemati- 
cians ; for their path has no equation, their curves would give 
geometry the vertigo, and they are gyrating through a region 
where two plus two cannot be depended on to make four, where 
asymptotes shun the curves with unconcealed aversion, and 
tangents coldly refuse to kiss the circle. Yet very respectable 

» Songs from Vagabondia. By Bliss Carman and Kichard Hovky. Designs 
by Tom B. Mf.teyakd. 16mo, pp. 55. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co. Price, 
boards, ornamental, $1. 

More Songs from Vagahondia. Same authors, aud dcsiguer. 16mo, pp. 72. Saint* 
publishers, style, and price. 

Last Songs from l'a>./(il>onrlia. Same authors and designer. l('un>. pp. Svi- 
publishers, style, aud priee. 


Notes and Discussions. 


persons are reported to Lave been seen in Vagabondia, though 
in such strange disguise that no observer would suspect that, 
when housed at home in the serious and sedulous service 
of life, they are men of many dignities and degrees — possibly 
bishops, jurists, purists, sages, or saints. The region here spoken 
of is not the abode of professional idlers or other worthless per- 
sons. On its road house registers one does not find the name of 
dapper and dainty Sir Ringlets, who dotes on his wardrobe, 
and lives on to-morrow's labor and overdraws his account ; but 
the autographs of brainy and strenuous toilers vacationing with 
wild Nature, indulging, for the nonce, like the Howadji in 
Syria, in "that fair forgetfulness of yesterday and to-morrow 
which is the golden garland of to-day ; " men who, from anti- 
septic sunbaths and copious draughts of mountain oxygen, are 
getting red blood, steady nerves, rude health, wild appetite, 
rampant, vehement, resonant power, with which to serve Him 
who said, " My Father worketh hitherto, and I work; " men who 
have broken away from indoor duties and desk-bound tasks, 
and, with an envious thought of Nebuchadnezzar, said : 

I will go out to grass with that old King, 

For I am weary of clothes and cooks. 

I long to lie along the banks of brooks, 
And watch the boughs above me sway and swing. 

Let me t aste the old immortal 

Indolence of life once more ; 
Not recalling nor foreseeing, 
Let the great slow joys of being 

Well my heart through as of yore 

men who suddenly remember in the midst of their work that 
the Lord of the world keeps open house out-of-doors for 

The vagabondish sons of God 

"Who know the byways and the flowers ; 

"Who idle down the traffic lauds, 

And loiter through the woods with Spring ; 

To whom the glory of the earth 

Is but to hear a bluebird sing. 

From Vagabondia came, in 1S94, So?igs from Vagabondia, 
bound in light lavender boards and running to live editions ; in 
189G, More JSongSy bound in ecru, the color of a yellow-ripe 
wheat field, selling three editions ; and in 1!)00, Last Songt, in 
dark-brown cover like sere November oak Leaves, of which last 
book The Nation says it "closes the rather prolonged period of 
juvenility in its authors the successive booklets symbolizing 


Methodist Review. 

by their sombering covers the shading seasons of advancing life. 
The singers of these songs from Vagabondia are Richard Hovey 
and Bliss Carman — the latter of whom must have most credit for 
them — each of whom separately published six other volumes of 
verse, while conjointly they issue these three thin little books; 
in the first and last of which the authorship of each poem is in- 
dicated by the initials attached, whereas in More Songs the higher 
critics are left to guess out the author of each piece by applying 
their keen intuitions to its internal evidences. The differences 
in style, point of view, degree of culture, and type of mind in 
the poems of the ecru book would force the critics to assume at 
least a dozen collaborators in order to account for the work of 
these two men. One higher- critical guess which we will venture 
is that it is Bliss Carman who sings over "A copy of Brown- 
ing" seventeen verses, of which these are the last: 

Through all the seasons, Since first I sought you, 

You gave us reasons Found you and bought you, 

For splendid treasons Hugged you and brought you 

To doubt and fear ; Home from Cornhill ; 

Bade no foot falter, While some upbraid you, 

Though weaklings palter, And some parade you, 

And friendships alter Nine years have made you 

From year to year. My master still. 

We venture again that it is the same ecstatic vagrant who 
sings " A Vagabond Song : " 

There is something in the autumn that is native to my blood — 
Touch of manner, hint of mood ; 
And my heart is like a rhyme, 

With the yellow and the purple and the crimson keeping time. 

The scarlet of the maples can shake me like the cry 

Of bugles going by ; 

And my lonely spirit thrills 

To see the frosty asters like a smoke upon the hills. 

There is something in October sets the gypsy blood astir ; 

We must rise and follow her, 

When from every hill of flame 

8he calls and calls each vagabond by name. 

And we will forever resign all claim to higher-critical instinct 
if it is not the soul of Bliss Carman which was stirred to tail 
rapture : 

Over the shoulders and slopes of the duno 
I saw the white daisies go down to tho left, 

A ho.-t in the sunshine, an army in June, 
The people God sends us to sot our heeitfl tree. 

Notes and Discissions. 


The bobolinks rallied them np from the dell, 
The orioles whistled them out of the wood ; 

And all of their singing was, " Earth, it is well I " 
And all of their dancing was, " Life, thou art good 1 " 

Vor is there any difficulty in telling who wrote "In the 
Workshop," in which we 6ee the Maker at work fashioning 
pen. He made one with a loyal heart; and that was a lover. 
He made another with a roving eye ; and that was a vagrant. 
He made a third with a loyal heart and a roving eye, mixture of 
lover and vagrant; and that was a poet — whoni, we conjecture, 
the Maker named Bliss Carman, the true laureate of Vagabon- 
the bard of odd fancy, racy nature, sportive spirit, original 
wind, gypsy heart, and daring expression. 

These tramping troubadours, Hovey and Carman, are two 
frauk, hearty fellows, who have faced all weathers, and the 
cheer of whose gay comradery rings in Hovey's " Song at the 

With a steady swing and open brows 

We have tramped the ways together ; 

We have met our loss with a smile and a song, 

And our gains with a wink and a whistle. 

They are men of the vision and the dream, and 4 also of eager 
Itrong endeavor. To imagine, aspire, and realize is life's pro- 
cessional for them. Roaniinp- the world bv its most enchanting: 
ways, their hearth the earth, their roof the azure dome, they 
cherish the high, wholesome, and stimulating faith that " it is 
better farther on," and seek to hit the happy trail and find a 
road to Arcady. Their visionary yet urgent aspiration is sus- 
tained even in their last poem, "The Adventurers," written by 
the two together, in which they describe, it would seem, them- 
K-lves as soldiers of fortune, flying no man's flag, but beating 
the drum at the crossroads to summon all who will march to 
" conquer the golden hill-lands of Desire, the Nicaraguas of the 

These three blithe, buoyant books of tcanderlied, with their 
hundred and thirty-eight poems, persuade us that Vagabondia is 
a * full of song as the summer woods is of bird-warble at four 
clock in the inonrng; and in their pages almost every mood has 
v oiec except the sickly, the sagging, and the plaintive. Their con- 
tents range from landscape balladry and recursions of Arthurian 
finance to rollicking roundelays, the mischief-play of " The 
Sceptics,* 1 such fro ward reactions of a truant temper as the 

622 Methodist Review. [Jnly, 

grewsome " Hearse-horse n and u Night-washers," and " A 
Grotesque " which makes us easily believe these poets when 
they say, " Our Gothic minds have gargoyle fancies." 

No common vagrants these, but the Knights Templars of the 
rover-breed, claiming as brothers of their blood that gallant 
prince of valiant vagabonds, Louis Stevenson, wayfaring round 
the world from Saranac to Samoa, and, as well, the man who 
wrote The Jungle Books, Captains Courageous, and The Seven 
Seas, and who rummages America, Europe, Asia, and Africa to 
distil the juice of continents and report the gist of peoples. In 
u Hem'and Haw " there is a strenuous irony which reminds one 
of the author of T7ce Day's Work : 

Hem and Haw were the sons of sin, 

Created to shally and shirk ; 
Hem lav 'round and Haw looked on 

While God did all the work. 

Hem was a fogy, and Haw was a prig, 

For both had the dull, dull mind ; 
And whenever they had a thing to do 

They yammered and went it blind. 

Hem was the father of bigots and bores ; 

As the sands of the sea were they. 
And Haw was the father of all the tribe 

Who criticise to-day. 

But God was an artist from the first, 

And knew what he was about ; 
While over his shoulder sneered these two, 

And advised him to rub it out. 

They prophesied ruin ere man was made : 

u Such folly must surely fail ! " 
And when he was done. M Do you think, my Lord, 

He's better without a tail ? " 

And still in the honest working world, 

With posture, and hint, and smirk, 
These sons of the devil are standing by 

While Man does all the work. 

They balk endeavor and baffle reform, 

In the sacred name of law ; 
And over the quavering voice of Hem 

Is the droning voice of Haw. 

These poets, like many others, demur to the creeds, yet most 
of the demurrers have a little private creed of their own which 
they wear secretly under their garment! as a sort of support 
shaped and adjusted to the contour of their special abnormality- 


Notes and Discussions. 


Thev will not let anybody prescribe a body of thought or form of 
expression for them; they themselves are original thinkers and 
inventors of new forms. The vagabond announcement is that 
Truth is not a creed nor an ology, that priests and savants do 
not know what it is, that the artistic mind alone can tell what 
is Truth. So thinks the Artistic Mind, and proceeds to say 
sagely, comprehensively, enlighteningly, that Truth is not a 
part, but the beautiful, symmetric "Whole. So now we all know, 
thanks to the Artistic Mind, and Pilate and the rest of us need 
not trouble the Master any more with the old question, "What 
is truth?" This glorification of the artistic mind is frequent 
in poets and their kin; not in all of them, however. Some have 
recognized and deferred to a more august and imperative 
Authority than the esthetic sense or the artistic mind. One 
named Milton did, another known as Dante, one surnamed Shakes- 
peare, and others called Browning and Tennyson. But if any 
particular creed does not fit a man he is not bound to wear it. 
Let none be excommunicated because he professes not to have 
exhaustively explored, analyzed, and tabulated all the contents 
of the universe, nor solved all the riddles of the mysterious and 
paradoxic human soul, which is as closed and deep and secret as 
a well, yet as open and exposed as a hilltop. When the adven- 
turing vagabonds cry, " O for the trail, wherever it may lead, 
from small credulity to larger creed ! " we say " Amen ! " but 
we doubt if the artistic mind is the world's great and sufficient 

Although the songs of these strolling musicians are of the 
open road and not of the sanctuary, yet often they move to a 
lift of aspiration and a lilt of faith which seem not unregenerate. 
" At the End of the Day " has this brave manful shout: 

Now shame on the craven truckler 

And the puling things that mope ! 
We've a rapture for our buckler 

And a heart that swells with hope. 
Give a cheer ! 
For the soul shall not give way. 

Here's to the greater to-morrow 
That is born of a great to-day I 

• Phillips Brooks, in his Rohlen Lectures on Tht ftytMtHM pf At w t i wrote that one 
IKat impression of the life of Jesus must always be of " the subordinate importance 
°f those things in whicli only the aesthetic nature finds it^ pletSUN. There la M COD* 
dvtimafinn of these things in that wise, dn p life. Bui the fact must ever remain that 
Ike wisest, deepest life that ever lived left them on one side, was satisfied without 

624 Methodist Beview. [July, 

Even on the open road a vagabond may trace the footprints 
of a Providence, as once two men footing it to Emmaus had a 
burning sense of a divine Presence walking with them. And 
a poet may come home from Vagabondia, the region of the dis- 
orderly, the haphazard, and the incalculable, settled in the 
conclusion that there is no such thing as accident: 


Itself unmasks the likeness of Intent, 
And ever in blind chance's darkest crypt 
The shrine lamp of God's purposing is found. 

Two men shall be grinding together at the same poetic mill, 
and the one shall be taken and the other left. Last Songs has 
the pathos of finality, for last year Richard Hovey passed out 
of sight beyond earth's horizon, bound on the long trail of the 
insatiate heart and the great expectation. Now Bliss Carman's 
jubilant voice sinks to subdued and tender tones : 

My great friend and I were happy and free, 

And I will remember his beautiful words and ways 

For the rest of my days. 

How eager he was for truth ! 

Yet never scorned the good things of his youth, 

The soul of gentleness and the soul of love ! 

The spirit of Hovey's life may be learned from his own 
words. He taught the wisdom of accepting each day on its 
own terms as a good gift from God: 

Life as it is ! Accept it ; it is thine ! 

The God that gave it gave it for thy good ; 
The God that made it had not been divine 

Could he have set thee poison for thy food. 

How his soul shook with a 6ense of the Divine on the high 

places of the earth is told in his lines, " From the Cliff: " 

I feel a mighty wind upon mc blow 
Like God's breath kindling in my soul a birth 
Of turbulent music struggling to break girth. 
I pass with Dante through eternal woe, 
Quiver with Sappho's passion at my heart, 
See Pindar's chariots flashing past the goal, 
Triumph o'er splendors of unutterable light 
And know supremely this, O God,— Thou art; 
Feeling in all tho tumult of my soul 
Grand kinship with the glory of thy might. 

The decalogue which Hovey promised himself to live by hai 
these commandments : "To love everybody a little and SOnH 

Notes and Discussions. 


jK-ople a great deal ; to trust that the God who made us is good 
will not forget us ; to obey them who have the right to 
bold themselves responsible for us; to look on the bright side 
of things and keep a good heart up; to dare to do whatever we 
think we ought to do; to express our good, happy feelings and 
not the others ; to use our intelligence to avoid trouble: not to 
hate anyone, nor hurt them except for a greater good ; not to 
ho mean, nor selfish, nor unjust ; not to tell lies, except when 
people ask what they have no right to know; not to do any- 
thing dirty, or ugly, or intemperate." On the second page of 
the dark-brown oak-leaf book of Songs is Richard Hovey's 
greeting to death : 

I did not fear thee, Death, nor then nor now. 
I girded up my loins and sought my kind, 
And did a man's work in a world of men, 
And looked upon my work and called it good. 
Now come ! I give thee welcome ! 

Uliss Carman, left to tramp alone the ways of Vagabondia, 
may sing of his lost comrade, as once he sang of Gleeson White 
in " Xon omnis Moriar: " 

There is a part of me that knows, 

Beneath incertitude and fear, 
I shall not perish when I pass 

Beyond mortality's frontier. 
In patience, therefore, I await 

My friend's unchanged, benign regard, — 
Some April when I too shall be 

Spilt water from a broken shard. 

Ko more than these two vagabonds are the most quiet and 
K-ttled of mortals anything but pilgrims and strangers here ; 
for he 

Whose furthest footsteps never strayed 

Beyond the village of his birth, 
Is but a lodger for the night 

In this old wayside inn of earth. 

To-morrow he shall take his pack 
And set out for the ways beyond, u 

On the old trail from star to star, 
An alien and a vagabond. 

That is the forlorn and lonely finale for all of us, unless yonder, 
Worlds away, in the heaven's height far and steep, the starry 
kill lends to the Father's house and the Beatific Vision and 
I life forever with the Lord, as lie declared who brought im- 
' • "Ulity to light, and said, M Because 1 live, ye shall live also." 


Methodist Review, 




In this discussion I take for granted the reasonableness and scriptural- 
ness of the evangelical doctrine of hell, resting as it does on the two 
facts of (1) the decisive character and (2) everlasting issues of this life. 
My aim is entirely practical, even in the historical remarks which lead 
us into the heart of the question. I think it will not be denied that 
there is a difference between the thoughts of men and the teachings of 
the pulpit as to eternal punishment to-day aud those teachings and 
thoughts fifty or even thirty years ago. And that difference is in the 
direction of amelioration; not so coarse, not so dogmatic, not so lurid, 
not so materialistic. (1) It is within the memory of men now living 
that frequently the declaration was heard from the pulpit that there 
were infants and children in hell. (2) The descriptions of hell were 
frightfully realistic ; that is, realistic as judged from a literal interpreta- 
tion of the Scripture. Vivid pictures of physical torment were frequent. 
(3) The impression w T as made that the vast majority of mankind — in- 
cluding all, or nearly all, the heathen world — were doomed to eternal 
destruction. (4) This doctrine formed a staple of preaching to an extent 
not known to-day „ Then it was a frequent theme, now it is a rare theme 
in the pulpit. 

If we inquire the causes which have led to this change of emphasis 
and attitude toward the doctrine of hell I think we may mention the 
following: (1) The growth of humanitarian sentiment. Thirty or fifty 
years ago there were severer ideas as to punishment in general, and a 
more calloused feeling in regard to suffering, than is the case to-day. 
Take the treatment of prisoners and the prevalence of capital punish- 
ment. Treatment that we would consider shockingly cruel, that would 
arouse a feeling of indignation in all minds, was then taken as a mat- 
ter of course. It was so in regard to school discipline. I was in com- 
mon school between 1865 and 1872. In years so recent as those I say 
distinctly that the punishments in vogue were cruel and barbarous. But 
they were never so considered then. The growth of love, the larger in- 
fluence of the spirit of Christ on society, has made an entire change in 
the atmosphere in which we live. That change has silently made obso- 
lete and of none effect the kind of preaching that once was powerful on 
the minds of men. (2) Theological developments have also had their 
influence. Methodism has made familiar the thought that God deals 
not only justly with all men, but mercifully as well, that there is an im- 
partiality in his treatment of souls, that men must be given an oqUftl 
chance of salvation, that no mau will be condemned for rejecting ■ 
Christ he never heard of, or for Binning against light he never hi I 


The Arena. 


The influence of Methodism in tempering the acidity and fierceness of 
the old theology has been invaluable. Then, the doctrine of the divine 
Fatherhood, which Christ taught, and which has been restored to the 
world by the Broad School of the Church of England, which was made 
prominent in the sermons of Maurice and Robertson and Kingsley, has 
bad a wonderful influence over the present-day pulpit. I think that 
idea has been a fruitful one, and certainly if God is indeed the Father 
of all men, our conception of eternal punishment and of other doctrines 
related to it will be modified. Other theological developments have 
also had their influence. (3) The better understanding of Scripture 
also accounts in part for the change in the thought of hell. Our famil- 
iarity with the modes of speech in the East, the intense imagery, the 
word-painting, the use of parable, figure, simile, with which oriental 
tongues abound — all this has made us skeptical of the hard and matter- 
of-fact methods of our Western speech when it coarsely makes literal 
what the sacred writers left figurative. In other words we now under- 
stand that in that fresh, imaginative, childlike age the sacred writers 
necessarily spoke as Easterns, that the Holy Spirit had to use the only 
vehicle that was open to him, and that therefore we must seek to inter- 
pret in our Western tongue the truths that underlay the extravagant, 
tropical descriptions of the oriental writers. The growth of the science 
of biblical hermeneutics has had its share in modifying the old-fashioned 
ideas of hell. 

Historical illustrations of the changed attitude of the Church toward 
the doctrine of Eternal Punishment would not be hard to find. In 1854 
Frederick Denison Maurice had to give up his professorship in King's 
College, London, on account of his views on this doctrine. He held 
that to know God and Jesus Christ whom he hath sent is eternal life, 
and that not to know Christ by an experimental knowledge, that is, by 
having Christ a living power in the soul, is eternal death. He said that 
Christ lifted us above all mere arithmetical questions of duration, which 
were impertinent in view of his spiritual teaching. The life of God is 
eternity — out of all relation to time and space. He that hath that life 
need not stop to inquire whether he shall enjoy God for five years or 
five million years. So also with regard to the lost. Eternal death is 
*oul-death — the soul existing in itself apart from God and Christ, which 
is hell. He would not dogmatize as to how long that should last, or 
whether the love of God might not reach the soul after death. He was 
not a Universalis!, because he asserted the fearful possibility of the soul 
always loving itself more than Christ.* Anyhow, for this and other 
views he had to leave King's College. Is it too much to say that similar 
views have long since been held entirely harmless in the Church of Eng- 
land? In fact, in 1864, by the decision of the supremo judges in the 
fcrlesiastical affairs of England it was established in the case of Kendall 

' Fe? ft concise And clear statement of Ms views see his letter to Bort In the I • 
■n«l litters of Frederick />. J/auHct, t»y bis sou, li, U 28, 



Methodist Review. 


U. "Wilson that even the holding of Universalism was not an indictable 
offense in the Church of England. We all remember what a sensation 
was created by Dr. Frederick W. Farrar, then Canon and now Arch- 
deacon of Westminster, in preaching some sermons in Westminster 
Abbey in November and December, 1877, in which he strongly repu- 
diated what he called the popular accretions to the Catholic doctrine of 
eternal punishment. But the sensation was caused not so much by 
what the preacher said, as by distorted reports of what he said, and by 
the fact that in that historic pulpit, where all the world could hear, a 
leading divine of the Church had eloquently and passionately disowned 
much of the popular preaching concerning hell. But notice; imme- 
diately the canon received from their authors various books and pam- 
phlets which went beyond him in alleviating views.* And there followed 
a discussion in the Contemporary Beview from representatives of the 
various denominations, and in not one of these contributions did the old 
harsh, crude conceptions appear.! This shows that already, in 1877, at 
least among the more thoughtful, the popular doctrine was dying, if not 
dead. By the popular doctrine I mean the teaching that the vast 
majority of the human family are doomed to an eternity of torments in 
literal fire. 

Before I answer directly the question, What should be the attitude of 
the pulpit as to hell ? permit me to say that the passing of the popular 
doctrine is something to be devoutly thankful for. The former idea 
that the great majority of men are doomed to an eternity of awful tor- 
ments in hell has worked harm in two directions : First, it has made 
sad the hearts of those whom God has not made sad. It has turned 
the hopes of thousands of devout believers into ashes, and filled the 
souls of God's children with tormenting doubts and dark forebodings as 
to their own salvation and the salvation of their friends. The brilliant 
and pious Hemy Rogers expressed the despair which this doctrine 
wrought in him: u For my part I should not grieve if the whole race of 
mankind died in its fourth year. As far as I can see I do not know 
that it would be a thing much to be lamented." \ Albert Barnes con- 
fesses to the same confusion of spirit: "In the distress and anguish of 
my own spirit I confess that I see no light whatever. I see not one ray 
to disclose to me the reason why sin came into the world, why the earth 
is strewed with the dying and the dead, and why man must suffer to 
all eternity." § These two testimonials from eminent divines iu Eng- 
land and America may be taken as representing thousands of similar 

• See Farrar, Eternal Hope, Lond. ed., p. u, note. 

t The Contemporary Review articles were collected and published under the I 111 ' 
ol 71 1 c Wider Hope, Loud, and N. Y.. 1800, with a preface by James Hogg, .i K r ; • ' 
of a paper by Thomas de Quincey "On the Supposed Scriptural Bxpn ISlOB > ; 
Eternity," and a valuable bibliographical appendix. I call attention t<> the abort 
facts simply for the purpose of Illustrating a change of attitude, and not ai lad 
eating my personal belief In any or all the views of the writers referred to. 

: Grcyson's Letters, I, 31. § 1'raeticrl S UmaiM , P- IS* 


The Arena. 


questionings and thoughts of despair in those who have tried to realize 
the full meaning of the popular doctrine when it was a living thing. 
Second, the doctrine has worked havoc in turning those who otherwise 
might have been Christians into infidels. It was this which made an 
intidel of the elder Mill. u Compared with this," he says, " every other 
objection to Christianity sink3 into insignificance." It helped make 
Theodore Parker a Unitarian. It gave an immense impetus to the 
spread of Universalism and Unitarianism, and afforded a ready fulcrum 
to the lever by which the preachers of these two sects lifted the people 
away from Christianity. It will be found that the preaching of hell in 
the fashion common some years ago works in an entirely opposite way 
from that which the preacher wishes ; that is, it turns those away from 
Christ whom he desires to influence by a salutary fear, and those who 
are already Christians or on the way to Christ it fills with anguish, 
doubts, and despair. 

What, then, should be the attitude of the pulpit toward the doctrine 
of eternal punishment ? 

1. The preacher should carefully study this doctrine in the light of 
the Bible and critical and impartial commentaries, and in the light of 
the best recent literature on the question. He should do this until he 
works out for himself a doctrine of hell which satisfies the Bible and 
his own reason and conscience. In my own theological seminary this 
doctrine was never reached — a whole term on the atonement, but com- 
paratively nothing on this most difficult, most burning, of all theological 

2. He should preach this doctrine. The silence of the pulpit on this 
matter in recent years is as discreditable to the pulpit as it is dangerous 
to the hearers. He should not harp on it or make it a hobby, but he 
should at proper intervals preach a sermon on one of the many aspects 
of this subject. 

3. He should bring this doctrine into vital relation to men. He must 
remember that he lives at the opening of the twentieth century and not in 
the fifteenth. The eternal truth remains, but men's mode of conceiving 
and of stating it changes. Read a sermon of Jeremy Taylor to a mod- 
ern congregation, or even a senuon of Robert Hall. Would these ser- 
mons meet any response ? None whatever. They were adapted to the 
generation that then was, but the environment of men has changed, and 
the intellectual atmosphere has changed, and if a minister does not 
recognize this fact he preaches as one who beats the air. lie must take 
the everlasting truth of the Gospel, the same truth that Jeremy Taylor 
preached and Robert Hall preached, and restate it in terms of modern 
Ipeech; and before he can do that he must rethink it, he must let the 
truth be born again in his own heart — born again in the travail of study, 
*rul meditation, and prayer, and association with men, in strenuous en- 
( ^nvor9 after God's will, and in ministries to the sick and the Buffering; 

he must do this as one who is the heir of all the fcges, as one who 


Methodist Reviev:. 


stands at the fountain of the twentieth century and who must speak to 
the men of the twentieth century. And not only so, the preacher dis- 
tinguishing between the truth that never changes and the variations of 
each age in its statement of that truth, and being faithful to the essen- 
tial truth in the dogma of hell, namely, that sin loved and persisted in 
separates the soul everlastingly from God, I say the preacher recogniz- 
ing these things must state the truth in the terms of fact and reason and- 
conscieuce. He must interpret hell psychologically, he must show that 
it is not an arbitrary infliction of an avenging deity, but that it grows 
out of our relations on this earth, that it has vital relations to our think- 
ing and doing, that whatever a man soweth that shall he also reap, that 
the fuel of hell every man is laying up for himself who lives for himself 
and shuts out the heavens from his life. The preacher must take a 
lesson from the great dramatists and poets, who preach hell with great 
power because they preach it as the outgrowth of life, as having ethical 
and psychological relations. This is the reason why the message of 
the Bible, Shakespeare, and Dante never grows stale and unprofitable, 
but always has power over the human heart. Read Eph. v, 5 ; Phil, iii, 
19; 1 Thess. ii, 15, 16; 2 Thess. i, 6-10; Heb. vi, 6-S; x, 26; Rev. 
xxi, 8. Even Dante, with all his medievalism, always connects the 
punishments of hell with concrete instances of sin, perfidy, and crime. 
As Scartazzini well says: "Far more admirable is the keen psychologic 
and philosophic insight to which they [Dante's punishments] bear tes- 
timony. The punishments of Dante's hell are not merely the direct and 
immediate consequences of the different sins, but they are the sins them- 
selves stripped of their false disguise. Thus Dante's hell answers not 
only the question, What are the punishments inflicted for sin in the 
other world ? but also, and especially the other question, What is sin ? 
To this question all the damned in the different regions of hell reply: 
Sin is the withdrawal from the Highest Good ; it is unhappiness, misery, 
suffering in ame and eternity. In the damned souls of Dante's hell, 
therefore, we have the revealed truth of the conscience in time, and the 
revealed truth of life in eternity." * The doctrine of everlasting pun^h- 
ment can still be preached with overwhelming effect when the truth 
that is at the core of it — that sin is hell — is interpreted according to 
the laws of the soul. And it is the absence of this vital and ethical eh - 
ment in the ordinary preaching of hell which makes it powerless over 
men. It stirs no deeps in the soul, it quickens no conscience, it 
meets no response — it is a repetition of platitudes and inherited 
beliefs, and the sinners go in and out of our churches as a door 
turns on its hiuges, saying, if they say anything, u O, that is only 

4. The minister must have a preparation of soul for the best handling 
of this doctrine. When the preacher's heart and life become the reflec- 
tion of the holiness and purity of Christ, and not only of Christ's ]uirit ▼ 
• Dante Handbook, pp. 2?8-9. 


The Arena. 


but of his pity, he will then enter into something of God's horror of sin, 
*n<l declare the divine judgments against it with the authority of God, 
»jul with the yearning sorrow of him who through his tears looked 
upon Jerusalem and with a broken heart pronounced its desolations. 
The preacher needs a special preparation of the inner life for the 
effective preaching of hell. How can he wield this awful doctrine as a 
means of leading men to Christ until he has entered into Christ's mind ? 
What sadder sight can there be than a preacher standing up before man, 
mid in a cold, mechanical, heartless manner, and without understanding 
the ethical and spiritual meanings of the doctrine, dealing with these 
terrible realities ? " Are you ready to be baptized with the baptism that 
lam baptized with?" The minister's mind must according to his 
measure reflect the errorless equity of God's righteousness, and the heart 
of him must be transfigured into the likeness of God's mercy. Then 
only, it seems to me, is the ambassador of Christ fitted to interpret to 
men the doctrine of eternal punishment. 

John Alfred Faulkner. 
Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, N. J. 


Dr. Goodwin's criticism of my article, " The Religion of Childhood," 
shows a misunderstanding of its trend as well as difference of scriptural 
interpretation. Dr. Chaffee's reply has perfectly covered the ground, 
but I will simply restate the substance of the article in such way as to 
ihow that while it may have emphasized the natural it was not antisuper- 
natural. It was an Arrninian plea for the true conditions of the Holy 
Spirit's work. In speaking of child mind as normal, I did not mean the 
utter absence of sinful tendencies, nor the denial of the need of the Holy 
Spirit, but the opposite of abnormalities which are wrought by years of 
sinful choice and habit. None of us makes unqualified application to 
the child mind of the scriptural terras for the hardened sinner, nor is 
this any denial of the child's need of the Holy Spirit. The history of 
the race, the experience of believers, and intelligent study of spiritual 
beginnings and growth show a natural law of conditions to be met be- 
fore God can manifest himself. My emphasis of the value of kinder- 
garten methods was simply a plea for discriminating study, psycholog- 
ical and experimental, of the conditions in which the child mind could 
best receive the things of the Spirit. The non-Christian kindergartner, 
»f there be any such, sees only the natural to be developed; the Chris- 
tian kindergartner sees the natural as needing the spiritual, created 
*ith reference to it, and seeks to make the whole life of childhood re- 
ceptive of it. No amount of culture can make a conscience, nor any 
Mnount of training tell of spiritual things if the Spirit himself docs 
*0t teach; but intelligent study can open the doors of the child mind 
•0 what God waits to give and develop a religious life which BO pulpit 

632 Methodist Reroiew. [July, 

preaching, "whether of punishment of sin or proclamations of grace, can 
ever accomplish. 

The specialization demanded in every other field of modern work is 
greatly needed here. As well-meaning workers our clumsy hands often 
misshape the material, which needs definite impression with delicacy of 
touch. Few of us follow faithfully the words of Wesley in the pains- 
taking training of the children. Hear him: "Instruct your children 
early, plainly, frequently, and patiently. Instruct them early from the 
hour that you perceive reason begins to dawn. Truth may then begin to 
shine upon the mind far earlier than we are apt to suppose. And who- 
ever watches the first openings of the understanding may, little by 
little, supply fit matter for it to work upon, and may turn the eye of the 
soul toward good things as well as toward trifling ones. Whenever a 
child begins to speak, you may be assured reason begins to work. I 
know of no cause why a parent should not then begin to speak of the 
best things, the things of God. And from that time no opportunity 
should be lost of instilling all truths as they are capable of receiv- 
ing." If we constantly concern ourselves with the training which is 
the true preparation for the Holy Spirit's work we need not be greatly 
concerned about the definite time of a spiritual change nor the specific 
name which we shall give to the conscious beginnings of a religious 
life. We all agree that we have inherited a nature which takes natur- 
ally to sin; and as Christians, whether holding to the old theology or to 
the new, we all agree that the grace of Christ is the only power which 
can save us from the dominance of our inherited tendency. 

There is nothing in the whole range of modern thought to keep the 
Christian worker from believing in a spiritual environment ; and whether 
we are studying race childhood, or individual childhood, we get our 
spiritual life from this eternal spiritual environment. Our chief dis- 
agreement is upon the best method of opening the doors of the soul to 
this environment. The writer believes that neglect of early and con- 
stant preparation for this incoming of spiritual influences is our prime 
and practical heresy as Christians. Waiting for the crisis type of con- 
version has kept parents from leading their children to Christ, and kept 
children from coming to their rightful assurance of acceptance and lov- 
, ing acquaintance with him. Awful warnings, searching questions to be 
"sure that they know what they are about," to show them that theil 
hearts are "desperately wicked," and that they are "the children of 
wrath," have made the Christian life fearfully unreal to many children 
and kept them out of their privileges, if not turned them from Christ. 
The personal experience of the writer, analyzed in mature years, COH« 
firms him in these conclusions. Led by devout parents to lore Christ 
in earliest years, there was kept before his mind the necessity ot 
"conversion" which must somehow be experienced, befort be could 
call himself a Christian. From the ige Of ten to the age of f 
lie distinctly withheld the step which could briug the desired exps 


The Arena. 


rience. In a revival there came the conscious surrender of the life to 
Christ, conscious faith in a pardoning Saviour, and the sweet quiet 
peace of assurance that he was saved. But there might just as -well 
have been definite devotion to service and consciousness of acceptance 
in the earlier years of childhood without the sense of alienation 
which came through the postponement of that crisis which both he and 
his parents thought necessary for the entrance upon a Christian life. 
*\Ye only plead in this article for the same earnestness in preparing the 
way for the Spirit which we use in preparing the way for God's bless- 
ing upon all the natural activities of body or mind; and for the 
same faith in God's accomplishment of his work in spiritual things 
that we have in the physical or mental realm; expecting that the 
effect of such work upon the child mind will be as simple, direct, and 
natural as the child's return of mother's love. Let us "have faith in 
God." Modern historical study of the child life of the race will deepen 
our faith in the directness of God's grace upon the prepared mind, and 
modern nature study by the spiritual mind will not hide God but reveal 
him. From the Eden gates of lost innocence to the gates of final re- 
demption the path of man is never without the overshadowing God. 
Springfield, 0. , Jons A. Story. 


"We read very carefully in the Review for July- August, 1900, Dr. J. 
A. Story's article, entitled "The Religion of Childhood," the subject 
being one of deep personal interest to us. The criticism by W. It. 
Goodwin, which appears in a later number of the Review, is practically 
a protest against Dr. Story's theological premises. Otherwise Dr. Good- 
win's objections are mostly forestalled in the article itself. 

The facts cited by Dr. Story concerning child nature and child life 
can only be measured in importance by the issues growing out of them. 
The Christian worker, however, cannot afford to sacrifice the practical 
significance of these facts to their supposed theological significance. 
The real needs of the child heart should determine the interpretation 
of Scripture applicable to those needs. Jesus said, "Except ye be con- 
verted aud become as little children, ye shall not enter into the king- 
dom of heaven." Consider the characteristics of childhood — humility, 
teachableness, faith, love of the beautiful (symbolic of good), a tender 
heart, susceptible to sorrow for wrongdoing. It would seem that the 
greatest need of the child is to be kept humble, teachable, trustful, 
penitent, sensitive to divine influences, that the impulses of the child 
nature may crystallize into the fixed habit of his mature religious char- 
acter. The failure to preserve this sensitive religious nature, some- 
times even through the years of childhood, is the fault of parents and 
teachers, quite as much as it is due to the development of self-will and 
other sinward leading tendencies. The mother, who. instead of miking 
her child understand that punishment is a sign of her love thai dot s no! 


Methodist Review. 


fail him at the time of wrongdoing, tells him instead that she "doesn't 
love him when he's naughty." has thrust him out toward a chilling 
skepticism and despair, from which all her prayers and tears through 
many a revival season may not avail to call him back. 

At no time of life is one more capable of sincere penitence than 
during the years of childhood. May not advantage be taken of this 
disposition as childish faults present themselves; the love and forgive- 
ness of God becoming real to the child through the love and forgiveness 
of his parents ? It seems to the writer false and cruel to forbid the 
children to come to Christ by imposing conditions which they cannot 
understand. The bewilderment and confusion which follow only occa- 
sion delay, during which the heart is becoming less responsive. 
Childhood's faith has a meaning but little appreciated. This capacity 
for the spiritual is the means by which the mind may be saved from the 
dangers of approaching truth from the intellectual side. The child 
heart may become so sure of the invisible, hold so fast 11 the substance 
of things hoped for," that, when he goes forth to encounter the Grad- 
grind statements of science, reason and judgment cannot lead him 
astray. The M truth revealed unto babes " will not be misunderstood or 
go unrecognized though found in unfamiliar guises and viewed from 
standpoints other than that of faith. 

Thus it seems, not to a theologian, but to a mother. 

Bath, N. T. Wilhelmine "VTlllson. 


Contrary to an opinion expressed in the Arena some time ago, the 
mode of baptism is as much in dispute as ever. " The Teaching of the 
Twelve Apostles " makes little impression onimmersionists who say that, 
though pouring water upon the person may have been allowed as an ex- 
ception, it was by an error of the Church without warrant from Christ 
or the apostles. That Baptists are as strenuous as ever is shown by the 
sharp discipline inflicted on Dr. TThitsitt, for saying that Roger Williams 
and the Baptists baptized in England in 1G42 were sprinkled and not im- 
mersed. The "Christian" preacher at Atwood, Kan., says baptism 
by immersion is essential to salvation, and that if this be not so there i=; 
nr i^wcssity for sending foreign missionaries or preaching the Gospel any- 
where; and another 11 Christian " preacher says God never yet grant i- I M 
heard the prayer of an unimmerscd person, and to teach an unimmerst d 
child to pray is a crime. The object aud effect of baptism, as well as the 
mode, are also grievously misunderstood. The mode is unimportant, knit 
a correct conception of the object of the rite is a prime necessity. Wi D 
Methodists demand rebaptism by immersion as a condition of consenting 
to remain in our Church there is need to rc-cxpouud our doctrine of the 
nature, object, and effect of baptism. W. W. HUBLMT< 

Atvood, Kmi. 



The Itinerants" Club. 



TURES. — Rom. v, 1. 

11 Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God 
through our Lord Jesus Christ." — King James Version. 

i 'Being therefore justified by faith, let us have peace with God through 
our Lord Jesus Christ." — Revised Version. 

This is one of the passages of Scripture interesting alike to the textual 
critic and to the expounder. For the textual critic it involves the ques- 
tion as to how far internal evidence, such as the apparent train of thought 
and the logical connection, overbalance the testimony of the most ancient 
manuscripts. Some of the most eminent critics, such as Meyer, DeWette, 
Cremer, Scrivener, and Alford, maintain that notwithstanding the pre- 
dominance of external testimony, the internal evidence for King James 
rendering is so strong that the ordinary reading must be retained. On 
the other hand, the revisers insert " let. us have peace" in the text, and 
have the support of Tischendorf in his last edition, TVescott, and Tre- 
gelles — all among the foremost textual critics of their age. When author- 
ities are so equally divided it is difficult for the expounder to decide. It 
is to be noted that those who favor "let us have" on the authority of 
the manuscripts are preeminently text critics, while those who maintain 
"we have" are more authoritative as expounders than as textual crit- 
ics, although they are also distinguished for critical acumen. The writer 
of this prefers to read as in the ordinary text, on the basis of what seems 
to him the requirements of the argument, and would retain " let us have" 
in the margin. It is to be noted, however, that the manuscript author- 
ity is in favor of the Revised Version, though it is not exclusively 
so, thus giving room for hesitancy even on the question of manuscript 

In the previous part of this epistle the apostle has set forth the natu- 
ral condition of man and his inability to save himself. lie has likewise 
proclaimed Jesus Christ as the only Saviour, and has shown that through 
him only can the justification of man be secured. He reaches a conclu- 
sion that, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through 
our Lord Jesus Christ. If the preacher were teaching of this text as it 
stands in our ordinary version, he would be able to speak, first, of the 
instrument by which justification is secured, namely, by faith ; second, 
the blessedness which comes through faith, namely, peace with God; 
and, third, the personal cause through which this peace is secured, 
namely, our Lord Jesus Christ. 

The apostle first calls our attention to the instrument, faith. The 
Greek is very expressive, "from faith;" that is, having boon justified bj 

0o6 Methodist Review. [Julv, 

a justification which proceeds from faith. The Christian life in its full- 
ness really begins when faith begins. Up to that time the soul is in a 
condition of unrest, having a deep consciousness of sin. The sinner 
has heard of a Saviour, and is convinced that through him salvation is at- 
tainable. He has been taught, also, that salvation comes through faith 
in Jesus Christ, and he exercises that faith and receives the peace whu h 
is its outcome. The nature of this peace is a matter of profound inter- 
est. It is here, as Liddon puts it, " the actual state of reconciliation 
with God as opposed to the state of enmity with him which precedes it" 
It assumes that men are opposed to God, and that there is a state of an- 
tagonism which must be overcome. It does not assume that God was at 
enmity with man, but that man by his transgressions had placed himself 
in opposition to God. 

The tenth verse of the same chapter brings out this point with suffi- 
cient clearness, " For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to 
God through the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall 
be saved by his life." This state of enmity is, therefore, done away with 
by faith, and a state of reconciliation has ensued; and this state of recon- 
ciliation is understood by the word "peace." The disharmony between 
man and his Maker has been removed, and the source of this removal is 
our Lord Jesus Christ. If, however, we assume that the Revised Version 
represents the true text here, we have a different conception of the re- 
sult of the justification; namely, we are exhorted to preserve peace, or to 
"enjoy peace," because we have been justified. We must not again re- 
turn to our previous condition of enmity through the renewal of the 
sinful life. We are thus to maintain our peace with the Lord Jesus 
Christ by proper courses of action and by reliance upon him. Justifica- 
tion in this sense simply is the door to the enjoyment and maintenance 
through faith of the peace which God imparts. The passage also may 
be rendered, "we may have peace;" that is, it is our privilege to have 
peace. If the latter rendering, then, be assumed, it is a question 
whether the peace here spoken of is internal peace, soul peace, in contra- 
distinction from unrest of the unjustified soul. It seems to the writer 
that un either rendering of this passage the two interpretations of peare 
may be allowed. It is not necessary to restrict the meaning of the pas- 
sage to one or to the other. Justification, in the very nature of things 
'implies a previous condition of antagonism — or, in Scripture language, 
enmity — to God on the part of man. It therefore necessarily involves ■ 
peace between man and God which is brought about through the Lord 
Jesus Christ. Professor Sanday seems to express the twofold concepti a 
of "peace." Ilis language is, "The declaration of 'not guilty,' 
the sinner comes under by a heartfelt embracing of Christianity, at once 
does away with the state in which he had stood to God, and substitute^ 
for it a state of peace which he is only to realize." His paraphrase of iMl 
passageis in harmony with the exposition already given of tin 
Version, "We Christians, then, ought to enter upon our privil 


The Itinerants' Club. 


By that strong and eager impulse with, which we enroll ourselves as 
Christ's, we may be accepted as righteous in the sight of God, aDd it be- 
comes our duty to enjoy to the full the new state of peace with him which 
we owe to our Lord Jesus Messiah." 

For exegetical purposes we need not argue as to the mode by which 
Christ has effected the reconciliation and brought about peace between 
man and God. The text affirms the fact, and for an understanding of 
the method we must study other parts of this great epistle. A careful 
study, however, of the word peace in the dictionaries, or of its usage 
in the New Testament, will show that it is more than a state of reconcili- 
ation with God; it means that comfort of the soul, that rejoicing in God, 
that precious influence that comes upon man through the Holy Spirit, 
that wonderful transformation which is known as a Christian experience. 
It is a beautiful state of the soul in which God and man are in harmony 
through Jesus Christ, and in which our heavenly Father imparts to the 
human soul his own blessedness and comfort. 

This passage, for the Christian minister, is of use in affording an excep- 
tionally valuable study in what is termed the "lower criticism." The 
problem of how far external evidence of the manuscripts shall overcome 
what seems to be the requirements of the connection and of the argu- 
ment, is one of the profound problems of critical study. Meyer's remark 
on the text of this verse is striking. Referring to the subjunctive read- 
ing, "let us have," he says, "But this reading, though very strongly 
attested, yields a sense {let us maintain peace with God) that is here ut- 
terly unsuitable; because the writer now enters on a new and important 
doctrinal topic, and an exhortation at the very outset especially regarding 
a subject not yet expressly spoken of would at this stage be out of place." 
The Revised Version retains "we have," as the alternative rendering, 
but assumes that " let us have " is the one justified by the best manu- 
script authority. This passage also affords room for an extended discus- 
sion of four cardinal points in our Christian faith : First, It opens up the 
whole question of justification, in what it consists, and the means by 
which it is to be secured. Second, It brings to our conception the relation 
of faith to the justification of believers. This is a profound theological 
problem, and is brought before us in an exhaustive discussion of this text. 
It calls our attention, further, to the nature of this peace, to which allu- 
sion has been already made. It also brings before our mind our Lord 
Jesus Christ a9 the cause by whom this peace is assured to man. Thus, 
for homilctical uses, the Revised Version opens to us aspects of our rela- 
tion to God involving some of the fundamental problems of theology. 

I USE the word exegesis as synonymous with interpretation. The t hief 
business of the intellectual world is to interpret, Whether ii be in 
science or in art, in literature or in religion, the chief function of the 


Methodist Review. 


teacher is to interpret to others the things which he himself has 
learned. God alone is original in thought and production, and man's 
highest function is reached when he can interpret his word and his 
works. The scientific scholar is most profound when he can see and 
unfold the facts and powers of the material universe; the artist pro- 
duces his best work when he can portray with all the skill of his 
art the beautiful which he finds in nature and in the human form; the 
religious scholar and teacher is such only when he is able to fathom 
the deep meanings of the Sacred "Word. The preacher is an exegete. 
not an originator of truth. An original preacher in the sense of one 
who is presenting thought of his own creation is no preacher at all. 
The very word preacher is derived from a word which means to herald, 
or to make proclamation. His sole business is to act as a herald of that 
which God has revealed in his word. 

Exegesis for the preacher is the crown of all other studies. There are 
studies perhaps which have their center in themselves, which may and 
should be pursued for their own sake. Such are studies which are 
specially adapted to promote mental discipline. These are too often 
lost sight of in this utilitarian age; for example, the old classic lan- 
guages, Greek and Latin. They are in disgrace in some quarters at 
the present time, but as classical studies, long forgotten, were revived 
contemporaneously with the Reformation, showing a close relation 
between the two, so there will ever be a close relation between such 
studies and religion and conduct which must never be lost sight of. 
Such studies have been truly designated as the humanities. 

Nevertheless, it remains true that all studies arc for exegesis. Tbcy 
are designed to prepare for interpretation. This is specially true of 
studies which are connected with the Bible. We study Greek and lie- 
brew, the languages in which the Scriptures were originally written, in 
order that we may better comprehend the meaning of the Word. As no 
translation can give the full sense of the original, so we study these 
languages in order to enter deeper into the meaning. Hence Greek and 
Hebrew, archaeology, text criticism, literature, and philosophy are all 
subordinate to exegesis and have their chief results in making clear the 
Sacred Word. I repeat then, the highest function of all our studies as 
ambassadors for Christ is to enable us to comprehend and expound 
God's holy word. 

If it be objected that God's word should be so clear that each one 
should be able to get the full and exact meaning without such auxiliary 
studies, I answer, such docs not appear to be the divine method. God 
seems to have ordained that men should seek in order to find truth in 
all departments of inquiry. Surely, in the material world, God has 
hidden truths and facts which have only beeu unfolded through thi 
investigations of scholars all through the ages, and we anticipate M 
great progress in the future. So in our investigations of the word 1 ' 
God, the treasures we have already found are but the beginnings 1 * 



The Itinerants' Club. 


rv^archcs ■which shall as the ages go by more and more vindicate the 
»ays of God to man. 

The two qualities of a sermon antecedent to its delivery are the sub- 
»tance and the form. The thought is fundamental, for in all high art 
the idea molds the form. The great thought of Plato was that the 
Idea is the substance of all things. The Brooklyn Bridge was first con- 
nived in the mind of the engineer. First, there was the thing to be 
done, access by bridge between the two cities, then the manner in 
which it was to be done. This determined the form of the structure; 
after that, grace and beauty of outline entered into the plans. The first 
thought of a preacher should be substance, not form; what he shall say, 
tod not how he shall say it. The latter is essential but not fundamental, 
tad is entirely subordinate to the former. The substance of the sermon 
U to be found in the Bible. What a man preaches must either be in the 
Word or properly deduced from it. So that we may say that all the 
material which the preacher is to put into sermonic shape is to be found 
in the word of God itself. We are thus brought to the necessity of the 
Hudy of exposition and exegesis for the Gospel minister. By exegetical 
itudy we mean the careful study of the word of God not in detached 
texts only, but in its general scope and bearing. It is to take a book of 
the Holy Scripture and go through it word by word, clause by clause, 
and sentence by sentence, until the train of thought, the object of the 
writer, and the full force of each statement becomes clearly apparent. 
The amount of study required in each case differs in different books. A 
plain historical book will require less study than the profounder doctrinal 
cues. The words of Dean Alford in his Introduction to the Epistle to 
tie Ephesians are a fitting expression of the method of exegesis, as well 
as of its results: "Whereas the difficulties lie altogether beneath the 
surface; are not discernible by the cursory reader, who finds all very 
straightforward and simple. All on the surface is smooth and flows on 
unquestioned by the untheological reader; but when we begin to inquire 
*hy thought succeeds to thought, and one cumbrous parenthesis to an- 
ther, depths under depths discover themselves, wonderful systems of 
parallel allusion, frequent and complicated underplots; every word, the 
more we search, approves itself as set in its exact logical place; we see 
♦ very phrase contributing by its own similar organization and articulation 
t f > the carrying out of the organic whole. . . . The student of the Epis- 
tk to the Ephesians must not expect to go over his ground rapidly; 
fcust not be disappointed if the week's end finds him still on the same 
paragraph, or even on the same verse, weighing and judging, penetrating 
gradually by the power of the mind of the Spirit, through one out. r 
•Efface after another, gathering in hand one and another ramifying 
tWad, till at last he grasps the main cord whence they all diverged and 
*herc they all unite, and stands rejoicing in his prize, deeper rooted in 
faith and with a firmer hold ou the truth as it is in Christ." {Pivt- 
", '"ur ia to EphuiOMy sec. v.) 


Methodist Review. 




Professor Howard Crosby Butler, of Princeton, New Jersey, who, 
with four other gentlemen, made an extensive trip through portions of 
Central Syria, has written an elaborate account of this archaeological 
expedition for the American Journal of Archaeology, which contains much 
valuable information regarding the territory adjoining ancient Israel. 
The country beyond Jordan and northeast of Lebanon is full of interest, 
but owing to the hostility of the Bedouin tribes inhabiting it, has re- 
mained to a great extent a sealed book. 

This land, which at one time was able to support a dense population, 
is now very barren, made so perhaps by the wholesale cutting down of 
trees. It is only occasionally that, in some protected, well-watered 
corner, a grassy plot is found which furnishes rich pasture for the flocks 
of the sparsely populated region. The Hauran itself is more fertile and 
more densely populated, but its inhabitants are very ferocious and 
almost always at war with the Turkish government. Hence the diffi- 
culty of thorough work by European or American archaeologists. These 
American gentlemen, impressed with the results of de Vogue's journey, 
forty years ago, and with scanty reports of more recent travelers, were 
encouraged in the hope of greater discoveries, and their efforts were 
amply rewarded, for they not only corroborated the work of their prede- 
cessors, but obtained a more scientific knowledge of the same, and 
obtained a large number of new facts. True, they had the advantage of 
all other former researches, but they accomplished much more and dis- 
covered many monuments not previously known to Europeans. 

Professor Butler tells us that the American expedition had three prin- 
cipal objects in view, namely, the study of: 1. The topography of the 
country through which they passed. 2. The epigraphy and the history of 
those regions. 3. The archaeological objects as far as could be learned 
from the character of the architecture, sculpture, and other monuments. 
The work was begun October, 1899, in the northern part of Central 
Syria, or, to be more specific, in the mountain ranges of II- A 'la, Barishu 
and Halakah. Many inscriptions were copied and photographs taken, 
not only of those monuments visited by de Vogue, but also of new ones 
which he had failed to see, or at least to record, in his works. Indeed, 
no less than thirty new towns or villages arc now meutioucd for the rit>t 
time. In all of these some new objects of interest were disco vcred. 
Inscriptions in eight different languages were found: Greek, Latin. 
Syriac, Hebrew, Palmyraeau, Nabatiuan, Safattic, and Kuzic, or old 
Arabic. One might expect that Semitic inscriptions would prevail 
this Semitic territory; not so, however, tor the large majority, or DO 

1 00 1 J Archaeology and Biblical Research. 


I ... than three hundred and eighty -six are Greek. They also found 
tfteeo in Latin, and some in both Latin and Greek. The Latin inscrip- 
tions for the most part were on slabs connected with the tombs of 
1: toiftD soldiers. The Greek inscriptions in general are of a religious 
character, and the largest number were carved over the entrances of 
churches, baptisteries, and tombs. They were also found over the doors 
of private buildings, and even stables. They are either passages from 
the Scptuagint, apparently quoted from memory, or, sometimes, mottoes 
made up in scriptural terms. The fact that they were found on other 
than ecclesiastical structures proves that they were intended as charms 
V> ward off evil spirits, and avert misfortunes of all kinds. Not a few 
Srian inscriptions were brought to light, which is a matter for con- 
gratulation, inasmuch as there is a great dearth of Syrian epigraphical 
monuments. Many of the towns visited were absolutely uninhabited, 
sad yet, marvelous to say, the buildings were in a wonderful state of 
j> reservation. The majority of these monuments were of Christian ori- 
gin of from the second to the seventh century, with here and there 
»-jme fine specimens of pagan architecture, as, for instance, some tem- 
ples of elegant classic style. There was a remarkable absence of struc- 
tures not only of the mediaeval period, but also of such as might be ex- 
isted in a land so completely subjugated by Islam. 

All the towns discovered by this expedition had the ruins of from one 
to three Christian churches erected between 400 and 600 A. D., and all 
modeled on the Roman basilical plan. Mr. Butler, in speaking of oue of 
these churches, says: "It is one of the best preserved examples in Syria 
—every stone is in place, only the wooden doors and roofs are wanting 
to make it a practical house of worship. It is of the ordinary basilical 
plan with two rows of columns supporting arches with apse and side 
chapels, and with long lines of clerestory windows, all intact, a typical 
f xample showing the scheme upon which all the ruined churches of this 
type in this region may be restored." The presence of these silent ruins 
bears eloquent testimony to the great power once exerted by the Chris- 
tian Church in these remote Syrian hills, and, indeed, sad to say, they are 
cow about the only things remaining. So completely has the Crescent 
supplanted the Cross, that scarcely a vestige of Christianity can be 
bleed. According to Mr. Butler, these deserted cities of Syria furnish 
an illustration of the domestic architecture of the ancients nowhere else 
preserved, unless, perhaps, in the Pompeiian remains. But the ground 
plana which they exhibit are totally different from those in Pompeii. 
These Syrian houses show at a glance not only the style of architecture 
' n general, but furnish us with all the variety of the domestic structures 
W the period, from the imposing villa of the wealthy down through the 
hounds of the middle classes to those of the very poor. Some of these 
kernes are so well preserved as to exhibit every detail, and a number 
•1 them are dated — the only dated houses of antiquity known, if Mr. 
Butler's opiuion on this point is to be relied upon. 


MetJiodist Beview. 


One of the most interesting characters in the fascinating story of 
ancient Babylonia is Hammurabi, the son of Sin-muballit. This mighty 
ruler, according to some excellent authorities, was the real founder of 
the Babylonian empire, and deserves a place along with the Alexanders, 
Caesars, and Napoleons of historic fame. It is not strange, therefore, 
that a large number of cuneiform tablets containing records of his long 
reign have been brought to light during the past few years ; and doubt- 
less many more will be unearthed as new mounds are opened in the 
ruined cities of his once vast and flourishing dominions. The tablets 
already brought to light have been deposited in the British Museum, 
the Ottoman Museum at Constantinople, and in the Louvre. Our archaeo- 
logical books, encyclopedias, magazines, and newspapers have often 
referred to the Hammurabi documents, and, in a more or less cursory 
way, have commented on their contents. 

Now, however, after several years of study, Mr. L. W. King, of the 
British Museum, has published these documents and made known the 
results of his investigations in three small volumes, entitled The LttUrs 
and Inscriptions of Hammurabi. The first two of these volumes contain 
exact copies or facsimiles of the tablets, and the third has translitera- 
tions and translations of the same. What makes these letters of especial 
value to us is the fact that they form, perhaps, the very oldest collection 
of state papers so far recovered; for, according to the most competent 
Assyriologists, Hammurabi flourished not far from the beginning of the 
twenty-third century before our era. That he was a most powerful 
ruler is evident from all the history at hand. He fully believed in extend- 
ing his vast domains and in improving the welfare of his subjects, for he 
built not only temples and cities, but also canals and huge granaries for 
the purpose of storing corn or grain so as to provide against famine and 
wantiu case of dearth or failure of crops. The letters give an account of 
continuous activity for forty-three years, though, according to the Lidi 
of the Kings, he ruled no less than fifty-five years. These documents 
for the most part are dispatches sent by the monarch to petty kings and 
generals in various parts of his empire. One of these was Sin-iddinain, 
viceroy or general of Mortu. The word 14 Mortu" was perhaps a general 
designation for the westernmost portion of Hammurabi's empire, and 
probably was applied in particular to Syria and Palestine. 

Mr. King calls attention to one important difference between these letters 
and the tablets found at Tcl-el-Amarna. While the latter are wordy and 
repetitious, the former are characterized by abruptness and almost offen- 
sive curtness. This he accounts for by the fact that the Hammurabi 
letters are from a monarch to a subject. Bciug of such undoubted an- 
tiquity they are interesting to the Bible student as showing ciearlji 
though written at the least Calculation as early as the time of A.b»h UH, 
or several centuries before the Exodus, i veryhigh degree of eivilixation. 



Archaeology and Biblical Research. 


Wc incidentally learn that there were, even then, post roads, commercial 
highways, and navigable routes between the various cities of the realm 
tnd the camp or palaces of the king. There were also courts of justice, 
to elaborate code of laws, and a well-defined system of taxation carried 
on with perhaps as much justice, if not more, than to-day in the same 
places under Turkish rule. 

The following is very suggestive, and gives us a side glance at law- 
yers and courts in gray antiquity. A prisoner was fined four hundred 
ounces of gold, but the fine was graciously remitted by order of the 
king. We might think that the prisoner was highly elated at this royal 
beneficence, but read, further on in the tablet, that they retained three 
hundred and ninety-eight for legal expenses and for servants' expected 
f.cs. That bribery is not a modern practice only, and that efforts were 
made even in those early times to bring offenders to justice for tamper- 
ing with the public conscience is shown by the following, quoted in the 
Athenaeum: "Unto Sin-iddinam say, Thus saith Hammurabi; Suman- 
la-ilu hath reported unto me, saying, Bribery hath taken place in Dur- 
jrurgurri [the town of the metal workers], and the man who took the 
bribe and the witness who hath knowledge of these matters are here. 
In this wise hath he reported. Now this same Suman-la-ilu ... I am 
dispatching unto thee. When thou shalt behold this tablet, thou shalt 
examine the matter, and, if bribery hath taken place, set a seal upon 
the money or whatsoever was offered as a bribe and cause it to be brought 
unto me. And the men who took the bribe and the witness who had 
knowledge of these matters, whom Suman-la-ilu will point out unto 
thee, shalt thou send to me." 

The story of the capture of the Ark of the Covenant and its return to 
Judah by the terror-stricken Philistines is illustrated by a similar inci- 
dent in the time of Hammurabi. One of his generals while at war with 
Elam conquered this people and plundered some of their temples. He 
«?nt some of the images as a trophy to his ruler. Hammurabi, 14 prob- 
ably on account of some misfortune which his priest-prophets explained 
■S due to the anger" of the captive goddesses, commands their return 
in the following words: " From Hammurabi to Sin-iddinam. The god- 
desses of Elam which are assigned to thee the troops under the command 
°f Inukhsamar will bring to thee in safety. When they reach thee, 
*ith the troops that are in thy hand, destroy the people, and the god- 
desses to their dwelling let them bring iu safety." 

Most Assyriologists agree that Hammurabi is to be identified with 
the Amraphel of the fourteenth chapter of Genesis. This is the view 
Md by Hammel, Sayce, Schcil, Pinches, and many others. Mr. King, 
however, has little or nothing to say on the subject in his last volume. 
»f. Pinches goes further, for he thinks that he has discovered on a 
tablet of the same period the names of Arioch, Tidal, and Chcdorlaomer. 
I "fortunately, however, the tablet in question is much mutilated ai d 
I :; 'y illegible. 


Methodist lleview. 



The term "forward movement " does not accurately describe all that 
is taking place in India. In a restricted sense it may be accepted, inas- 
much as all movement in India is a change from the stagnation of a 
thousand years. An eminent authority in India declares that among the 
educated classes in that land two contrary tendencies exist with which 
"Christian missions will have to reckon, and by which their success 
among these classes will in the future be greatly influenced." The first 
tendency is toward higher ethical standards and a more definite mon- 
otheism; the second is toward agnosticism and a lax system of morality. 
Both of these, he affirms, are products of Christianity. They are super- 
induced by Western Christianity and foreign contact, and are indicative 
of a transition stage. "Loftier ideas of God and loftier ideals of living 
are," the professor continues, "the priceless but often indirect result of 
the influence of Christian missions in India. This result is to be aimed 
at, to be welcomed, and to be reckoned at its full value, although it 
add nothing at present to the statistical reports of the number of bap- 
tisms or of admissions to the different churches. But the growth of 
agnosticism and irreligion should be recognized as the common enemy 
of Christianity." 

While this is certainly true it may be affirmed that the growth of 
agnosticism and irreligion is " movement," and may indicate the primary 
loosening of the bonds of a traditional faith. The mind unmoored from 
ancestral faith may not swing to positive acceptance of some other for- 
mulated system of belief without resting for a time in non-faith; but 
such an experience will inevitably beget a spirit of unrest and dis- 
quietude and a desire for something more satisfying. Professor Ladd's 
declaration should be emphasized, that the criterion of success, "in a 
land where caste is supreme," is not the numerical registry of convert?, 
but the power over the great system of Hinduism and the daily life of 
the people, which the Christian religion is exerting. The ratio of in- 
crease by birth of the Hindu population does not by any means imply 
an increase of Hinduism; indeed, despite the fact that there are more 
Hindus, it may be quite true that there is less Hinduism, The Zii 
of Work Among the Educated Classes, and of Current Hindu ThoUi \ 
by Mr. Slater, of Bangalore, contains the following letter from an edu- 
cated Hindu: 

*' I have given the subject of social reform my very best thought ittd 
attention these twelve years. My conviction is that the liberal educ*« 
tion of women and the consequent happiness of the home is pOSMDW 
only iu the Christian community. It is Christianity that permits I 


Missionary Review. 


postponement of the marriage of girls. It is Christianity that allows 
widows to remarry. It is Christianity that allows fallen women a chance 
of reclaiming themselves from evil ways. It is Christianity that allows 
foreign travel. It is Christianity that teaches the dignity of labor. It 
is Christianity that allows you all facilities for getting rich, wise, and 
philanthropic. It is Christianity that gives free scope for w r omen to 
receive complete education. It is Christianity that gives you salvation 
without laborious and multifarious ceremonies. If ever the Hindus are 
to rise in the scale of nations, it must be by Christianity and by Chris- 
tianity only. Some of my Hindu brethren may say that agnosticism or 
atheism may produce these results ; but I do not believe in that. Man 
cannot do without religion." 

Primitive races afford some grounds for study not found among 
those of more highly civilized heathen peoples. The Ainu of Japan are 
not wholly free from a mixture of Japanese, or even Chinese civilization, 
but there remain sufficient of the underlying original characteristics to 
interest us in the study of primitive human society, and likewise to sug- 
gest an investigation of what has been termed "the scientific use of the 

The civilized man finds analogies which lead him to attribute to the 
aboriginal concept something of which it was entirely destitute. Even 
missionaries find these analogies useful as stepping-stones from lower to 
higher conditions; they moreover assist them in their endeavor to har- 
monize the universal thought processes of mankind. 

An illustration of this overlaying process is found in the case of the 
Bear festival of the Ainus, said to be their highest religious concept. 
Here, for example, a writer starting with the theory that there is some 
germ of truth in every religion, finds the rudiments of the lofty spiritual 
norm of communion with God. The bear is sacrificed, slain, and eaten, 
that those who sacrificed it may have a carnal communication of the god 
to themselves. Now to liken this to the Roman Catholic doctrine of 
transubstantiation is scarcely to make a " scientific" use of the imagina- 
tion, but a very poetic and liberal use of it. Suppose it turns out that 
thi3 expresses no higher superstition than the not uncommon one among 
races of the lower level, that one takes on the qualities of the wolf, or 
fox, or other animal by eating of their flesh. A toastmaster in New York, 
introducing Dr. Martin, alluding to the fare he shared with others in tho 
•rige of Peking, said he had " fed on horscmcattill he had developed a 
five-hundred horse power on the platform." This pleasantry illustrates the 
tendency of the human mind to find similitudes, which iu the ruder man 
become the base of superstitions. The "scientific" student of compar- 
ative religions is prone to see the rudiments of a higher catechism in those 
canes than is justified. The missionary, on the other hand, without 18- 
tuning that this is a 11 germ "of truth, may enter this kindergarten, and 


Methodist fieview. 

following the law of suggestion, may rightfully seek to attach a higher 
meaning to the superstitious naturalism, and it may with care prove a 
successful method of ingrafting on the lower form the higher, or even 
the highest truth. The foremost missionary of Japan says he has found 
this process efficient with many Ainus. He does not attempt to disguise 
the fact that the Bear festival is an "ugly insinuating growth by means 
of which Satan has been sapping the very life from the heart of the peo- 
ple for years untold." But it is a long way to change this doctrine of 
bestial assimilation to the most holy concept of the highest truth, that 
of communion with God. 

Mr. Batchelor, the missionary, referred to above, emphasizes the danger 
of misconception of these ruder races, on many lines. His first impulse 
on observing the Ainu say " grace " before meals was to think this a ru- 
dimentary form of acknowledging God, but this was rudely shocked by 
finding that it was a form of rudimentary pantheism rather than of 
Christian gratitude. They were worshiping the food itself. At first he 
thought he had another grand truth to build on. But he renders the 
formula as he afterward learned it, thus: "O thou cereal deity, we wor- 
ship thee. Thou hast grown very well this year and the flavor will be 
sweet. . . . O thou god: O thou divine cereal, do thou nourish the 
people. I now partake of thee. I worship thee, and give thee thanks." 
There is nothing in this " grace n more elevated than the Hindu worship 
of the plow before beginning the season's tilling. 

The Ainu calls himself a sinner, but he has no possible perception of 
holiness. He speaks of separate acts as offenses against society, and has 
no perception of the relation of his acts to God or to a divine law. With 
him to say, "Be ye hoty, for I am holy," would mean nothing but 
11 Mind ye the taboos, for I mind the taboos." 

There are persons who think of the difficulties of the missionary in 
conveying truth to philosophical Hindus or literary Chinamen, who fancy 
that the missionary to the " submerged " races has a simple task. A 
study of Mr. Batchelor's The Ai?ws of Japa?i, or the reading of the 
able paper he presented at the recent general conference of missionaries 
in Japan, will quickly disabuse them of this view. 


The two white races of South Africa will find a workable political as- 
similation in the near future. The problem of the Black rermiji White 
races is, however, one that will not be solved so readily. The reason foi 
this is found primarily in the numerical disparity between the two raoi S. 
The Blacks south of the Zambezi outnumber the Whites iu the ratio 
of ten to one. Furthermore, they are far more prolific. During the first 
seventy years of the last century the Hottentots Increased fivefold. 
Should the Bantu tribes be brought into better peace conditions by fl 
dominant European government they WOuld propagate still more rapidly. 

1901.1 Missionary Review. 647 

A* ft possible offset to this, however, their decimation by the adoption 
cf two of the white man's vices, firearms and rum, is a factor to be con- 
sidered. Still, the ratio of numerical disparity is hardly likely to dimin- 
Uh. These Bantu tribes are dissimilar to the Afro- American of thirty 
years ago, in that they are trained to military solidarity under leaders who 
have developed on the line of the "survival of the fittest." 

The "white man's burden" implies government stronger than tribal 
governments. It includes the imposition of a civilization of industry; 
t:id the taskmaster of the mines, the mills, and veldt farms must be the 
white man. The slave, or at least the serf, must be the Bantu, usiug the 
t*ord Bantu in this connection as the generic term for Kaffirs, Bechu- 
»nas, and Fingoes. It should not be forgotten, however, that these native 
races have a wise political instinct and marked ability to present a 
united front against all aggressors. If it shall come to pass that their sys- 
tem of land tenure is violently disturbed; if they are to be taxed exorbi- 
tantly to defray the expenses of the Boer war; if their traditional usages 
arc to be ruthlessly set aside by new parliamentary legislation, these 
things will engender strife and trouble a hundredfold more serious than 
the political suppression of the Boers has occasioned. 

Besides these delicate phases of the situation the religious conditions 
must not be ignored. These Bantu tribes, as a whole, have resisted the 
Christianity which has been presented to them. Their superstitions ob- 
struct and prevent assimilation. Christianity alone can save them, how- 
ever, from being in the long run "civilized off the face of the earth." It 
has been demonstrated that every one of these tribes may be reached by 
the Gospel. Through the labors of the London Missionary Society, with 
headquarters at Johannesburg prior to the Boer war, the rite of baptism 
was administered to three hundred and forty-five thousand Africans, while 
five hundred thousand became adherents of the Christian faith. That 
these races have not rivaled the South Sea Islanders in their acceptance 
of the Christian religiou is accounted for, in part, by the fact that the 
Dutch despise them, while in Zululand the English churches in numer- 
ous instances refuse to allow them to even enter their places of wor- 
•oip. Thus the natives of South Africa have been repelled from Chris- 
tianity !■« superciliousness and race prejudice of the Europeans. This 
preparation for the growth and intensification of race hatred, and social 
conflict by unjust treatment of the Blacks in Church and State, if per- 
•i^tod in, will entail a harvest of disaster and ruin compared with which 
Sepoy mutiny in India and the Boxer uprising in China will pale into 
i:i»i^ni(icance. Let the Christians of America and Europe, recognizing 
the fact that Christianity alone can accomplish the redemption of South 
Africa, address themselves to the task that confronts them. The cri>i> la 
imminent, the obligation pressing. The tide must bo taken at its flood, 
'he work of the American Baptists and the European Congre:»ationalists 
Carefully considered will afford ground for large hopefulness of the re- 
t'euenition of the South African races, if the dilliculties are promptly met. 



Methodist Review. 



Wilhelm Karl. He is a good specimen of a German pastor of scholarly 
tastes, and deserves mention here for the excellent work he has done in 
a couple of recent books on Paul and John, entitled respectively Beitrdge 
sum Verstandniss der soteriologischen ErfaTirungen und Spcculationen da 
Apostels Paulus (Contributions to the Understanding of the Experiences 
and Soteriological Speculations of the Apostle Paul) and JohannUcki 
Studien: Der erste Johannesbrief (Johannine Studies: The First Epistle 
of John). He strongly emphasizes the similarity, if not identity of the 
religious ideas of Paul and John, the principal points of which are the 
real indwelling of Christ and the Holy Spirit in the believer; that this 
divine indwelling produces in believers both ethical perfection and the 
recognition of the Messiahship of Jesus as well as religious ecstasy; and 
the doctrine that by this same divine indwelling eternal life is guaran- 
teed. The emphasis of these phases of Johannine and Pauline teaching 
is particularly valuable in our day when they are so much in danger of 
being overlooked in the interest of mere literary analysis, or of the dog- 
matic position of the apostles. To Kail's mind the Christ is a living, 
present spiritual being. If the similarity or identity of the religious 
views of Paul and John were fully established, Xew Testament theology 
could take on a wider and freer range. It would then be no longer 
necessary to interpret Paul and John each in the light of himself, b\n 
the two could be interpreted in the light of one another. It can scarcely 
be doubted that this would be a great gain; for, while the ideas are the 
same the forms of expression are diverse as the point of view and way 
of approach are different. Thus we have the same thought develo^l 
in two different ways. There is still another distinct advantage arising 
from the recognition of the essential similarity of Paul's and John's 
religious teachings. When this fact is admitted we are no longer in doubt 
mm to the early date of the Johannine writings, or rather of the early 
date of the origin of their contents. Much that is in John's gospel hai 
been rejected as in advance of the earliest teachings of the apostles; but 
gradually it is coming to be seen that there is nothing essential in John'> 
gospel which is not found in the writings of Paul, and in fact that 
Paul's theology, though so much earlier composed, is in some respects 
far more full of speculations than are the later writings of John. K*« 
makes much of the ecstatic element in primitive Christianity. Indeed, 
he overestimates it. For in John there is but little evidence of its pr - 
eucc, while Paul guards against it even to the point of seeming to forbid 
its manifestation. Still, even here we must commend rather than C 
demn Karl. For the tendency in our day is Unquestionably in thfl ,: : - 


Foreign Outlook. 


tion of the entire expulsion of the mystical and emotional element from 
the religious life and contentment with the so-called rational forms of 
Christianity. It is right to be rational, but it is wholly unnecessary to 
check the feelings natural to genuine religious experience. 

XiUdwig Lemme. As would naturally be supposed, the theologians 
of Europe as those of America have their opinions concerning the end- 
It -fvuess of the punishment of the wicked, though it is not often that 
otic of them takes up that theme for special study. In his Endlongleit der 
Yadamniss und allgemeine Wiederbringung (Everlasting Punishment 
and Universal Restoration), Gross-Lichterfelde-Berlin, E. Runge, 1900, 
Lemme gives us an interesting glimpse into this important phase of 
wchatology as it exists in Germany. Lemme does not believe that the 
doctrine of endless punishment is taught in the Scriptures, nor that it is 
demanded by the interests of the Christian faith. The Scriptures speak 
often of the punishment of the finally impenitent as "eternal," but the 
word translated eternal or everlasting does not signify endless, rather 
docs it signify that which does not belong to this present material 
world, and positively that which belongs to the transcendental world 
beyond the grave. Besides, the Scriptures employ highly figurative 
language in relation to this subject, and upon such language no dogma 
can be founded. But while Lemme is sure that the truth is not founded 
iu the doctrine of endless punishment he is equally sjire that the doc- 
trine of universal restoration is false. It has no foundation in the 
Scriptures; on the other hand, many clear passages of Scripture con- 
tradict and exclude it. "The endlessness of punishment in hell is 
rjot a divinely revealed mystery, but an invention of dogmatic theol- 
ogy in the course of its historical development. The doctrine of res- 
toration seeks a solution; and this is its one merit that it points out 
the difficulties of the other position and invites us to seek a true solu- 
tion. But the doctrine itself is destructive of Christianity, and is there- 
fore on a level with modern rationalistic attempts to resolve the peculi- 
arities and absolutives of Christianity into a natural process of religious 
history... As a rule it is observed that those who believe iu the doctrine 
of restoration lose the earnestness and firmness of Christianity." This is 
probably a just criticism of restorationism ; but he is in error when he 
attributes to adherents of that doctrine the idea that the wicked, regardless 
W the depth of their depravity, and in spite of their will, are to be saved. 
^Miat they really hold is that in the world to come they will still have 
opportunity of repentance and faith, and that some time they will 
choose, not merely to escape punishment, but to follow the ways of 
'^'hteousncss. As a third alternative Lemme holds that the fiually 
Unpenitent will be annihilated ; and this he holds on the basis of cer- 
Uln Scripture passages which he Interprets to mean that the dualism 
between wickedness and righteousness is sometime to end. This could 


Methodist Review. 


not be if the wicked lived on forever in endles3 torment, and, since he 
rejects restorationism, the only thing left is annihilation. But there 
is less scriptural basis for annihilation than for endless punishment. 


Das Hans und Grab der heiligen Jungfrau Maria (The Residence and 
Burial Place of the Holy Virgin Mary). By Joseph Nirschl. Mainz, F. 
Kirchheim, 1900. Few Protestants, probably, have ever seriously con- 
sidered the question as to the place where the Virgin Mary spent her 
last days and was finally buried. This is in part due to the fact that to 
the Protestant mind such questions are unprofitable in themselves, in 
part because it is clear that we have no authentic information relative 
to it, and in part because the Virgin Mary is not an object of Protestant 
worship. To Roman Catholics, however, who are given to Mariolatry. 
there is an incentive to such an inquiry; and besides the Romanist tend- 
ency to elevate unimportant matters to the level of essentials, the Ro- 
manist believes in means of obtaining knowledge which, to Protestants, 
appear worthless. Hence it is not to be wondered at that Romanists 
are willing to devote much time and energy to the determination of 
questions which Protestants regard with comparative indifference. 
Among Roman Catholics there are two principal opinions as to the final 
residence and last resting place of the Virgin. According to one of 
these Mary went with the apostle John to Ephesus, where she died and 
was buried. Anna Katheriue Emmerich, a sister of the Augustinian 
Order at Diilmen, near Diisseldorf, some time prior to 1824, had visions 
according to which Mary did not live and die in Ephesus, nor was she 
buried in the Church of Mary in Ephesus, but on a mountain some three 
hours south of Ephesus. The correctness of these visions was supposed 
to be confirmed in 1881 by a French priest by the name of Jean Gouyet. 
who discovered a locality corresponding to the description given by the 
nun, and again in 1891, when a great expedition organized for the pur- 
pose of investigating the subject, coufirmcd the discoveries of Gouyet. 
The Ephesian theory, together with its modification mentioned above, i- 
opposed by that which makes Mary die in her own house in Jerusalem. 
According to this very widely accepted view she was buried by the 
apostles in Gethsemane, from whence her body was carried to heaven 
after three days. This tradition is based upon an apocryphal document 
on the Dormitio or the Transiiis bcatae Marine Virgin is. Nirschl defended 
this tradition in 1896, and was about to do the same again in 1898 when 
Emperor William II, during his visit to Palestine, gave the piece Of 
ground on Mount Zion which bears the name Dormitio htatot ifart*** 
Virginia to the German Society of the Holy Land. According to Nirschl 
the gift of the emperor and the apostolic letter of acceptance of Pop* 
Leo XIII settled the controversy in favor of Zion and Gethsemane; Ml 1 
it is the task of the Investigator to Justify this deed, to show that E 

1901J Foreign Outlook. 651 

sus cannot rightfully claim to be the residence or the burial place of the 
Virgin, that her house stood on Mount Zion and that her grave was in 
Gethsemane. To the Protestant it appears that Ephesus is favored by 
the visions of the nun and Jerusalem by the word of the pope — that 
is all. 

Das Alte Testament fur das christliche Haus ausgewahlt und iiber- 
setzt (Selections from the Old Testament Translated for Home Use). By 
Richard Pfeiffer. Erlangen, K. Pfeiffer, 1901. The author has made 
these selections from the Old Testament, and translated them, under 
the impression that the Bible is not read as much as it ought to be 
among the Germans, and in the hope that his work will contribute to a 
renewal of interest in the old book, especially in view of the fact that 
he has constantly kept in mind the assured results of modern biblical in- 
vestigation. He has omitted some portions of Leviticus and Deuter- 
onomy, especially such as take the form of special legislation, for exam- 
ple, concerning leprosy; also the books of the Chronicles and Esther 
and all those Psalms which shock our Christian feeling by the expression 
of the desire for revenge and the like. But eighty-seven Psalms are in- 
cluded in the book, and they are classified as Psalms of instruction, 
prophecy, prayer, repentance, comfort, thanksgiving, and praise. The 
proverbs which are retained arc also classified. Ecclesiastes is given 
almost in full. The Song of Solomon the author regards as having no 
connection with the thought of the relation of the divine to the human ; 
but as describing solely the relation of man and woman. But since this 
purely human relation is treated with such sacred earnestness and exalts 
love by describing it as strong as death and as a flame from God, he 
thinks the principal portions of the conversations of the lovers should 
be retained. The purpose of the author has been to give only such por- 
tions of the Old Testament as minister directly to the knowledge of God 
and his will concerning us and his dealings with his people. Whether 
he has succeeded or will succeed in making a Biblc^book more attractive 
than the Bible itself it is impossible to determine. He gives no inter- 
pretations except such as serve to render allusions to obscure customs 
clear, and wisely refrains from any but the briefest possible comments. 
There can be no question but that the Bible is to-day a neglected book 
even in the homes of Christians. It is at the same time true that the 
Bible never was so widely and profoundly studied as at present. Un- 
fortunately the use of the Bible has been largely relegated to the Sunday 
school simply because the Sunday school has undertaken to teach it sys- 
tematically. But the vast majority of the children and youth in the 
Sunday schools do not even so much as read over the portions of Si rip- 
turc assigned for the coming Sunday's lesson. The interest is not in the 
Bible but in the school. Thus the Sunday school is the innocent OCC I 
sion for the neglect of the Bible. The more conscientious Sundoj school 


Foreign Outlook. 

teachers, and Bible scholars generally are, of course, diligent students 
of the Word of God. It is to be hoped that such books as this by 
Pfeiffer, and others, intended to restore waning interest, will aid in over- 
coming the influences which in recent years have combined to drive the 
Bible from our schools and our homes. 

The Religious Situation in Belgium. The movement away from Rome 
which is progressing so powerfully in Austria and parts of France is felt 
in Belgium also, though in less degree. The press has lately shown, in 
some quarters, a distinct sympathy with Protestantism. Nevertheless, 
the anticlerical leaders are opposed rather to all forms of religion than 
to Romanism alone, and this will have a tendency to hinder much posi- 
tive advantage to the Protestant cause. The Belgium freethinkers even 
go so far as to deny that there ever was such a person as Jesus Christ, 
thereby stamping themselves as either extremely ignorant or else as 
willing to falsify the facts of history for their purposes. Meantime 
Protestantism gains slowly, though showing many signs of increasing 
activity and hold upon the masses of the people. Still the tendency 
away from Rome is stronger than that toward Protestantism. Rome is 
hated for her constant interference with the rights of the people, espe- 
cially in the schools, where the priests, since 1895, have had the right of 
inspection and religious instruction. So general is the dislike of this 
privilege in Brussels that sixty-five per cent of the parents have exer- 
cised their legal right of excusing their children from priestly instruc- 
tion. Doubtless many more are opposed to these privileges of the priests 
who still tolerate their exercise. 

Some Roman Catholic Statistics. La Gerarchia Cattolica recently 
published some interesting facts relative to the Roman hierarchy, shov- 
ing that it consists of 1,225 members, 56 of whom are cardinals, 11 pa- 
triarchs, 725 real archbishops and bishops who observe the Roman ritual, 
^49 who observe the oriental ritual, 374 titular archbishops, and 10 prel- 
ates without dioceses. The Kolnische Volkszeitujig of February 5, 1001, 
gives the whole number of Roman Catholics in Europe, including Tunis 
and Algiers, as 180,017,283, divided into 118 archbishoprics and 51 8 
bishoprics. There are 248,109 secular and regular priests, 6,050 institu- 
tions of male orders and congregations (not counting Spain, Portugal, 
Belgium, and Russia) with 21,689 priests (not counting France, 
Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Russia, and the Balkan peninsula) and 
146,507 members. There are also 25,043 institutions of female orders 
and congregations (exclusive of Spain, Portugal, Belgium, and RussU) 
with 317,206 members (exclusive of those in Portugal, Belgium, an<i 
Switzerland). Tt will be seen that, large as these flgurei are. IOUM 
them are incomplete. 

1901.] Summary of the Reviews and Magazines. 653 


Pp.ofessor Woodrow Wilson, who shares with Jolin Fiske the labor 
»nd honor of rewriting our early national history, continues "Colonies 
and Nation, A Short History of the People of the United States," in 
the June number of Harper's Monthly Magazine. On the first page of 
1'urt VI is the portrait of John Wesley, to whose stay in Georgia a brief 
reference is made farther ou. It is shown that the settling of Georgia 
m part of the English endeavor to prevent the N ew World from being 
impropriated and controlled by the French and Spanish. The settle- 
n>« at was located on the southern coast between Carolina and the Florida 
settlements^ as a barrier and a menace to bothFreuchand Spanish. This 
colony, sanctioned and aided by King and Parliament, had the advantage 
of the leadership of James Oglethorpe, a soldier, a high-bred gentleman, 
and a decisive mau of action. The high quality of this colony, which 
Kttlcd in the winter of 1772-73 on Yamacraw Bluff within the broad 
urcam of the Savannah, is described by Professor Wilson, and the Puri- 
tanic spirit of the people is manifest in laws which prohibited the 
bringing of liquor into the settlement and forbade negro slavery. In 
fact, a part of Oglethorpe's purpose in choosing this location on the coast 
%vas to close the Carolina border to the passage of slaves. After speak- 
ing of Oglethorpe, as a born ruler of men, whose presence insured respect 
for law and obedience to a somewhat military government, Professor 
Wilson writes: "Oglethorpe had not chosen very wisely, however, 
'-hen he brought Charles and John Wesley out as his spiritual advisers 
and the pastors of his colony. They were men as inapt at yielding and 
a-s strenuous at following their own way of action as he was. They 
rtayed but three or four uneasy years in America, and then returned to 
do their great work of setting up a new dissenting Church in England. 
George Whitefield followed them (1738) in their missionary labors under 
Oglethorpe, and preached there for a little acceptably enough; but he, 
too, wasacqp soon back in England again. The very year Oglethorpe 
brought Charles Wesley to Georgia (1734) a great wave of religious feel- 
ing swept over New England again— not sober, self-contained, decp- 
Currented, like the steady fervor of the old days, but passionate, full of 
wep excitement, agitated, too like a frenzy. Enthusiasts who saw it 
nnd run its course were wont to speak of it afterward as 'The 
^tcat Awakening/ but the graver sort were deeply disturbed by it. It 
old not spend its force till quite fifteen years had come and gone. "Mr. 
Whitefield returned to America in 1739, to add to it the impulse of his 
taip tssioued preaching — going once more to Georgia also. Again and 
tglfohe came upon the same errand, stirring many a colony with his |ia» 


Methodist Review. 

giilar eloquence; but Georgia was busy with other things and heeded 
him less than the rest." 

In The North American Review (New York) for June is a valuable 
paper by Dr. Washington Gladden, on "The Outlook for Christianity/' 
which inquires whether our religion gives promise of retaining its hold 
upon the human race and extending its influence over the thought and 
life of men. The article furnishes figures showing Christianity's expan- 
sion as a world power, in contradiction of the alleged decadence of the 
Christian religion which Christians have heard asserted from the days of 
Celsus down to Bolingbroke and Diderot and Yoltaire and the deniers 
of to-day. "For the early Christian periods we have only estimates; 
but, approximately, there were in the world, at the end of the first cen- 
tury, about five millions of Christians; at the end of the tenth century, 
ten millions; at the end of the fifteenth, one hundred millions; at the 
end of the eighteenth, two hundred millions; at the end of the nine- 
teenth, five hundred millions. The last century has added to the adher- 
ents of Christianity almost three times as many as were added during 
the first fifteen centuries. The rate of progress now is far more rapid 
than at any other period during the Christian era. The growth of the 
world's population is estimated thus: Whereas, in 1786 the dwellers on 
this planet numbered 954,000,000, in 1886 they were 1,483,000,000, an 
increase of fifty-four per cent. But the number of Christians increased 
during the same period more than one hundred per cent. The political 
strength of Christendom is not, however, represented by these figures. 
In 1786 a little more than one third of the people of the world were 
under the government of Christian nations, and a little less than two 
thirds were under non-Christian nations; in 1886 fifty-five per cent 
of the larger population were under Christian rule, and only forty-five 
per cent under non-Christian. The geographers put it this way: In 
1600 the inhabited surface of the earth measured about 43,798,600 square 
miles; of these, Christians occupied about 3,480,900, and non-Christians 
40,317,700. In 1894 the number of square miles inhabited is reckoned 
at 53,401,400, of which Christians are holding 45,619,100 and non- 
Christians 8,782,300. Nearly 500,000,000, or more than a third of the 
world's population, now bear the Christian name, and accept, in some 
more or less intelligent way, Christian theories and ideals. These facts 
do not indicate that Christianity is disappearing from the face of the 
earth, but rather, so far as they go, give reason for believing that it trill 
take full possession of the earth at no distant day." A hopeful token 
for the future of Christianity is in a theological progress due to a purffiw 
ethical judgment. "The old theology emphasized the sovereignty 01 
God in such a way as to make it appear that what was central in him 
was will — his determination to have his own way. 'His mere 
pleasure' was the decisive clement in his action. This theology Wll iht 
apotheosis of will. The later conceptions emphasize the righteousnesi 

1901.] Summary of the Reviews and Magazines. 655 

of God more than his power. The assumption, nowadays, always is 
that of Abraham — that the Judge of all the earth will do right — will do 
what will commend itself as right to the unperverted moral sense of his 
children. Theology has been ethicized; that is the sum of it. To-day 
it is a moral science; one hundred years ago it was not. This is a 
tremendous change; none more revolutionary has taken place in any 
of the sciences. To be rid of theories which required the damnation of 
nonelect infants and of all the heathen ; which imputed the guilt of 
our progenitors to their offspring; and which proclaimed an eternal 
kingdom of darkness, ruled by an evil potentate, whose ubiquity was 
little short of omnipresence, whose resources pressed hard upon omnipo- 
tence, and whose access to human souls implied omniscience — is a great 
deliverance. That these horrible doctrines are obsolete is manifest 
from the fact that the great Scotch Presbyterian Churches have ex- 
plained them away, and that their American brethren are making haste 
to free themselves from the same." The Church's growing purpose and 
increased equipment for work is noticed: "The Church of to-day is a 
far more efficient instrument for promoting the kingdom of God than 
was the Church of a century ago. At that date the Sunday school 
was just beginning; the Church did little but to hold two services on 
Sunday, and sometimes a, week-night service. In fact the Church did 
nothing at all; all the religious work was done by the minister. The 
idea that the Church is a working body, organized for the service of 
the community, had hardly entered the mind of minister or members. 
And the larger w r ork, outside of its immediate fold, was not contem- 
plated. In 1800 there w r as no Foreign Missionary Society in existence 
on this continent, and no Bible Society; a few feeble Home Missionary 
Societies had just been formed. There was no religious newspaper in 
the "world. The vast outreaching work of Christian education and 
Christian publication was scarcely dreamed of by the Churches. Such 
efficient aims of service as Young Men's and Young Women's Christian 
Associations, Epworth Leagues, Christian Endeavor Societies, and the 
Salvation Army are of recent origin." Another hopeful suggestion 
offered is as follows: "The doctrine of the divine immanence, when 
once its deeper implications are understood, must have important results 
in Christian experience. The God in whom we live and move and have 
our being will not need to be certified by documents, symbolized by 
sacraments, or demonstrated by logic; our knowledge of him will be 
immediate and certain. If he is, indeed, the Life of all life; if he is 
'more present to all things he made than anything unto itself can be; • 
if he is 'closer to us than breathing, nearer than hands and feet;' if he 
is really 'working in us to will and to do of his good pleasure;* 
then life possesses a sacredncss and a significance which few have yet 
conceived. This truth glorifies the whole of life, and if the Christian 
pulpit can but grasp it and realize it, we shall have such a revival of 
religion as the world has never seen." 


Methodist Review. 


The Pi'esbyterian Quarterly (Charlotte, N. C.) is the most resolute and 
thoroughgoing champion of uncompromising Calvinism that comes to 
our notice. Its vigor and positiveness are refreshing. It is edited with 
strong feeling as well as with intellectual definiteness. For these 
qualities the issue for January, 1901, was notable. The first article, 
M Three Maligned Theologians," defends John Calvin, Dr. William 
Twisse (prolocutor of the Westminster Assembly), and Jonathan Ed- 
wards against the censures of Dr. Henry Van Dyke and others. An- 
other article of similar defensive purpose is "The Hard Doctrines,'' 
by Dr. James R. Howerton, who says: "Atheism and Calvinism are like 
two great armies between whose lines there can be no neutrality. Sooner 
or later all must betake themselves for refuge to one or the other and 
abide the issue of the battle. Calvinism may be compared to the citadel 
within the walls. When all other systems have surrendered to the bat- 
teries of atheism, to these impregnable walls the defenders of the faith 
may betake themselves and defy the assaults of unbelief." How experts 
differ may be seen by putting alongside this opinion the recently pub- 
lished statement of Dr. George A. Gordon, Pastor of Old South Church, 
Boston;. "Calvinism has had much to do with the production of unbe- 
lief. For the race as a whole, and for the thinker who judges schemes 
of thought from their bearing upon the interests of mankind, there is 
indeed little to choose between Calvinism and atheism. The soul of 
man has had a sad time under all forms of that nightmare. It has be- 
come incredible either as an interpretation of the Gospel or as an expo- 
sition of theism. To Melanchthon Calvinism appeared as a revival of 
Stoicism. .With this penetrating insight before them the praises that 
learned historians have bestowed upon Calvinism are inexplicable. Cal- 
vinism has done some good; it has asserted the priority of God, but the 
kind of priority asserted, and the incompetence of man to pass judg- 
ment upon it, have been an incalculable damage to the conscience of 
Christendom. Against the protests of the moral reason it has elaborated 
systems of ojriniou, trusting for victory over its invincible enemy to bad 
exegesis of Scripture, poor views of history,, and the inequalities of 
human life on earth." This vigorous number of The Presbyterian Quar- 
terly ends with an editorial, entitled "The Calvinistic Century," which 
claims that the old theology is to be the theology of the twentieth cen- 
tury, and that " the triumph of Calvinism in the century that has dawn< d 
upon us is as certain as anything future can be. The blue banner waves 
over the front rank and Calvinism goes westward with the course ot 
empire. ... It is to be the real force iu the establishment of Christ's 
kingdom in the near future." To us, on the contrary, nothing seems 
clearer than that the old (Calviuistic) theology has already gone. Ita 
most interested and spirited foes are of its own household who for their 
owu relief arc bound to be rid of it altogether. The Armhmu forces feel 
now a friendly but rather languid interest in what is going on because, 
as they sec it, their battlo is over and their victory won. The editorial 

1901J Summary of the Reviews and Magazines. 657 

Ju»t referred to says that "the Methodist Church is the only conspicuous 
eSftftipfo of aggressive Anninianism in history," and that "it was the 
truth of its evangelism that caused its triumphs." This is high but mer- 
ited praise, and puts the credit of the overthrow of the old Calvinistic 
theology where it belongs. The statement is correct also as to the tri- 
umphant truth of Methodist evangelism, which was a new evangelism 
of free grace and dying love, offered, not to an elect few, but to all man- 
kind in the name of Him who " tasted death for every man." The most 
vehement and insistent repudiations of traditional Calvinism heard or 
wen in these years come from non-Methodist pens and pulpits — from 
raeh men as Dr. Behrends, Dr. Parkhurst, Dr. Van Dyke, Dr. Hillis, and 
ethers equally eminent whom we could name with certainty. Dr. Gray, 
the brilliant veterau editor of The Interior (Presbyterian), of Chicago, 
recently wrote: "We notice that the editor of this paper is roundly 
dmounced as an Arminian. "Well, that is a gentle impeachment. We 
always have a good time with the Methodists, and hope to have forever. 
We take delight in going around to them, from time to time, to get a 
£f>od ' warming up.' One needs to ' take something ' spiritually to brace 
his faith in God and in man while he is dealing with hyper- Calvinists." 
Dr. Gordon, of Boston, says that the Arminian and Wesleyan protests 
against Calvinism have prevailed because they were primarily protests 
of life; noting also that the plea which life makes for itself has large 
utterance in Browning, and that Louis Stevenson's religion is tradition 
purified by life and attested by life. Dr. Henry A. Stimson writes that 
Calvinism without doubt overemphasized the sovereignty of God, and 
the type of character it produced was strenuous and hard. It was a 
item system and made stern men. "But its theology was incomplete, 
end there has been the inevitable reaction. We have now been living 
for Rome time under the influence of a theology which has delighted to 
call itself Christocentric. It has violently repudiated not only the ex- 
treme doctrines of Calvinism, but also the conception of sovereignty as 
central in a theological system, and has substituted for this love. . . . 
The close of the nineteenth century would give less evidence of the on- 
coming of the kingdom of Christ, aud would show far less of cheerful- 
• ' aud of courage, if it were not for this Gospel which makes so much 
of the ^"iuc love." We do not dispute the statement of James Russell 
tawcll that " Calvinism has produced some of the noblest characters 
the world has ever seen, the very fiber and substance of which enduring 
to "iinouwealths are made." Rufus Choate once said: "I ascribe to 
that five years in Geneva, when many flocked to be taught by John 
* "Irin, an influence which has changed the history of the world; I seem 
w myself to trace to it the great civil war of England, the republican 
institution framed in the cabiu of the Mayflower, the divinity of Jon- 
Wtt*H Edwards, the battle of Bunker Hill, the Independence of Amcr- 
k*." Kenan declared that "Calvin is but the shadow cast by St. 



Metlwdist Review. 



Principles of Religions Education. The Christian Knowledge Course of Lectures 
on the Principles of Religious Instruction. l2mo, pp. 292. New York: Longmans, 
Green & Co. Price, cloth, $1.25. 

The abject of these lectures is the improvement of Sunday schools. Each 
of the ten is by a specialist who treats the subject from his own point of 
view, but all converge upon the one object. Bishop Potter correctly re- 
marks that the withdrawal of all religious instruction from the public 
schools lifts the Sunday school into preeminent importance, and lays upon 
the Church the urgent duty of recognizing its responsibilities and improv- 
ing its opportunities as a teacher of the young. To the discussion of this 
great subject a wide range of experience and matter is here made tribu- 
tary. The lecturers are Professor Nicholas Murray Butler, Bishop Doane of 
Albany, Professor Charles DeGarmo, Dean Hodges of Cambridge, Rev. 
Pascal Harrower, Dr. W. L. Hervey, President G. Stanley Hall, Professor 
F. M. McMurry, Professor Charles F. Kent, aud Professor R. G. Moulton. 
Their subjects are c< Religious Instruction and its Relation to Education," 
"The Educational Work of the Christian Church," "Religious Instruc- 
tion in England, France, Germany, aud the United States," " The Content 
of Religious Instruction," "The Sunday School and its Course of Study,'' 
"The Preparation of the Sunday School Teacher," 11 The Religious Con- 
tent of the Child Mind," " The Use of Biography in Religious Instruc- 
tion," "The Use of Geography in Religious Instruction," and "The 
Study of the Bible as Literature." Ministers, intelligent Sunday school 
workers, and church officers may get hints from these lectures which 
from many points of view are enlightening and suggestive, and are, as 
a whole, not unworthy of the momentous subject which they treat. Con- 
cerning the universal essentialness of religion to the nature and life of 
man, that wise scientific authority, Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, is quoted: 
" The religiosity of man is a part of his psychical being. In the nature 
and laws of the human mind, in its intellect, sympathies, emotions, and 
""i-^sions, u e the wellsprings of all religions, modern or ancient, Chris- 
tian or heathen. To these we must refer, by these we must explain, 
whatever errors, falsehood, bigotry, or cruelty have stained man's creed* 
or cults; to them we must credit whatever truth, beauty, piety, and 
love have glorified and hallowed his long search for the perfect and the 
eternal. The fact is that there has not been a single tribe, no matter 
how rude, known in history or visited by travelers, which has been 
shown to be destitute of religion under some form." Religious training 
5s therefore an integral part of human education, and the Sunday Bcho >l 
is a necessary part of the whole educational machinery of our time. To 
improve and perfect the Sunday school is the aim of some of the wisest, 


Book Notices. 


roblcst, and best educated men and women in the Church, who dedi- 
cate time, labor, and money to this grand object through a lifetime. 
>v*o communion has more of such men and women than the Methodist, 
Mjd the number of well-organized schools increases among us continu- 
& llv. The model Sunday schools like that at Wilkesbarre, Pa. 
(superintended for thirty years by Mr. George S. Bennett), have been 
widely patterned after. The impulse to this widespread improve- 
ment must be credited in large degree to John Heyl Vincent, "whose 
name," says a Protestant Episcopal writer in the book before us, " com- 
mands the reverence of all who would serve the childhood of the 
Church." A Methodist Sunday school within rifle shot of where these 
words are written is so perfectly organized for the nurture and religious 
education of the young that it begins with a "Cradle Roll" which 
contains a list of all infanta over whom it can keep watch, with some 
one made responsible for watching them and seeing that when old 
enough they are entered in the Primary Department (or Infant Class), 
and then passed on and up by examination from grade to grade until in 
the course of years they reach the Normal Department, where they are 
trained to be Sunday school teachers. The multiplication of such 
K-hools is the directest and surest way to solve many of the church 
problems over which pastors and officials are groaning. Multiply all 
over the Church Sunday schools like our best organized and best man- 
aged ones, and use in them our own literature (which is unsurpassed), 
and in a few years you will have well-trained teachers in place of the 
incompetent, you will have congregations with plenty of men in them, 
you will have the pews full of men aud women grounded from infancy 
in the Truth, with minds and hearts in intelligent sympathy with the 
^vide-branching work of the Church, and well-established habits of giv- 
ing to the furtherance of Christ's great enterprise of world salvation. 
Only a blind or stupid Church can fail to see that nothing pays like a 
well-organized, well-managed Sunday school. In that work the Church 
influences human life at its root and fountain. One of the writers in 
this book is Bishop Doane of Albany, who says truly that philosophy, 
icience, historical or literary criticism have not displaced or disparaged 
fcny of the great essentials of our Christian faith; they arc here undis- 
credited, to be transmitted by us to our children, who, on their side, are 
cntitiSa co receive those truths by intelligible and persuasive presenta- 
tion. "The great verities of the Christian faith, dreamed of from the 
first ages of man's conscious thought, and brought to light by the teach- 
,n p of Jesus Christ, are facts that center in and gather about, aud grow 
°ut of the one great Fact and the one great Personality of human 
history, namely, the Incarnate Son of God. They arc not in opposi- 
* ,f >n to, or in antagonism with, any achievement of science, any attain* 
raent of reason, any conclusion of philosophy. They are in the upper 
the higher realm of belief. They are to-day, as they have been all 
through the centuries, the consolation and the inspiration of the human 


Methodist Review. 


race." Bishop Doane refers with characteristic vigor to the queer 
notion of "that curious creation, "W. H. Mallock, who poses and poises 
on a seesaw of sophisms between apparent agnosticism and concealed 
Roman Catholicism," the notion that "the security of the Bible depends 
now upon the Church of Rome, which locked it away from the people in 
an unknown tongue for ages, and which fills her lectionary, not with 
Holy Scripture, but with legends of her innumerable and often ques- 
tionable saiuts." The bishop thinks the idea of an undogmatic religion 
is as absurd as the idea of an invertebrate mammal, a man without a 
backbone; and that one of the most pitiful and painful features of 
modern religionism is the column in Saturday newspapers giving 
the subjects of so-called sermons for the next day. Dean Hodges of 
Cambridge thinks that after teaching the Lord's Prayer, the Ten 
Commandments, the Apostles' Creed, with hymns and Golden Text, the 
best material for awakening interest and stirring the imagination in 
the younger children is found in the Bible stories. Take the story of 
Gideon and the battle of lamps and trumpets, for example; the chil- 
dren will stand as breathless spectators of that strange, splendid fight. 
"They will look out through the dark and see the dim outlines of the 
tents of the Midianites. They will watch the men of Gideon as they hide 
behind the trees to light their lanterns. They will see them creeping 
silently over toward the sleeping camp, every man a sharp sword in his 
belt, in his left hand a lantern hidden in a pitcher, in his right a trum- 
pet. Suddenly the word is given, crash go three hundred stout trum- 
pets against three hundred breaking pitchers, and the lights shine out, 
and the trumpets sound a mighty blast, and every brave Israelite shouts 
with all his might, 1 The sword of the Lord, and of Gideon! ' And then 
the wild panic, and the flight, with Gideon hot after them." For cap- 
tivating and instructing even the. younger children, the Bible is full of 
stories as available as this, and as capable of vivid rendering in language 
level to their understanding. The teacher should see that the story is 
made to convey the right lesson. One day a class had the story of how 
Abraham delivered Lot from the four kings. A boy, being asked to tell 
what Abraham did, answered slowly, "He helped Lot in his time of 
need." "Well, what do we learn from that ?" asked the teacher. And 
the boy, after much cogitation, answered, "That my neighbors ought to 
nelp me in my time of need." At this point in our notice the following 
sentences from the Talmud meet our eyes: " The world is only saved by 
the breath of school children; " " Jerusalem was destroyed because the 
instruction of the young was neglected; " " ne who instructs a child is 
as if he created it;" "To what may he be compared who teaches a 
child? To one who writes on clean paper. To what may he be com- 
peted who teaches an old man? To one who writes on blotted paper." 
The last of these ten lectures is by Professor R. G. Moulton, on "The 
Literary Study of the Bible," and shows the wondrous mntchle>sno-o of 
the masterpieces contained in Holy Scripture, The Book of Dcul 


Book Notices. 


omy is the oldest, grandest oratory. Its title might be " Deuteronomy; 
or, The Orations and Songs of Moses." Considered simply as oratory 
there is nothing in Greek or English to surpass it. It is oratory grow- 
ing gradually into drama, for it is a scries of orations, presenting one of 
the most terribly pathetic of all situations. This book, neglected by 
the ordinary Christian, fought over by the historical critics, is truly 
called one of the masterpieces of language, magnilicent oratory mount- 
ing to sublime dramatic climax. A masterpiece among the lyrics of 
Scripture is Deborah's Song. It appears in the plain prose form in the 
fifth chapter of Judges. But presented in its true literary form it is an 
antiphonal chorus — the chorus of women being led by Deborah, and the 
chorus of men by Barak, these choruses answering one another and then 
uniting. "Now these choruses clash with one another, then they unite 
in an apostrophe to Heaven. The chorus of men describe the miserable 
condition of Israel, and the chorus of women break in with ' I, Deb- 
orah, arose, a mother in Israel.' The chorus of men appeal to the men 
that ride upon white asses and sit in judgment, and the chorus of women 
cry to the assemblies of women in the places of drawing water. Then 
you have the gathering of the tribes. You have the chorus representing 
the tribes that came to the battle, and those that refused, and those that 
changed their minds. The men sing, 'By the waters of Reuben there 
were great resolves.' The women sarcastically reply, 1 Why, then, staid 
ye by the sheepfolds, to hear the pipings for the flocks ? ' And the men 
answer, 'By the water courses of Reuben there were great searchings of 
heart.' The men describe the kings coming to fight; the women chime 
in, ' The stars in their courses fought against Sisera.' The men shout, 
'Curse ye Meroz, curse ye bitterly the inhabitants thereof, because they 
came not to the help of the Lord.' The men describe the strange end- 
ing of Sisera — how Jael, the wife of Hcber the Kenite, received him: 

She put her hand to the nail, 

Her right hand to the workmen's hammer ; 

And with the hammer she smote Sisera, she smote through his head, 

Yea, she struck and pierced through his temples. 

At her feet he howed, he fell, ho lay: 

At her feet he howed, he fell : 

Where he bowed, there he fell down dead. 

The women, w r ith delicate imagery, picture the mother of Sisera looking 
through the lattice, and saying: ' Why is his chariot so long in coming \ 
Why tarry the wheels of his chariot ? ' They represent the mother and 
her wise ladies questioning among themselves, while waiting for the 
spoil. And then all together join in the final cry to ITeaven, ' So perish 
all thine enemies; but let those that love the Lord rejoic e as the sun 
when he gocth forth in his might.' " Professor Moulton urged that the 
bringing out in their true literary form of the grand maaterpiftOM of 
Scripture may be used to interest the older classes in the Sunday school 
and to make the Bible vivid and impressive. 


Methodist Iievievi, 


With Christ of Sea. A Personal Record of Religious Experiences on Shipboard for 
Fifteen Years. By Frank T. Buxlen, Author of The Cruise of the Cachalot, 
Men of the Merchant Service, Idylls of the Sea, Log of a Sea Waif, etc. 12mo, pp. 
325. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company. Price, cloth, $1.50. 

Some difference would seem to be indicated in the several communi- 
ties by the fact that the book most called for during last April at the 
public libraries in Brooklyn and New York, in Worcester and Spring- 
field, Mass., and in Bridgeport, Conn., was Th&£jfe and Letters of Phil- 
lips Brooks; in Salt Lake City, Utah, and in Minneapolis and St. Paul, 
Minn., it was The Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley ; in Kansas 
City, Mo., and in San Francisco and Los Angeles, Cal., it was Haeckel's 
Tlie Riddle of the Universe ; in Chicago it was Mark Twain's works'; 
while in Toronto, Canada, in striking contrast, it was the book now before 
us, Bullen's With Christ at Sea. The large demand for this last book 
would seem to certify the prevalently religious taste of the intelligent 
classes in Toronto, aud also to indicate that the book we are now- noti- 
cing has value and attractiveness. The library reports as a whole indi- 
cate that the ministers of the West have a harder tight in their efforts to 
spiritualize human life and to dislodge materialism, skepticism, secular- 
ism, and lawless thinking from the minds of men. "Admiration for his 
common sense Christianity " causes Mr. Bullen's book to be dedicated 
to the Marquis of Northampton. Our times are flooded with a deluge 
of religious fiction, much of it wishy-washy, confusing, unsettling, or 
otherwise pernicious. Here is a writer who tries to give a plain, real pic- 
ture of religious life at sea, an autobiographic narrative of his own ex- 
periences, without posing, insincerity, or striving for sensational effect. 
Viewed from any standpoint it is a most interesting human document. 
It has been called " The Pilgrim's Progress Afloat," and is little less vivid 
and picturesque than Bunyan's immortal story. The author first went to 
sea, a friendless boy, so small and puny that the mate's wife, seeing the 
ship sail, pitied the little fellow, and, as she went ashore, stooped and 
kissed him, saying, "God bless ye, ma puir chiel." The boy grew up 
among wild, rough, brutal sailors, men of all nationalities, and the fore- 
castle, with its hideous blaspliemies, its obscenity, its cruelty, its stenches, 
its indescribable squalor, was his school. But one night, in a warehouse 
at Port Chalmers in New Zealand, the sailor lad of twenty got hold of 
somethiug, or something got hold of him, that made a new being of him, 
ennobled the desires of his heart, and purified his after life. The reality 
of this experience is tolerably well proven by the fact that amid ridicule 
and insult from his shipmates the lad was not afraid nor ashamed to de- 
clare himself a friend of Jesus Christ and a believer in the efficacy of 
prayer. The boy who dares to make a profession of religion in the dirty 
and hostile hell of such a forecastle, aud who patiently endures the per- 
secution which thenceforth pursues him, is probably a Christian in very 
truth. And here is the story of his battle for his soul, simply and hon- 
estly told, with its defeats as well as its victories; and stories also of th« 
struggles of other fine natures, like " Jem," the huge Norwegian, ind 


Book Notices. 


Ballantyne, the Scotchman, to play the man and live the true Christian 
life, among the hard-used and reckless sailor men who go down to the 
sea in ships and do business in the great waters. Indeed the book is 
alive with strongly marked characters, genuine and racy in their vicious- 
ness, or their virtuousness ; it teems with life and intense meaning. One 
thing which fascinated the sailor lad at the meeting in the Port Chalmers 
sail loft was the clear way in which the leader read the Scripture lesson, 
the first chapter of Isaiah — read it as if it were a living message to living 
men. Truly does the author say that no book has been so much abused 
as the Bible in the meaningless way it is read aloud. Men of high 
scholarly attainments sometimes read the Scriptures vilely, abominably. 
A schoolboy would be sharply reprimanded for reading the commonest 
prose or poetry so carelessly, stupidly, disgracefully. Later on, the sailor 
bought at a secondhand bookstall a paragraph Bible, in which the 
arbitrary divisions into chapters and verses were done away, and the 
metrical parts were arranged metrically. This made the Bible seem like 
another book to him. It was full of sweet and stately music, and the 
reading of Job or Isaiah suggested the cadences of a great organ or the 
chanting of a white-robed choir. The Gospel's transforming power 
over rough and wicked sailors of various nations, together with their 
testimonies and prayers, gives to Mr. Bullen's book its chief interest. Of 
the time when his ship was in port at New Zealand, he writes: " Every 
night we went ashore and eagerly drank in the lessons we heard from 
whoever happened to be telling out the grand ideas of the Gospel, for we 
had not yet grown critical and it all sounded good. O, but it was a 
golden time, that babyhood of the soul, when everybody and everything 
were seen through a tremulous, tender haze of light, the Light which, 
coming into the world, lights every man who does not willingly remain 
blind." What these meetings in the sail loft did for Rasmus Rasmussen, 
the fierce Norwegian, feared and hated by all the ship's company because 
of his great size and strength and untamed ferocity, is told by Bullen and 
by himself. Bullen says: " His body was covered with scars gotten in many 
a savage brawl, and his huge hands were knotted like tree roots. But 
the Master had spoken to him through the alien tongue of an Englishman, 
whereof he understood only the commonest expressions : and now he was 
become like a little child who had been reared in an atmosphere of love. 
I have seen many 1 Miracles of grace,' but this common sailor towered 
above them all." But the big Norwegian ruffian's owu account is best. 
Here is a part of it: " Dear Vrients. I vas a devil. If dere was any- 
ting bad I could do, I haf do it, I haf hate de dear Vater Gott, an' all 
his peoples. Incferhaf no pleasure 'ccpt I ket tronk unt fight. Den I 
com to Port Chalmers unt I go into de meeting, unt I hear a man say 
dat de Lort Jesus is come to tell me vat Gott is; dat Gott ton't hate 
me, an 1 not vant me to die unt go to hell; dat hell ain\l raiting for nu\ 
but Gott vaits allvus, unt dat he ben sorry I vas not happy. He dell me 
dere is von man can send me to hell, unt dat is myselluf, unt dat if I 


-Methodist Review, 


come an' get into his hants nopody, not efen Satan hisselluf, can pull 
me avay agen. Unt vile I lissen, I hear a vort inhere [striking his breast] 
delliu' me, 1 Yes, you ben de man all dis is for.' Unt I pelief it. I say, 
'Yes, Lort Jesus, I ben de man you die for; unt now I ben goin'to gif 
myselluf all oop for you. Unt if any man say to me, 4 How you know 
all dis ? ' I say to him, 1 How I know ? Vat you tink id is keep me 
from swearin', from keddin' dronk, from hatin' myselluf unt eferypody 
ellas ? You ton't know ? Veil, I do. Id ben de Lort Gott Almighty. 
Nopody ellas can do it? Unt now I vas yoost like von leedle shild. I 
have lose de taste for de bad unt find id for de goot, t'ank Gott." And 
Bullen says, t; These broken, halting words gripped the hearts of all who 
heard, so that many wept, and I, who dread intensely all spasmodic emo- 
tional religion, was so moved that I was glad to get away into a corner 
and simmer down." From what he has heard of United States army and 
navy officers and. others speakiug in meetings in forei gn ports, the author 
thinks there must be something in the American climate that favors the 
development of oratorical gifts. The following is part of a poor Scotch 
sailor's penitent prayer: "Lord Jesus Christ, ah am's bad 's ah can be, a 
drucken, swearin', feckless loun; there isna onythin' tae be said fur me 
'at'sguid. But ah ken fine 'at ye love me fur all ahm sae bad. Here ah 
am, tak' me, an'makesomethin' oot o' me' fur ah 've made an awfu'mess 
o' myself. Amen." A most interesting part of this book is the author's 
accouut of a marvelous outbreak of Christian enthusiasm among British 
seamen in the port of Calcutta, caused by the efforts of American mis- 
sionaries laboring at the Rahda Bazaar Seaman's Best in that city. At 
night after the meetings large bodies of sailors were seen returning to 
their respective vessels, singing with all their hearts along the broad 
thoroughfares — not bacchanalian songs but Christian hymns — sober, ear- 
nest, and full of the spirit of devotion. The keepers of all sorts of vile 
dens on the water front were in despair, for their trade was fast disappear- 
ing. Captains of ships consulted together over the mystery of what most 
of them called " this psalm-singing fever." But however they commented 
on the strange epidemic, none of the officers could deny that the effect of 
it on the men was entirely beneficial — they worked better, were in bet- 
ter health, were more orderly, never came on board drunk, made no 
trouble, and were undoubtedly happier than before. " Let those sneer at 
Christian effort who will," says Mr. Bullen, £; there is no such effective 
agent for the elevation of body and soul. Other agencies lop off decayed 
branches, or poisonous suckers; Christianity strikes at the giant taproot, 
and this alone can meet the necessities of the case." This is a book 
calculated to impress the reality aud power of religion, and to awaken 
a wider interest in the great work of various Christian societies on be- 
haU of sailors. It is fit for the home, the Sunday school library, 
the Christian association. It is manly, realistic, without cant or wea« 
sentimentality; moreover, it is as captivating as it is wholesome foi ■ 
classes of readers. 


Book Notices. 


The Highest Life. A Story of Shortcomings and a Goal. By E. H. Johnson, D.D., 
Professor of Systematic Theology in Crozer Theological Seminary. 12mo, pp. 183. 
New York: A. C. Armstrong & Sou. Price, cloth, $1. 

It is what the author has to offer concerning the Keswick movement 
which will attract the most attention from the general public. He 
terms his analysis of this movement a "friendly" one, and so it is. 
Nevertheless, we feel that at some points he has not fully grasped its 
true significance. He puts his finger skillfully on a few weak places in 
it, and admirably points out its dangers, but he does not prove quite so 
competent in comprehending its special merits. His charges against it 
are in the main three, namely, that by its excessive emphasis on a 
certain mystic infilling with the Spirit, Christ is disparaged and the 
Spirit is made the main object of trust and desire instead of the Lord 
Jesus; that "power" (in the pulpit over audiences and in prayer with. 
God) is ascribed too exclusively to the highest spirituality, and suffi- 
cient allowance is not made for birth differences not to be wholly 
annulled by God's grace; and that the type of life taught at Keswick, 
instead of being positive and active, is predominantly negative and 
passive. In regard to this latter possibly the Keswick writers are not 
so much at fault as their critic imagines, and they would freely grant, 
indeed wouN maintain as stoutly as he does, that "the individual has a 
part with the Holy Spirit in his own sanctification." We note that one 
of Dr. Johnson's chief objections to the Keswick scheme is the elabo- 
rateness of its preparation for the infilling, which he deems "entirely 
unwarranted by the Bible." ne may be right in protesting against some 
of the minute details, if those details are to be regarded as a hard-and- 
fast code or a cut-and-dried system to be followed unvaryingly by every- 
body without exception — which we do not think is the idea of the 
Keswick teachers — but he surely admits the main point of contention 
when he says, "It is quite within the biblical teaching that a carnally- 
minded man repels the influence of the Holy Spirit." "What the Keswick 
men evidently teach, and doubtless mainly mean, by their specilied con- 
ditions — abandonment of sin, surrender to Christ, submission unto God, 
and so forth — is evidently the complctest possible putting away of this 
carnal mind which repels the influence of the Spirit, in order that such 
influence may be fully received. As to the other matters mentioned, we 
are disposed to agree largely with Dr. Johnson. God's grace docs not 
annul diversities of temperament; no special blessing will change a dull, 
phlegmatic man into a charming and magnetic speaker, nor can pre- 
cisely the same measures that prove helpful to some be laid down as 
essential to all. It is undoubtedly true that the freedom from known 
sin cannot be accepted as a correct account of the highest life, that duty 
is to be measured not by one's own moral obtuscnos and easy self- 
satisfaction, but by the ideal constitution of man and the all-perfect 
nature of God. lie who is mainly busy iu seeking his own peace and 
joy and power will be decidedly inferior to the man who socks to do 


Methodist Review. 


right because God requires it and -who trusts Christ because he deserves 
it. To live for objects outside ourselves is the highest life, and self-for- 
getful activity for others is one of the main means of reaching it. The 
author does exceedingly well in emphasizing these points, which the 
Keswick men have probably too much neglected. He thinks that 41 the 
Churches are deficient in spiritual power, while the Keswick leaders 
are eminent for spiritual-mindedness and spiritual helpfulness." They 
have conspicuously met, he says, "the two scriptural conditions of spir- 
itual gains, faith and fidelity." They have also rightly emphasized 
what is, for most people at least, real necessity, the definite laying hold 
(by an active faith, after full surrender) of God's provision for his 
people; which laying hold forms a notable crisis in Christian experience, 
the lack of which is chiefly at the root of the lamentable weakness of 
the Church. The Keswick movement would amount to little did it not 
actually help people into a new life, a life which is nothing more nor 
less than the only genuine Christian life in the largest sense of that 
term, after the New Testament pattern, a life of which only a small por- 
tion of the Church seems to have a real experience, or even a clear con- 
ception. This is an excellent book, on the whole, with a strong grasp 
of the shortcomings of various schemes for reaching the highest life, 
which, the author says, have passed into the background, leaving at the 
front the Keswick plan, which he thinks gives the most promise, as the 
others have contributed to it and it is able to avoid the mistakes which 
they made. 

The Kexc Humanism. By Edward Howard Griggs. 12mo, pp. 239. Philadel- 
phia, 111 South 15th Street: Professor E. H. Griggs. Price, cloth, $1.G0. 

This volume of studies in personal and social development is by a 
young college professor who has attained popularity in the public lec- 
ture field as well as success in the class room. The subjects treated are: 
"The Scientific Study of the Higher Human Life," "The Evolution of 
Personality," " The Dynamic Character of Personal Ideals," "The Con- 
tent of the Ideal of Life," "Positive and Negative Ideals," "Greek si J 
Christian Ideals in Modern Civilization," "ThcModcru Change in Weala 
of Womanhood," "The Ethics of Social Reconstruction," "The New 
Social Ideal," and "The Religion of Humanity." The book is without 
preface, appendix, or index. This is its third edition. It says such 
things as these: "The dilemma of freedom and determinism is no more 
enigmatical than the problem of the divisibility of matter, and the con- 
ception of God is no more paradoxical to the human intellect than the 
conception of an atom. In all lines of investigation we are proceed in 
on the basis of hypotheses and assumptions which involve unsolved enig- 
mas." "Anything that can be studied at all can be studied scientific* 
ally. For the method of science is simply rationalized common sense; 
it consists in seeking quietly the ascertainable facts, and then SOberlj 


Book Notices. 


asking what they seem to mean. The moral conduct of men and the 
ideals inspiring it may be taken up in this way, and so give us a positive 
science of ethics." " No fact can be understood alone, but only with its 
relations to others. Facts do not differ in importance according to their 
mechanical size but according to what they reveal. It is a small fact, 
and a very common one, that apples fall to the ground; but when the 
intellect of a Newton is focussed upon this it is seen to be one expres- 
sion of the law that holds the stars in their places, and rounds the dew- 
drop on the petal of a flower. Tennyson was right in saying that if 
he could know the little 'flower in the crannied wall,' 'root and all, and 
all in all,' he would ' know what God and man is; ' for the flower is bound 
absolutely to two worlds : by its physical structure and history to the 
material universe, and by its beauty and meaning to the world of the 
spirit. Only under the aspect of eternity can any fact of time be under- 
stood. The more nearly we approach the universal point of view, the 
more closely may we approximate the true interpretation of the facts of 
life." " Shakespeare's men and women are portrayed, not on the back- 
ground of a future world, but upon the changing screen of time; 
and each of them from Iago to Lear, from Lady Macbeth to Helena, 
from Hamlet to Othello, first works out tendencies of his nature, and 
thereafter is dominated by the results of his own actions; exposing and 
illustrating the inexorable law that every moment, whether well used or 
misused, shapes our destiny, and the fate of our own deeds arches over 
us, somber or beneficent, to lift or blast us, according to the character 
of our own previous lives." The good actions of the past are so much 
power to do good to-day. But that power will be lost unless we go on 
doing more good. We can keep what we have attained only by con- 
quering anew and pushing on. And however circumstances may baffle 
and thwart, the victory of the aspiring spirit may forever advance. This 
victory is seen in Browning's Rabbi Ben Ezra exultingly accepting old 
age and fearlessly facing 'death. It is behind the optimism of Abt 
Vogler and the ringing faith of David's song in Saul: 

I will ? The mere atoms despise me ! Why am I not loth 

To look that, even that, in the face too ? Why is it I dare 

Think but lightly of such impuissanee ? What stops my despair? 

This : 'tis not what man Does which exalts him, but what man Would do. 

And in the "Death in the Desert," we see Man between God and the 
beasts, advancing from one toward the other. Above him God is; 
below him beasts are; both of them fixed in their nature and state. 
But Man is not fixed in his nature or state; he partly is and wholly 
hopes to be; aspiring progress is his need, desire, and prerogative. 
Persistently aspiring and striving even through partial failure, Rabbi 
Ben Ezra, undiscouraged, says, "What I aspired to be, and was not, 
comforts me." Sincerity is the foundation and earnestness is the 
mark of every true life. Goethe very early found that there was only 


Methodist Review. 


one class of people whom he could afford to neglect — the insincere. 
All others, no matter how eccentric or mistaken, had something to 
teach him. "Earnestness," said Buddha, "is the path of immortality ; 
those who are in earnest do not die." Speaking of the mistaken notiou 
that human life can be best developed and fulfilled by negating and 
avoiding great rauges of its activity, our author writes, "The lives of 
mediaeval saiut, and celibate, and monk, and hermit are a record of the 
futile effort to make life noble by wasting its opportunities and thwart- 
ing its normal tendencies; an effort which strangles many of the capaci- 
ties for joy, and wisdom, and love, and action that make us men:" 
The author thinks that the best we have to-day as the outcome of the 
ages of study and experiment is " the Greek ideal transfigured by the 
teaching of Christ; the ideal of rounded, harmonious self-development, 
and high culture, crowned by the noblest spiritual purity, the largest 
love, and a capacity for self-abnegation when that is the path of life." 
In the essay on the modern change in ideals of womanhood, is the fol- 
lowing: "The peculiar greatness of women lies in the power to know 
the truth instinctively in the world of personal relations, and to live it 
with unfaltering fidelity. This quality of the 'eternal womanly' makes 
the splendid heroines of literature and life everywhere. Heloise and 
Desdemona, Ilelena in 'All's Well that Ends Well,' and Margaret in 
4 The Cloister and the Hearth' never fail to know the best and to affirm it 
unquestioningly. What man can be placed beside them ? Browning's 
Caponsacchi is a noteworthy exception; but Abel aid and Othello, Ger- 
ard and Philip in 'The Manxman,' as compared with Kate, all fall sadly 
short of the ideal. . . . Men try to intellectualize all their experiences, 
while the best things of personal life cannot be translated into terms of 
the understanding ; they rarely can give up the smaller calculations of 
prudence, so essential in all ordinary circumstances and so distorting to 
the higher calls of the spirit; they give way to lower influences, allow 
insignificant elements to replace the most sacred things of life, and 
loosely accept a promiscuous adjustment." Writing of the religion of 
the new humanism, it is said that the new prophet whom the world 
awaits, must find the ideal by transfiguring the commonplace; he must 
see and teach the divinity of common things; he must live in the world 
and yet maiutain perfect consecration to simplicity, spirituality, and per- 
sonal helpfulness; lie must call men away from the senseless rush for lux- 
ury, fashion, and wealth, to the things of the spirit. "It is not a new 
gospel that is needed," says the author, 11 but the Gospel anew." Whether 
the humanists think so or not, it is the Gospel, working like leaven in 
our modern world, which is teaching art to transfigure the humblest lil*' 
with the divine significance that dwells at the heart of humanity. Ho* 
modern is this development of the Christian spirit is seen in the fact th:it 
even Dante arrogantly ignored the untutored mass of mankind and felt 
too little interest in their destiny to treat of them either in his heaven 
or his hell. But now, as the author says, art finds the deep ami Snfl« 



Book Notices. 


aite meaning of common life, and the sailor at the pump3 on a sinking 
rcMcl, the fisher's wife moaning alone in the gray dawn, the physician 
beside the bed of the child whose agonized parents stand beseechingly 
iu the background — these furnish the most touching subjects for effec- 
tive painting. Three such paintings the author describes in the modern 
gallery of the Academy at Florence. One represents the dying Raphael. 
At his feet kneels the womau he loved, tears streaming from her eyes; 
at his side sits the old cardinal, anxious if possible to soothe the dying 
man's last moments. There is nothing unusual in the scene; it is only 
the common human tragedy; but it is modern; no such subject was 
found in the paintings of the Renaissance. The second represents the 
jointer, Fra Lippo Lippi, making love to a nun. In the woman's face is 
depicted the awakened struggle between the old ideal she had cherished 
rikI the life of renunciation to which she had consecrated herself, and 
the new desires now surging up in her consciousness and the different 
life which beckons her. That conflict in the soul is grasped and fixed 
upon her face, but it is only a story of common humanity's temptations 
find struggles. The third picture is a poor unfortunate group of wan- 
dering musicians lost in the snow, with the bitter and pitiless winter 
night darkening down. Their neglected and useless instruments lie 
heaped on the ground. The man is half kneeling in an attitude of 
abject despair. His little lad clings to him in terror, while rigid on the 
pathless snow lies the figure of a girlish woman just frozen to death. 
Only a common tragedy of common people, yet the picture wrings our 
heartstrings with the pathos of its appeal. Whatever it was in Jesus 
that made the common people hear him gladly is more and more perme- 
ating modern arts and laws and institutions. It is not manifest that the 
author of The fflm Humanism fully perceives how much the aspiration 
and progress in which he rejoices are due to the living presence of Christ 
among meu, establishing his spiritual kingdom of love and service. 

On Life's Stairicay. A Book of Poems. By Frederic Lawrence Knowles. 
IGnio, pp. 126. Boston: L. C. rage & Co. Price, cloth, $1.25. 

The very cover of this daintily bound little volume, with the long- 
ttetnmed water lilies floating their cups at the top, is a sort of poem in 
*hite and gold ; and its felicitous title is poetic with expansive and 
elevating suggestion. "On Life's Stairway " is a picture title, spacious 
and airy, hinting of upper chambers accessible and inviting in the man- 
*'on of man's existence. The inspiring title hints also that life offers to 
hurnau feet not a flat hopeless level nor an impossible perpendicular 
"•cpi but a practicable midway, upward slope. And the wise title further 
olftta nt the arduousness of man's ascent from the lowly earth to the 
*>fty skies, an ascent which is on feet not on wings, by stairway — mount- 
Rtep by step and not by sudden flight. The last twenty-two poems 
•j this book are under the general heading, M Steps toward Faith." 
•hto poet's stairs, like Tennyson's, slope up to God, but through light 


Methodist Review. 

more than through darkness ; though an optimistic faith is here which, 
like Mrs. Browning's in the windy and echoing hall of life, can "stand 
in the dark on the lowest stair," listening upward, and "affirming of 
God he is certainly there." Richard Henry Stoddard announces Fred- 
eric Lawrence Knowles as "a new American poet," who gives in this 
volume something more than mere poetic promise. Nothing but merit 
can explain the cordial welcome this book has met. It is characterized 
by John Burroughs as most fresh and original; by Richard Burton as the 
real thing, genuine poetry, with art, heart, thought, and imagination : 
by Joaquin Miller as filled with many delicious surprises; by Clinton 
Scollard as fascinating by its manifest sincerity, happy turns, original 
phrasing, and alternate seriousness and blithesomeness ; and by others 
as noticeable for virility and for proud, intelligent Americanism. Now 
of this is surprising in view of Mr. Knowles's fortunate heredity and 
education. A Harvard student and a Wesleyan University graduate, 
his volume of verse is " gratefully inscribed to Professor C. T. "Win- 
chester." He is not a protegd of Richard "Watson Gilder, but if he were 
we fancy Mr. Gilder would have much pleasure and pride in him; indeed, 
we more than surmise he has, without any such relationship. No reader 
can suspect Mr. Knowles of imitation, but if we had found this brief 
bit, "Grief and Joy," afloat without sign of authorship, we should have 
attributed it to the quaint, curt, poignant genius of Emily Dickinson: 

It takes two for a kiss, 

Only one for a sigh ; 
Twain by twain we marry, 

One by one we die. 

Joy is a partnership, 

Grief weeps alone ; 
Many guests had Cana, 

Getbsemane had one. 

This new young singer believes in the unsurpassed glory of the age in 
which he lives, and calls a poet who lives in the past "an echo-g&1 
erer, who with servile breath sucks the lost music from the lip? ot 
death," and tells the dotard, doting on bygones, that, though the glory 
which was Greece is gone: 

Still, proud as Athens, stand th* factory- fed 
New England towns where toil and learning wed. 

The author's own conception of poetry at its highest may be read in 
the verses which tell us that when the great, supreme poet comes vr 
shall see him thus : 

Then upon the heights of dawn, 
With God's beauty clothed upon, 
Arm as firm as limbs of Thor, 
Lips to Music's heart the door, 


Book Notices. 


Heeding neither laugh nor frown, 
Shrill disfavor of the Town, 
Jestings in the market place, 
Hatred's fist or Flattery's face, 

He shall stand — with brow of flame, 
As the Hebrew prophets came ; 
Shouting, as he smites the string, 
" In Jehovafi's name I sing." 

Mr. Knowles has the true poet's insight into Nature's meanings, catch- 
ing "the alphabet of bee and bird," and sensitiveness to Nature's 
movements, feeling in his veins " the sweet carousal of the springs that 
flow through all the Primal Things." His clearness of conception, lucid 
< xpression, and ear for melody insure limpid musical verse. His work 
has " refinement, a quality which, like spirituality," Aubrey De Vere said, 
"tends more to hinder than to promote popularity." We would not 
wonder if a careful judgment of the book would finally say that Joaquin 
Miller's intuition went straight to one of its most perfect achievements 
when he put his admiring finger on those pathetic and lofty verses, " The 
Moon and the Girl." Seldom indeed has a subject of this sort been 
touched, one might almost say hallowed, with such pure and tender 
delicacy. We have to think of One from Nazareth who once stooped 
hnd wrote on the ground — the only writing from his hand of which we 
1. 1\*3 any record. From many things quotable we turn to the verses, 
"To America," as showing virile, vigor, and patriotism: 

Ofttimes, Democracy, thou seem'st to me 

Not what the poets paint — a virgin fair, 
With soft limbs, and pale cheeks of purity 

Framed in the splendid noonday of her hair; 

Nay, but some Western Titan, bare of breast, 
Huge-legged, low-browed, and bearded as of old, 

A man of mountain muscle, and a chest 

Whose lungs indifferent drink the heat, the cold. 

Thy laugh shakes empires to their fall ; thy curse 
Makes buried tyrannies tremble in their graves — 

The Erie cataract has no thunders worse, 

Nor hoarse-mouth'd Hatteras harvesting her waves. 

Yet, coarse, colossal — thou art tender, too ; 

Though crouching nations hasten at thy beck 
To pay thee homage, weakness finds thee true, 

The face of childhood nestles on thy neck. 

0, pioneer of all the years to be, 

Bearing the ax that fells the trees of Time, 
Thy monstrous beauty meaneth more to me 

Than all the goddesses of youth and rhyme. 


Methodist Review. 


iAidd Intervals. By Edward Sa> dfohd Martin. 12mo, pp. 264. New York and 
London: Harper & Brothers. Price, cloth, §1.50. 

This is a clever volume of light, lively, genial, easy essays on such 
topics as "Children," "Swains and Damsels," "Husbands and Wives," 
"Education," "Riches," "Some Human Cravings," "Energy and Its 
Consequences," "Some Theologies," "Times and Seasons," and "Some 
New York Types." It is sympathetically illustrated with oddly sug- 
gestive little designs. In "Times and Seasons" the author cheers his 
fellow Americans in this fashion: "Let us perk up a little. Blind 
optimism is stupid, and consequently bad for us; but there is no harm 
in our looking around for grounds of courage. After all, the Turks are 
less civilized than we are, and their government in Europe is probably 
nearer its end than ours here. Russia has an enormous future, but 
meanwhile her people are semibarbarous, and her government a des- 
potism. Germany has a rather stifling government, and an emperor who 
is amusing when he is four thousand miles off. Our Germans love their 
fatherland — and keep out of it. The French are dying of thrift, so they 
themselves say — dying probably of other worse diseases ; the Italians are 
poor, the Spanish proud, and neither of them prosperous just now. As 
for the English, Mr. Labouchere berates them as cordially as Mr. Godkin 
does the Americans. . . . "We are sinners, to be sure, but let us take 
some comfort in the hope that we have found ourselves out, and more 
comfort in the suspicion that our deficiencies are more glaring when 
contrasted with our ideals than when compared with the defects of our 
neighbors. A state of self-conscious conspicuous virtue is almost cer- 
tain to breed pride, and pride paves the way for collapse and disaster; 
but to be under the conviction of sin, and eager for amendment is one 
of the hopefullest conditions known. Come, brethren! Come! Let us 
renew our hopes and resolve afresh to live up to our duty and our 
chances! " In the free talk about "Education " is the following: " There 
is much uneasiness for fear somebody will get too much education; 
rarely a complaint from any person that he himself has learned too 
much; but complaints that some one else has been or may be educated 
out of his proper station. Andrew Caruegie fears that too much time is 
wasted on polite and academical learning that ought to be invested in 
knowledge that is practical. Collis P. Huntiugton feared that too many 
lads were too long at school, wasting in college years which they could 
not spare. Dr. Donald, of Boston, disparages colleges for girls, and 
avers that college-bred girls are apt to be out of harmony with their 
environment and indisposed to turn their hands to ordinary duties. So 
from the South comes complaint that too many negroes are getting the 
wrong kind of education; that they learn to read, but do not learn to he 
good; that educated black men go idle for lack of employment befitting 
their education. So it goes; and all the while the schoolmaster h 
everywhere, working long hours for small wages, and making trouble bj 
disordering the economics of the universe. We are all, it seems, b< 


Book Notices. 


placated out of our proper spheres. Mr. Carnegie ought row to be 
hammering out horseshoe nails on the anvil; Mr. Huntington should 
have kept a general store in a country village; Dr. Donald ought to 
I* preaching for $400 a year instead of being rector of Trinity Church; 
11! I the college-taught girls in New England ought to be making beds 
tod pies and shirts, and saying ' Sir' to the minister; aud the negroes in 
the South ought to be thoughtless and contented contrabands, indus- 
trious and docile, but unlettered. It is too bad; but it is too late to 
turn back. In this country education spreads and catches like the 
measles; in Great Britain it is almost as bad, and rather worse in Ger- 
many. The means of education are not only abundant, to a great 
extent they are free, and misguided persons are giving millions every 
year to make them freer. The outlook is undoubtedly serious. A 
£Teat lot of other people are becoming as well educated as we are, or 
better; and what will become of the human race ? It is simply appalling 
to think of it!" 


Hi*tory of the United States from the Compromise of 1850. By James Ford 
JiHODES. Vol. IV. 18C2-1864. 8vo, pp. 557. New York: Harper & Brothers. 
Trice, cloth, §2.50. 

A most interesting volume of a careful and trustworthy history. The 
period covered is intense, tumultuous, and bloody — the stormy center 
of the years of civil war, the greatest military conflict of modern times. 
To Americans the story of that terrific national crisis can never lose its 
tragic fascination. The accounts of battles, campaigns, and sieges are 
thrilling ; but perhaps, after all, the most impressive feature of the tre- 
mendous history is the development of great and commanding charac- 
ters, the growth of such men as Lincoln, Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, and 
Lee. Of Lee it must be said that his character shows to high advan- 
tage in almost every view of him, so that one cannot be surprised that his 
aame is tableted to-day in the Hall of Fame on University Heights 
overlooking the Hudson. Mr. Rhodes, speaking of General Johnston's 
bitterness at being superseded by Lee, says: " But no one could quarrel 
With Lee, who in his magnanimity and his deference to his fellow-workers 
taembled Lincoln. Between the courtly Virginia gentleman, proud of 
hi- 1 * lineage, and the Illinois backwoodsman the likeness, in this respect, 
U as true as it is striking." An English officer who witnessed the three 
days' fight at Gettysburg, says that Lee's face, when he found his army 
W ei whelmed with hopeless defeat, did not show signs of the slightest dis- 
appointment, care, orannoyance, and he was addressing the soldiers whom 
Millet with words of encouragment. lie said, "This has been a sad 
*Uy for us— a sad day; but we can't expect always to gain victories." 
To an angry Confederate officer he reached his hand, saying cheerfully, 
"Never mind, general, all this has been my favU — it is I that have lost 

674 Methodist Eeview. [July, 

this fight, and you must help me out of it the best way you can." The 
growth of Lincoln's military sagacity is interesting to watch. From 
ignorance at the beginning he came to a shrewd knowledge of general- 
ship ; so much so that in May, 1863. after the disaster at Chance Uorsville the 
Chicago Tribune seriously suggested that Lincoln take the field as actual 
commander of the Army of the Potomac, saying, "We sincerely believe 
that Old Abe can lead our armies to victory; if he does not, who will? " 
This suggestion does not seem entirely absurd when we find Lincoln 
writing in reply to a letter from Hooker, then in command, on June 5, 
1863: "I have but one idea which I think worth suggesting, and that- 
is, that in case you find Lee coming to the north of the Rappahannock 
I would by no means cross to the south of it. If he should leave a rear 
force at Fredericksburg, tempting you to fall upon it, it would fight in 
intrenchments and have you at a disadvantage, and so worst you at that 
point, while his main force would in some way be getting an advantage 
of you northward. In one word, I would not take any risk of being en- 
tangled upon the river, like an ox jumped half over a fence, and liable 
to be torn by dogs in front and rear, without a fair chance to gore one 
way or kick the other." Ten days later he writes again to Hooker with 
similar quaint sagacity: "If the head of Lee's army is at Martinsburg 
[north of Winchester] and the tail of it on the plank road between 
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, the animal must be very slim 
somewhere. Could you not break him ? " For picturesque and homely, 
as for lofty, speech Lincoln stands as a master. When F. P. Blair, 
Jr., had stirred up an angry disturbance by a speech in the House of 
Representatives, charging Secretary of the Treasury Chase with sacrifi- 
cing vast public interests to advance his political ambition, Mr. Lincoln, 
much annoyed, said, "I knew another beehive had been kicked over." 
A specimen of Lincoln's lofty style is on the monument to Robert Gould 
Shaw on Boston Common, "And then there will be some black men 
who can remember that with silent tongue and clenched teeth ami 
steady eye and well-poised bayonet they have helped mankind on 
to this great consummation;" the consummation referred to being 
to prove "that among free men there can be no successful 
appeal from the ballot to the bullet, and that they who take 
such appeal are sure to lose their case and to pay the cost." When 
Chicago clergymen, in September, 1862, told Mr. Lincoln that they 
and those for whom they spoke believed the disasters which our 
armies hud suffered were tokens of divine displeasure, calling for new 
and advanced action by the President in behalf of the country, such M 
would indicate national repentance for the sin of oppression, he replied 
with a tinge of sarcasm: "I hope it will not be irreverent for me to StJ 
that if it is probable that God would reveal his will to others on a point 
80 connected with my duty, it might be supposed that he would n vial 
it to me; for, unless T am deceived in myself, it is my earnest desire to 
know the will of Providence in this matter. And if 1 can learn whal it 


Book Notices. 


it, I will do it. These are not, however, the days of miracles, and I 
mppose it will be granted that I am not to expect a direct revelation. 
J must study the plain physical facts of the case, ascertain what is pos- 
lihlo, and learn what appears to be wise and right." Before this he had 
iccretly made a promise to himself and his Maker that so soon as the 
rebel army should be driven out of Maryland he would issue a proclama- 
tion of emancipation, and when that army was so driven out he said to 
his cabinet: "Now I am going to fulfill the promise I made to myself 
end my God. I have got you together to hear what I have written down. 
1 do not wish your advice about the main matter, for that I have deter- 
mined for myself." When Lincoln's nomination for a second presidential 
term was officially announced to him, he replied, "I do not allow myself 
to suppose that the convention have concluded to decide that I am either 
Ibe greatest or best man in America, but rather they have concluded it 
is not best to swap horses while crossing the river, and have further 
concluded that I am not so poor a horse that they might not make a 
botch of it in trying to swap." On June 9, 1S64, the New York World 
taid of the nomination of Lincoln and Johnson: 14 The age of statesmen 
U gone; the age of rail- splitters and tailors, of buffoons, boors, and 
fanatics, has succeeded. . . . In a crisis of appalling magnitude, requir- 
ing statesmanship of the highest order, the country is asked to consider 
the claims of two ignorant, boorish, third-rate backwoods lawyers for 
the highest stations in the government. Such nominations, in such a 
conjuncture, are an insult to the common sense of the people. God save 
the republic!" No man in public life was ever so great or good as to 
escape abuse. Richard H. Dana first saw Grant at Willard's Hotel, in 
Washington, just as he was leaving for the front to take command of the 
preat forward movement of the army of the Potomac and disappointedly 
describes him as a short, round-shouldered man with light-brown whiskers, 
ordinary and scrubby looking, in a tarnished major general's uniform, 
*ith a seedy look as if he were out of office and on half pay and nothing 
to do but hang around Willard's with a cigar in his mouth; but he had 
a clear blue eye, a look of resolution as if he could not be trifled with, 
find an entire indifference to the crowd of people staring at him. 11 Can 
this be the generalissimo of our armies," thought Dana, "on whom the 
destiny of the nation hangs ?" But "his face looks firm and hard, his 
*J0 keen and resolute, and he is certainly natural and free from all ap- 
pearance of self-consciousness." It is remembered that Thomas Oarlyle 
bad little love for the American republic. His version of the meaning 
<'f our great conflict was that the North had said to the South, " You 
unaccountable scoundrel, I find you hire your servants for life, Dot by 

the month or year as I do. You are going straight to hell, you ;" 

nr 'd that the South had responded sweetly, "Good words. But the 
r|k k is my own, and I am willing to take it. Hire your servants by the 
taOnth or the day, and get straight to your heaven, and leave me to my 
°' ,v n method;" and that thereupon the meddlesome aud ferocious 


Methodist Review. 

North had shouted, "No, I won't. I will beat your brains out first!" 
About the same time Tennyson, rejoicing over the prospect of the aboli- 
tion of slavery, was pacing his room and singing joyfully the John Brown 
hymn, "Glory, glory, hallelujah; his soul is marching on!" In 1370, 
when it was thought that Carlyle might visit this country, Emerson 
wrote him an overgracious letter, of which the following, found on the 
last page of this fourth volume of Mr. Rhodes's admirable history, is a 
part: "Every reading person in America holds you in exceptional 
regard, and will rejoice in your arrival [at Boston]. They have for- 
gotten your scarlet sins before or during our war. I have long ceased 
to apologize for or explain your savage sayings about America or other 
republics or publics, and am willing that anointed men, bearing with 
them authentic charters, shall be laws to themselves, as Plato willed. 
Genius is but a large infusion of Deity, and so brings a prerogative all 
its own. It has a right and a duty to affront and amaze men by carry- 
ing out its perceptions defiantly, knowing well that time and fate will 
verify or explain what time and fate have through them said. We must 
not suggest to Michael Angelo, or Machiavel, or Rabelais, or Voltaire, 
or John Brown of Osawatomie (a great man), or Carlyle, how they shall 
suppress their paradoxes and check their huge gait to keep accurate 
step with the procession on the street sidewalk. They are privileged 
persons, and may have their own swing for me." So wrote Emerson 
what seems to us a dangerous and repugnant doctrine, which democracy 
and the kingdom of God must alike spurn. The idea of a privileged 
class of geniuses or nobles, kings or princes, not accountable for their 
utterances and actions to the same authority and under the same law as 
the lowliest and the poorest, is an offense and an abomination. 

George H. C. Macgregor, M.A. A Biography. With Portrait. By the Rev. Duncan* 
Campbell Macgkegou, M.A., "NVirubleton. Crown 8vo, pp. 2S9. New York and 
Chicago: Fleming H. Pievell Company. Price, cloth, §1.50. 

The subject of this biography had not reached the age when distin- 
guished pulpit ability and effective pastoral ministrations would natur- 
ally have won him fame on this side of the Atlantic. He was, on the 
contrary, not yet thirty-six when he ceased his labors, and his pastorates 
had been but two — one at Aberdeen, Scotland, and the other at Notting- 
Hill Presbyterian Church, in London. His presence at. Mr. Moody's 
summer meetings, in Northfield, and his stirring addresses there, had, 
however, brought him to the notice of many Western auditors, with the 
result of a sudden and enviable American reputation; and now that he 
has gone to his rest there are many devout believers who will give hi> 
biography a place among their treasured volumes. In a simple bttl 
impressive manner the author tells the story of Mr. Macgregor'fl birth 
and childhood, his educational training, his call to the Christian min* 
istry, and his manifold activities as a shepherd of the flock of Christ, 
To reproduce even the prominent incidents in his busy and useful life i s 
forbidden in this brief notice. The popularity of his service i>, how- 

Book Notices. 


r>t r, indicated in the fact that in the summer of 1885, " after his first 
pension in divinity," he ministered in Nova Scotia with great acceptabil- 
ity; that in 1S87 he was called to missionary work among the Moham- 
IBtdans, the verdict of the medical examiners which forbade him to 
undertake the labor bringing him keen disappointment; and that later 
calls came to him from St. James Square Presbyterian Church, in 
Toronto, and from Mr. Moody's Avenue Church and Institute, in 
Chicago — to which latter position he felt not the " least drawn," saying, 
-J do not think I am fitted for this post in the center of a new world." 
The analysis of his life, as presented in his biography, is full of instruc- 
tion to those who crave a close walk with God and a career of active 
usefulness. In the complete consecration of his powers to God, the 
divine Being had come to seem a near and all-influential presence. " I 
have never seen it so strongly in anyone," says a friend; "his life was 
•0 lived in the presence of his Master that no one ever came into close 
contact with him without feeling the power of that Presence, and. so no 
one ever came away quite the same afterward." His devotion to sacred 
*ork was complete. "A man," he declared, " has only one life. lean 
honestly say that the point that has weighed with me is how I may best 
use my life and the powers God ha3 given me for the advancement of 
the kingdom of Christ. I have tried during my ministry to look at my- 
tclf, not so much as a minister of the Free East Church or the Free 
Church, but rather as a servant of God, bound to do his work wherever 
he wishes me to do it — whether in Scotland, or England, or America, 
or, what is equally possible, in heathen lands, among those who have 
not yet heard the Gospel of Jesus Christ. The place where a man works 
is, after all, of little consequence provided he feels it is the place where 
he can best serfe his Master's interests." At Keswick he was a promi- 
nent and persuasive leader, and the eighth chapter of this biograph- 
tontains at once an outline of that spiritual movement — from the pen of 
H. C. G. Moule, D.D., Norrisian Professor of Divinity at Cambridge — 
•ad personal recollections of Mr. Macgregor's presence and influence 
there. His life was, in a word, one of " unwearied quest for holiness," 
*'hose fragrance will long linger among men. 11 Few have exercised, in 
ttost things," says Mr. Kelman, "a more watchful self-discipline, and 
lew have kept more steadily in view, not as a far-oil hope for the other 
life, but as a present experience through faith, the fullness of the Spirit 
•fid union with God." "Why such a rare spirit and worker, endowed as 
lie was with athletic build and vigor, should be taken in his early prime 
J>1 added to the list of unsolved mysteries, unless it be that he permitted 
zeal of God's house unduly to consume him; and in this is a lesson 
*hich should be heeded by many. The book can only be productive 
M Rood, being one of those impressive life stories which on every page 
■Ur the heart of the reader with new desires for the divine fellowship. 
^ Ise and noble are they who esteem the beauty of holiness more desirable 
the splendor of riches or the decoration of honor. 


Methodist Review. 


A WomarCs Life for Kashmir. Irene Petrie. A Biography. By Mrs. Ashley 
Carus- Wilson, B.A. With an Introduction by Robert E. Speer. With por- 
traits, maps, and illustrations. 8vo, pp.343. Kew York and Chicago: Flemiug 
H. Bevell Company. Trice, cloth, $1-50. 

This volume is both a conveyer of missionary information and a life 
story of surpassing charm. Taking its place with the many publications 
that during the past century have opened the heathen world in successive 
glimpses to the Christian student, its importance is easily evident. Mis- 
sionary literature is in fact permanently enriched by its vivid portrayal 
of Eastern life in the region of Asia, adjacent to the Punjab and Tibet, 
commonly known as Kashmir. What was perhaps a vague section of 
the Asiatic continent now assumes a concrete location. Its social, com- 
mercial, and religious life is sufficiently outlined in the biography to 
awaken a keen appreciation, as well as that entrancing beauty and rich 
fertility described which formerly made the land "the prey of ruthless 
conquerors," and "serves to bring thither an ever-growing number of 
tourists and holiday-makers to-day." The reader comes to understand 
how it is that "the poet and the historian, the traveler and the sports- 
man have sung its praises again and again; " and in his acute realization 
of the whiteness of the harvest which there awaits the Gospel reaper he 
feels his zeal strangely kindled in its behalf. The Gospel alone can 
meet its indescribable spiritual destitution, but the Gospel is sufficient 
for this. The words of Miss Petrie herself, now that she has ceased from 
her labors, seem full of encouragement for the ultimate result: "The 
progress of Christianity has as yet been slow; perhaps, however, in no 
way slower than it was in our own Britain, where for centuries one gen- 
eration after another of Christian missionaries patiently confronted the 
hostile fanaticism and repelling indifference of pagans there." But the 
volume, besides the store of information which it contains, is also 
strangely attractive because of the personality of the heroine whom it 
describes. She was no ordinary worker who, in a spirit of Christian 
consecration, had gone out from England to missionary service. Fa- 
vored in intellectual endowments, rarely gifted in music and as an artist, 
brilliant as a linguist, born in high social position among the stately 
homes of England, and dowered with that subtle sweetness of character 
which draws humanity to its possessor, she laid all her abilities and lier 
acquisitions as a glad sacrifice upon the altar of foreign service. And 
the fact that her brief day of toil, before the summons came to call her 
home, was spent under conditions particularly lonely, primitive, anil 
repelling emphasizes in the mind of the reader that sacrifice which she 
made for the kingdom of her Lord. She was one of those choice spirits 
of whom there arc too few in the world, whose untimely passing bring* 
a permanent sense of loss to those that survive. The expressions of 
affection with which the concluding chapter of the biography abounds 
show how deep a place she filled in the hearts of those who knew her. 
"The news reached friends in Canada, the United States, New 7-ealand, 
Japan, and in each place the sound of lamentation was taken up." A 


Book Notices. 


|k loved and gifted worker has gone to her rest, whose story should 
, ate as an inspiration for glorious toil to many readers on both sides of 
{ ],c Atlantic. Mr. Eugene Stock has called her "the most brilliant and 
cultured of all the ladies on the Church Missionary Society roll." And 
«.f lier brief career another writes: "She spent four years in missionary 
e-.rvicc, and died at the very beginning of her work. It was one more 
::.,vmpkVed life awaiting fulfillment in the lives of men and women who 
uill take up the work which she loved and served, through the holy 
persuasion of her example and spirit." 


S&ctions from the Writings of Rev. John Wesley, M. A., Sometime Fellow of Lincoln 
College, Oxford. Compiled and Arranged with a Preface, by Herbert Welch, 
cf the New York East Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 12mo, pp. 
312. New York: Eaton & Mains. Cincinnati: Jennings & Pye. Price, cloth, $1.25. 

This book will surely fulfill the desire expressed in its preface : " This 
relume has been compiled with the hope that it may bring to its readers 
pome fuller appreciation of the breadth and beauty of Wesley's teaching, 
■ome clearer apprehension of the prophetic quality of Methodism's 
fuuuder, and may show from the original documents the providential 
mission, the message, and the spirit of the Methodism which has proved 
so mighty a factor in the Anglo-Saxon world of to-day." That service 
the book will render to a host of readers, if its merits shall be duly 
ft'lvertised. For the work of selecting from the voluminous works of 
Wesley the things most excellent, most pithy, most essential, most 
interesting, and valuable to present-day readers, has been done with 
»uch superior judgment that no other book of Weslcyan selections equals 
It, and no other need be attempted hereafter. In the vast mass of 
Wesley's writings there is much which has little relation to, or interest 
for the world of to-day. The effort to give a modern currency to old 
•Tilings has failed more frequently than it has succeeded ; they do not 
»j>cak the dialect nor fit into the landscape of to-day. But "Wesley's 
best is of perennial worth, freshness, and pertinence; and the best is 
tare in Mr. Welch's book, and nowhere else so judiciously chosen and 
*o well arranged. The volume will take its place, this reviewer thinks, 
M a standard book of Wesleyan selections. Mr. Welch's preface adds 
no little interest and value. He quotes from recent tributes to Wesley 
Mid his work the words of The Spectator : 11 England, as a whole, is as 
truly interested in Wesley as in Shakespeare; and it may well be doubted 
whether in the long course of her history any one person has ever influ- 
enced her life in so direct, palpable, and powerful a way as John Wesley.'' 
Also from Augustine Birrell, English lawyer and literary critic: "You 
c *nnot cut him out of our national life. No single figure influenced so 
tanny minds, no single voice touched so many hearts. No other man 
■W such a life's work for England." Of Wesley's Journal, BirreU 


Methodist Review. 

speaks as " the most amazing record of human exertion ever penned 
or endured ... a book full of plots, and plays, and novels, which 
quivers with life, and is crammed full of character. If you want to gt:t 
into the last century, to feel its pulses throb beneath your finger, be cou- 
tent sometimes to leave the letters of Horace Walpole unturned, . . . 
nay, even deny yourself your annual reading of Boswell or your biennial 
retreat with Sterne, and ride up and down the country with the greatest 
force of the eighteenth century in England." An attractive and profit- 
able feature of this volume is the frequent pithy footnotes, which are 
admirably chosen and placed. A well-made index completes the adapta- 
tion of the book for usefulness. We commend it for a large sale and 
wide reading as the most satisfactory volume of its kind. 

Synopsis of Harman's Introduction to the Study of the Holy Seriptwres. By the 
Kev. C. M. Heard, D.D., Editor of the Conference Examiner, etc. 12mo, pp. 73. 
Minneapolis: The Conference Examiner Publishing Company. Price, cloth, 40 

Synopsis of Mileifs Systematic Theology, Vols. I and II. By the Rev. C. M. 
Heard, D.D., Editor of the Conference Examiner, etc. 12mo, pp. 118. Minne- 
apolis: The Conference Examiner Publishing Company. Price, cloth, 50 cents. 

These handbooks belong to that class of publications of which the 

world takes far too little notice, but which are nevertheless necessary to 

the student as helps to accuracy and the saving of time. "What Dr. 

McClintock did, a half century since, for "Watson's Theological Institutes 

has, in other words, been done for the above-mentioned works of Har- 

man and Miley which are now included in the Conference Course of Study. 

Upon their preparation Dr. Heard must inevitably have expended great 

labor, and in their finished form they seem, so far as a necessarily brief 

examination can reveal, at once exhaustive and luminous. For the 

successive undergraduate students in our Conferences these excellent 

compendiums will undoubtedly serve, in the coming years, as valuable 

interpreters of the larger text-books which they outline. 

John the Baptist. By F. B. Meyer, B.A., Author of Paul, A Servant of Jew* 
Christ, etc. 12mo, pp. 252. New York and Chicago: Fleming H. Revell Company. 
Price, cloth, $1. 

Volumes of religious teaching fall easily from the pen of Mr. Meyer, 
and seldom more helpfully than in the present instance. Confessing for 
himself — and for many others besides, it may well be said — that in the 
life and character of John the Baptist he has always found a great fasci- 
nation,' he here reviews in seventeen chapters the career of the great 
prophet. To all of the recorded incidents in that ascetic and noble life 
he gives the fullest amplification which is well possible, confirming 
thereby in the mind of every reader the verdict he is led to pass upon 
John: "As the clasp between the Old Testament and the New — the 
close of the one and the beginning of the other; as among the greatest 
born of women; as the porter who opened the door to the true Shep- 
herd; as the fearless rcbukcr of royal and shameless sin — the Baptist 
must ever compel the homage and admiration of mankind. M 

Methodist Be view. 



Dukixg- the month of October, 1900, the Methodist Episco- 
pal churches of Europe held a series of " conversations " 
which were called the " October Conventions." The Ger- 
mans called them " conferences/' They were really formal 
"conversations" designed to stir up the laity as well as the 
ministry to think and to talk on matters affecting Church life, 
doctrine, and polity. It is impossible for the Church to make 
advance unless its members are interested in the various ques- 
tions and " causes " for the discussion and promotion of which 
the Church stands. Great conventions are impracticable ; in 
fact, impossible. All the people who have wise thoughts on 
great subjects are not able to come together. Distances are 
too great, time too limited, expense too heavy, other engage- 
ments too exacting, the difficulty of entertainment insurmount- 
able. Then it is true that many people with the wisest heads 
would not say a word in public even if they were present. 
As we could not take all the people to one convention it was. 
decided to take a convention to all the people. It is easy 
enough to find or to form groups of two, live, ten, or more 
people who will talk together freely. The Christian Church 
has high authority for such little gatherings. It was the Master 
'limself who said, " Where two or three are gathered together" 
to my name, there am I in the midst of them " (Matt, xviii, 20). 
ouch centers of Church power may be developed on the street, 
*t the table, in shop or parlor, anywhere, everywhere, at any 
"'tie. In pursuance of this thought the experiment was made. 
And the {; October Conventions," from Norway to the Black 
Sea and from Sicily to St. Petersburg, were really very sue- 
"'^ful. More than a thousand were held. Many thousands 



Methodist Review. 


of the laity took part in them. Reports were made by the 
preachers in charge to their presiding elders, and by them to 
the resident bishop. Several presiding elders, after comple- 
ting the regular business of the Quarterly Conference, at once 
organized an " October Conference " and discussed one or 
more of the four appointed topics. Pastors brought class 
leaders together for a " conference." " Conversations " were 
conducted at Sunday school teachers' meetings, at Epwortk 
League gatherings, in afternoon women's meetings, etc. 
Pastors preached on the four topics. Editorials and articles 
appeared in all the Church papers. Casual conversations were 
turned into formal and official conventions for the canvassing 
of the four great questions of the month.* 
[ The four topics selected for the European October Conversa- 
tions were, " Class Meetings," " Local Preachers," " The Twen- 
tieth Century Fund," and " The Greatest Xeeds of Methodism." 
All these topics were carefully and most thoroughly canvassed. 
The conversations became a seminar of highest value, eliciting 
the experiences and opinions of men and women of all classes 
and of all degrees of culture, from mechanics to university 
professors. The writer of these pages became deeply inter- 
ested and studied all these subjects de novo, inspired to the 
task by the enthusiasm of his brethren, and aided greatly by 
the practical suggestions from brethren in the pastorate and 
by brethren and sisters in the laity. 

The present article offers to the readers of the Review the 
results of the month-long seminar on that important subject, 
"The Class Meeting " — an institution which there is reason to 

* From a large budget of correspondence from pastors and presiding elders the fol- 
lowing expressions are taken at random: "Good results everywhere." ..." One 
hundred and seventeen 'conversations ' held on my district." ..." Class meeting* 
have been organized and are flourishing." . . . "We had from ten to twenty ' oonv< r« 
sations* in every church." ... "Held on every circuit. Subjects treated In ad- 
dresses, discussions, and In the prayer meetings." . . . "The October Oon> eutfoi - 
should become a permanent institution. They have already improved our d»si 
meetings." . . ."Since the October Conventions our chtsscs have been b< ttt< I 
attended." ... A pastor in Switzerland reports: " Thirty-six convention*. 1 
preached four sermons on the subject and wrote four articles for the Church paper." 
. . . From Sweden: "The October Conventions have been held in all places 00 V? 
districtand have been a great blessing to our people." . . ."The October Ooni 
Rations proved a good preparation for protracted meeting." . . . [n Bulgarian) 
district "twenty-six private and four public conversations held." ... In N> 
on one district "nearly two hundred 'conventions.' "... In Finland " one Bi 

dred and eight conventions nnd fourteen hundred and sixty-two persons present" 


The Class Meeting in Methodism. 


fear, if not effete, is at least the exceptional form of Church 
activity in American Methodism. One is glad to know that 
in Continental Methodism it is still a most important factor, 
and that in English Methodism, thanks very largely to the 
wisdom and breadth and vigor of ex-president Hugh Price 
Hughes and The Methodist Times, it is experiencing a 
genuine and, we trust, a permanent revival ; for we may be 
assured that Methodism of the true and enduring type goes 
up or down with the growth or deterioration of the "class 

But to our task of summarizing the results of the October 

The class meeting is a device employed especially in the 
Methodist branches of the Holy Catholic Church : 1. To aid 
the pastor in the supervision and care of individual members ; 
"2. To promote in these individuals vital, healthful, progress- 
ive, fruitful religious experience ; 3. To encourage a higher, 
richer social life through the habit of frank and judicious con- 
versation among Christians on religious and practical subjects, 
and especially on subjective spiritual experience ; 4. To secure 
intelligent and steady cooperation in financial, eleemosynary, 
and other practical forms of Church life. 

Let us look at some of the advantages of the class meeting 
system : 

1. It gives the pastor a knowledge of his church through 
his more perfect knowledge of the units that constitute it. It 
is true of the Church as John Stuart Mill says of the State, 
u The worth of the State is the worth of the individuals com- 
posing it." Jean Paul Richter says, " Individuality is every- 
where to be spared and respected as the root of everything 
trood." The church must "live in its individuality." Our 
Discipline recognizes this in its definition of the class meeting 
M " a system of pastoral oversight that shall effectively reach 
every member of the church." By this system a pastor may 
*now all of his people, give each one something to do — know- 
in g in advance what each one can do best — and giving to each 
°i»c through pulpit ministrations what he most needs. 

2. The class promotes in the individual a vital, personal, 
spiritual experience. 44 The only faith that wears well," says 

Methodist Review. 


Mr. Lowell, " and holds its color in all weathers is that which 
is woven of conviction and set with the sharp mordant of 
experience." Methodism believes in personal experience, with- 
out which "profession " is empty and u doctrine " dead. The 
believer may " know." He may know that he lias passed 
from death to life. He may know the power of grace and the 
blessedness of the peace within. And, knowing, it is well to 
tell. And the right telling always helps others. Sir Edwin' 
Arnold says, " The experience of any one honestly stated has a 
value." So say all the scientists. The psychologists believe 
the same. And so do the saints. The class meeting is the 
Christian man's opportunity to help his brother by telling how 
(rod has helped him. Conversation is a school. It makes 
people think. It spreads knowledge. It develops strength. 
The best school recitation takes the form of an earnest conver- 
sation. What an exercise for the school of Christ ! Watch 
old travelers as they compare notes. Study a group of enthusi- 
astic reformers, politicians, fellow-students. See what a class 
meeting may be ! Conversation may be professional, didactic, 
controversial, experimental. This last is the form that prevails 
in the ideal class meeting. What a power it was! What a 
stimulus it may again become ! 

3. The class meeting may protect the inner life of our people 
against self-deception, superficiality, undue dependence upon 
local and temporary conditions (the personal influence of this 
evangelist or that pastor). It protects against mere emotional- 
ism, discouragement, and apostasy ; against the new " fads'' — 
modern adventism, faith-healing pietistic "science," Saturday- 
ism, a?sthetic sacerdotalism, and all that ilk. It applies to indi- 
vidual cases the pulpit discussions of great doctrines, and it 
suggests to the preacher the special needs of the hour. The 
class meeting thus proves how essential it is under our itiner- 
ancy to guarantee at least a permanent subpastorate. 

4. The class meeting cultivates the social spirit and life, 
bringing people of different social types into friendly com- 
munion on the basis of divine relationships and experiences. It 
is a social leveler. It expands the horizons in which busy and 
nnintellcctual people live. It develops conversation in a nat- 
ural tone on high and holy themes. 


The Class Meeting in Methodism. 


5. It builds up the church as a working agency — guarantees 
cooperation in local financial plans — in social science, in visita- 
tion, and other forms of benevolent ministry. It demonstrates 
the cumulative power of little gifts, systematically and con- 
tinuously made. It confirms the habit of giving to the church 
according to one's ability. Thus it makes it possible for a 
wise executive pastor to build up his church on every side 
aihI to keep the zeal of the church aflame. 

In the " October Conversations " these varied results of class 
meetings were expressed in such figures as the following : " It 
i- a complete system of church shepherding ; " " It is the 
church barometer ;" " It is what the heating apparatus is to a 
t.uilding ; " " It is a spiritual gymnasium ; " " It is an experi- 
ment station in the Christian life; " "It is a tower of observa- 
tion for the pastor." One brother put a great deal into one 
sentence when he wrote, " Serious church members Jove it, 
indifferent members need it." 

What to do in the class meeting is a problem for the pastor, 
for it is he who is responsible for the selection and appoint- 
ment of the leader. Now the good leader — man or woman, 
young or old, uneducated, as "Father" Reeves, or refined, 
elegant, and sensitive, as the artist James Smetham — must be 
Knsible, practical, consecrated, consistent, " of good report," 
enthusiastic, and faithful. Carelessness in the selection of 
" leaders " and gross neglect in the training of leaders will 
largely account for the present unpopularity of the class. 

But having the class and the leader, what shall he do ? 

1. He must remember first of all that it is not the main 
tiling in class to have a very pleasant and inspiring u experi- 
ence " of one's own to tell. Never think about " an experi- 
ence to tell." We go to class for a self-forgetting talk 
about Christ, for a reverent talk with Christ, and for a 
•rank talk about how we may do our best work for Christ. 
U»us we shall inevitably start an " experience." Talking 
■bout him, talking with him, hearing him talk to us through 
hie word and by his Spirit, we are sure to be able to Bay, 
'* Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by 
tl'e way, and while lie opened to us the Scriptures? n There- 
lore the members of a class must look away from self, must 


Methodist Review. 


look at the tilings that are above ; at great doctrines, at great 
promises, at Christ himself, our great Saviour. 

2. The leader must see that the exercises of the class are 
varied and interesting as well as instructive. Prayer, Bible 
readings, Bible study (let every member have a Bible) ; con- 
versation as in a room at home; religious testimony — frank, 
modest, simple, as in the sight of the heart-searching Christ 
himself; the study of hymns, the old hymns, the doctrines in 
hymns, the soul's experience in hymns, the grace and tender- 
ness and promises and power of Christ in hymns ; questions, 
oral or in writing; readings from the Discipline, especially 

26-33, 50-57, and much besides. As for the use of the 
Bible in class we may quote from the life of Father Beeve>. 
" He was never satisfied until every 7 member could for himself 
prove from Scripture every doctrine he professed and quote 
from Scripture the warrant for each promise on the fulfillment 
of which he relied." In class meeting we may now and then 
sit in reverent silence for a few minutes like good Quaker- — 
thinking, praying, longing for the felt presence of God — thus 
" waiting " upon him. 

3. There are many topics for conversation in class meeting 
and for thinking about in advance, and through the whole 
week as a preparation for class: "The trial of faith," u The 
treatment of temptations," "What is selfishness — self-indul- 
gence — self-denial?" "The real value of self-denial," "How 
may we help self-depreciating, sensitive, morbid, discourage*! 
people ? " " How may we carry our religion into home life I 
"How should we feel toward and speak of other denomin;> 
tions ? " " "What may the humblest, the least gifted, the poor- 
est people do to help on the work of the church ?" " How may 
we win our own children to Christ and to the church ? " The 
class meeting may canvass the questions of " Sabbath observ- 
ance," " The true use of the holy sacrament," " The cultivat i< 
of an intelligent and sensitive conscience," "The financial 
claims of the church and of the benevolent causes," " Giving 
as a means of grace," " Covetousness and pride among poor 
people," etc. If the leader will encourage the members lo 
bring written questions on any subject he will accumulate 1 
real treasure of suggestions for the profit of his members, 

The Class Meeting in Methodism. 


4. The leader should see that the class lias influence over its 
members seven days a week. Its wires of spiritual wisdom 
and power should stretch out into home, street, and shop. There 
is a wealth of spiritual wisdom in such writers as Raskin, 
Tennyson, and Browning, for example, and a wise leader will 
encourage literary sessions for the study of the deep and pre- 
cious spiritual contents of these and other writers. He should 
encourage intercessory prayer — the members for the pastor 
and for each other, the well for the sick and the sick for the 
well, parents for their children, the home workers for mission- 
aries in the foreign field, etc. The class meeting should be 
warm with enthusiasm and Christian affection. It would be 
possible to carry on a correspondence with other class leaders, 
with former pastors, with absent members. The leader should 
himself, or through a committee, collect from wide ranges of 
literature strong, quickening, comforting sayings, proverbs, 
experiences, and incidents, especially from biographical litera- 
ture. The class should occasionally have from its own scrap- 
books and notebooks some of the gems it has thus collected. 
It should have its own little circulating library of devotional lit- 
erature. It should study from the Christian view point many 
of the modern social problems on which God's word sheds light. 
It should sympathetically study questions relating to the rich 
and the poor, the cultivated and the ignorant, the employer and 
the employed, and seek to carry the Gospel into all the walks 
of life. Its members should systematically visit the very poor 
and the people who are u shut-in.'' It should mark with special 
services the Church days and also the birthdays of its mem- 
bers and especially the memorable davs — days of conversion, 
of great victory, of special blessing, and the death days of the 
dear saints we have known and loved, and who have left us — 
days of death here that were truly birthdays in heaven. 

5. From the European seminar we here report it was easy to 
make up the following condensation of advices to class lead- 
ers (they come from all the fields) : Be regular in attendance. 
The leader must never fail. Be on hand a little before the 
time. Begin promptly. Close promptly. Always pray short 
(except in your closet of private devotion at home). Don't talk 
too much. Don't tire out the member.-. Don't preach. Be 



Methodist Review. 


in earnest. Be simple-hearted, natural, gentle, real. Be 
willing that your own wife, children, and business associates 
should hear every word that you speak in class. Make use 
of the Bible a great deal in private, but don't be tiresome with 
it in class as some leaders are. Comfort the downcast. Xever 
scold. Be hopeful and joyful yourself. Encourage everybody 
to take part in class. Repeat Dr. Chalmers's prayer, " Lord, 
save me from denying thee by my own silence." Have high 
ideals of Christian manhood and w r omanhood, and of the Church 
as designed to make such ideals real. Live a large life. Sing 
and encourage your class members to sing: 

My narrow workroom seems vast and nigh ; 
Its dingy ceiling a rainbow dome. 

Discourage pessimism and fault-finding. Repress with gen- 
tleness and firmness that cheap religious fervor that attempts 
humor, that tries to be funny in talking about religious experi- 
ence, and that indulges in empty " Hallelujahs " and " A mens" 
and other meaningless exclamations ! Be always in earnest, 
serious, reverent, faithful. Give your class a name and a 
raetto. Cultivate the esprit de corps. Use the printing press. 
Circulate " Forest Leaves" * and " leaves of the tree of life." 
Go to your pastor often to help him- and to be helped by him. 
And go to God every day. "Walk with God. As a good 
mother once said to her son as he left home, " Live near to 
. God." 

How shall class leaders be prepared for their work ? "With- 
out preparation one can no more exercise the teaching and pas- 
toral functions of a class leader than can the minister, without 
preparation, preach, the teacher teach, the lawyer counsel, the 
judge decide, or the physician practice. The fundamentals with 
the minister, the lawyer, the teacher, the judge, and the phy- 
sician are character and tact. The same qualities are needed 
in the class leader. But after native endowment is recognized 
a work of preparation is necessary. The pastor's estimate of 
the work to be done will largely determine the qualities of the 
leaders he selects and trains. 

1. The pastor must believe in the class meeting — its mission, 

* The name of :i now scries of useful readings. 


|$01 J The Claxs Meeting in Methodism. 689 

III possibilities, and the secret of its efficiency. He must 
necept the teachings of the Discipline, i f^f 28-33, 50-55, 101, 
193, and Appendix 64. And if lie does not have this measure 
,.f faith in the class he should seek a place in the ministry 
outside of Methodism. Our success imperatively demands the 
acceptance and appreciation of the Methodist theory on the 
mbject of class meetings. 

2. He should select women as well as men of age and experi- 
ence as class leaders. 

3. He should organize a company of young people with 
wise heads and loving hearts and put them into training for 
class leadership in the future. 

4. He should put honor upon the office, teaching all church 
members to appreciate its importance, its aims, and the meth- 
ods by which its original effectiveness may be restored, and 
thus a new career of power and success be opened before the 
Church. He should recognize his class leaders as in a sense 
associate pastors. 

5. He should hold conferences with and give systematic 
instruction to the class leaders, expounding the Discipline, and 
lecturing to them on such subjects as the following : "The 
Tare of Souls," "The Use of the Bible in Spiritual Guidance," 
"The Ways of the Spirit in the Inner Life," u The Danger of 
Self-deception," " The Peculiar Perils of our Age," " The 
Class Meeting Work of Early Methodism in England and 
America," etc. 

C. He should select a special library of tracts and small 
books for leaders and other Christians, and incite the whole 
Church to read more devotional and other religious literature. 
From the list of books announced in the Appendix to the Dis- 
cipline he should begin his selection. 

7. The pastor should cultivate a class enthusiasm, visiting 
**ch class occasionally, inviting them to his own house, admin- 
istering to each class at least once a year the holy sacrament 
H1 »d using that opportunity for exhorting them to a more per- 
fect consecration of themselves, their children, and their prop. 
trt y to the service of God. All this would strengthen the 
winds and increase the power of the leaders. 

8. As already suggested, the pastor should at every meeting 


Methodist lievievj. 


of the Official Board call over the entire list of church mem- 
bers and probationers. In the largest church this would re- 
quire but a few minutes ; and the names would soon become 
familiar to the whole board, cases requiring attention would 
be referred to committees, and many lost and neglected sheep 
be saved to the Church. 

9. Certain Sunday school teachers and their classes should 
be bodily transferred to the immediate recognition and care of 
the Official Board as regular classes of the church. We have 
scores of Sunday school teachers who are already doing the 
work of class leaders. Their recognition would give added 
power to them, connect the school more closely with the 
church, and set before the school a model of what all Sunday 
school classes ought to be. 

It is not a gracious thing to find fault with an institution 
which is on the whole useful. It is well to treat the positive 
side of a cause and put emphasis on that, leaving the evils to 
correct themselves. But the deterioration may be so advanced 
as to require — after the strongest possible putting of advantages 
and duties — that there be added a suggestion of warning, that 
the good may be free from limitation and hindrance. The 
October Conferences, I am sorry to say, universally presented in 
very forcible way the " difficulties " and the " hindrances." In 
this paper I make a condensation of these reports : 

1. The first embarrassment and hindrance is in the incom- 
petence of leaders who lack consecration and training. Too 
many leaders " do not seem to take the appointment seriously." 
They have little "sense of responsibility." They do not read 
and study for the work ; lack enthusiasm, adaptation, and ideas ; 
"do not visit pastorally ;'" are irregular in the holding of meet- 
ings ; " in class are " formal," " tedious," and " apathetic.'' 

2. Too many things are going on in the Church — new de- 
vices which "are excellent, but they crowd out something bet 
ter." The Sunday schools, the Epworth League, the Been ' 
orders, the "clubs" — literary, political, reformatory, BOCial— 
the Young Men's Christian Association, the parlor life. IM I 
ern recreation and entertainments — all these things hurt the 
class meeting. Better sacrifice something else and retain tl 


TJie Class Meeting in Methodism. 


3. The defects, the human infirmities that crop out in the 
class room, especially where the leader lacks discretion and 
tact, repel many people and seem almost to justify the objec- 
tion which really has its root in world liness. Weak, impulsive, 
inconsistent people are encouraged in rant and empty fervors. 
The monotony and formality of testimony sometimes given by 
ignorant folk repel if not offend thoughtful people. There 
i< not enough growth in spiritual life. "People live in tradi- 
tions. They depend on the husks of harvests gathered twenty- 
five years ago.' 5 Too many class leaders give opportunity to 
hobbyists in "holiness" or "temperance" or " the second 
coining " or " the worldliness and wickedness of the Church." 
God forbid that I should reflect upon earnest people who 
think deeply, feel keenly, and speak earnestly on any one of 
these subjects. It is not of these I speak in this criticism. 
I>ut rational people will not long attend any meeting that 
becomes a center of grumbling and disloyalty. Again, weak, 
ignorant, and malicious people may exploit personal grievances 
in the class and assail other members of the church. Satan 
may appear among the sons of God, and that as a " saint." 

4. We must not and cannot forget the perils of introspection 
while conceding its advantages. The class meeting is not a 
place merely for self-searching, for unguarded, pious, egotistic 
expression. It is the secret meeting place for souls who hun- 
ger and thirst after righteousness, and who in united faith and 
fellowship seek the Master's presence and the " burn heart " 
which his presence kindles. It is a pity to think of the class 
M a place for pious profession and as always requiring a " happy 
experience" or a praiseworthy report of one's own character 
and prospects. This conception works untold harm. It 
engenders superficiality, hypocrisy, and the worst form of self- 
ishness. It trusts to temporary impulses. It discourages and 
impels truly humble, genuine, but timid souls. 

Let the class leader repress with frankness and holy severity 
luese things that do so much harm to the Church of God. 

J'et the ministry give itself to the training of judicious and 
competent class leaders, and, by example, public exhortation, 
ari d faithful pastoral appeal, secure the confidence of the church 
,!l this time-honored institution. 


Methodist Review. 


And finally let us put in the hands of leaders and people 
and pastors the books that will prepare them most thoroughly 
for this delicate and most important work of edifying the 
Church of God. 

Of course the best book is the " Book of books," in which 
we find the invitation to the class (Psa. lxvi, 16-20), the ideal 
of the class (Philem. 6), the counsels concerning the class 
(1 Thess. v, 11 ; Heb. iii, 12, 13 ; James v, 16). The Bible is 
the class leader's and the class member's manual with its wealth 
of biography, its revelations of the inner life, its laws of right- 
eousness, its Gospel of grace, its " exceeding great and precious 
promises," its teachings concerning the Father, the Saviour, 
Jesus Christ, the abiding Comforter, the Holy Ghost, and its 
prospects of eternal fellowship in the heaven. The class 
meeting is the best possible Bible class, its narrated experi- 
ences become the most practical and useful commentary, and 
the inward experience of its truths the best demonstration of 
its dignity. 

The next best class book is the hymn book, in which arc 
embalmed in rhythm and rhyme the deepest, sweetest, richest 
thoughts that the soul can grasp. Herbert says : 

The fineness which a hymn or psalm affords 
Is when the soul unto the lines accords. 

The class meeting tends to bring soul and truth into such 
perfect accord. The whole experience of grace, from the 
first sharp pangs of sin to the highest raptures of the love of 
God shed abroad in the heart, are to be found in the hymn 
book of the Church. A rich list of books might here be 
reported, some in our own, and some in foreign tongues. T»> 
but four I call the attention of pastors and thoughtful class 
leaders: The Evidence of Christian Experience, by Lewis 
Frank Stearns; The Spiritual Zifc, by George A. C 
Christian Life and Theology, by Frank Hugh Foster ; The 
Spring of Character, by A. T. Schofield, M.D. 

The following list will be Wflrt ttpefrrl ! 

The Biographies of Wesley, Fletcher, Hester Ann Roger*, 
Carvosso, James Smctham, Father Reeves, John AYoohnan. 

Books on Class Meetings: Seed Thought*) by Geoi 


The Class Meeting in Methodism. 


Robiuson (last edition); The Class Meeting: Its Value to 
Churchy Prize Essays by three English Wesleyan Minis- 
tort ; Thoughts Bpohm in Class, Jessop (English) ; The Class 
fouler, by John Atkinson. 

Additional Books on the Spiritual Life: Tongue of Fire, 
hv William Arthur ; Character and Characteristics of Wil- 
liam Jones, by Alexander Whyte, D.D., of Edinburgh ; In 
Green Pastures, by Dr. J. ~R. Miller ; BimyoMs Characters, 
First, Second, and Third Series, by Dr. Alexander Whyte; 
Dr. Schaff's Christ in Song. 

Books of Choice Selection : Chiefly, Daily Strength for 
Daily Needs, compiled by Mary W. Tileston ; Honey from 
Many Hives, James Mudge ; JJehoeen the Tights, Fanny B. 
Bates; Thoughts for the Thmightful, Adelaide S. Seaverns. 


Methodist Review. 



When the letters and speeches of Lincoln were appearing 
in the papers as part of the news of the day, I wonder how 
many of us who were then living appreciated them from the 
literary point of view. I remember that at a certain period, 
some time after the war, I seemed for the first time to awake 
fully to the attraction of Lincoln's style. Beginning with the 
famous and familiar speech at Gettysburg, I reread many of 
his writings, and felt everywhere his genius for expression. 

Of style, in the ordinary use of the word, Lincoln may be 
said to have had little. He certainly did not strive for an 
artistic method of expression through such imitation of the 
masters, for instance, as Robert Louis Stevenson's. There 
was nothing ambitiously elaborate or self-consciously simple in 
Lincoln's way of writing. He had not the scholars range of 
words. He was not always grammatically accurate. He would 
doubtless have been very much surprised if anyone had told 
him that he had a "style" at all. And yet, because he was 
determined to be understood, because he was honest, because 
he had a warm heart and a true, because he had read good 
books eagerly and not coldly, and because there was in him a 
native good taste, as well as a strain of imagination, he achieved 
a singularly clear and forcible style, which took color from 
his own noble character, and became a thing individual and 

He was, indeed, extremely modest about his accomplish- 
ments. His great desire was to convince those whom he ad- 
dressed, and if he conld do this — if he could make his views 
clear to them, still more if he could make them appear reason- 
able — he was satisfied. In one of his speeches in the great 
debate with Douglas he said: "Gentlemen, Judge Douglas 
informed you that this speech of mine was probably carefully 
prepared. I admit that it was. I am not a master of language : 
I have not a fine education. I am not capable of entering into 
a disquisition upon dialectics, as I believe you call it ; but 1 
do not believe the language I employed bears any BUCh con- 
struction as Judge Douglas puts upon it. But I don't c 

[901.] Lincoln's Power of Expression. 695 

alxmt a quibble in regard to words. I know what I meant, and 
j will not leave this crowd in doubt, if I can explain it to 
them, what I really meant in the use of that paragraph." 

AVho are, to Americans at least, the two most interesting 
men of action of the nineteenth century? Why not Napoleon 
uiid Lincoln ? No two men could have been more radicall v 
iliilerent in many ways ; but they were both great rulers, one 
according to the " good old plan " of might, the other by the 
^ood new plan of right : autocrat — democrat. They were 
alike in this — that both were intensely interesting personali- 
ties; both were moved by imagination, and both acquired 
remarkable power of expression. One used this power to 
carry out his own sometimes wise, sometimes selfish, purposes ; 
to dominate and to deceive ; the other for the expression of 
truth and the persuasion of his fellow-men. 

Napoleon's literary art was the making of phrases which 
pierced like a Corsican knife or tingled the blood like the call 
of a trumpet. His words went to their mark quick as a stroke 
of lightning. When he speaks it is as if an earthquake had 
passed under one's feet. 

Lincoln's style is very different ; heroic, appealing, gracious 
or humorous, it does not so much startle as melt the heart. 
These men were alike in this — that they learned to express 
themselves by dint of long practice, and both in youth wrote 
much nonsense. Napoleon in his young days wrote romance 
and history ; Lincoln wrote verse and composed speeches. 
Napoleon failed as a literary man ; Lincoln certainly did not 
make any great success as a lyceum lecturer ; in fact, his style 
was at its best only when his whole heart was enlisted. 

Lincoln's style, at its best, is characterized by great sim- 
plicity and directness, which in themselves are artistic quali- 
ties. In addition there is an agreeable cadence, net overdone 
except in one curious instance — a passage of the Second In- 
augural — where it deflects into actual rhythm and rhyme : 

Fondly do we hope— fervently do we pray — 

That this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. 

This does not spoil, hut it somewhat injures, one of the moel 
,IM *'niorable of his writings. 


Methodist Beview. 


Then there is in Lincoln a quaintness, a homeliness, and 
humor of illustration, along with a most engaging frankness 
and intellectual honesty. The reader has both an intellectual 
and moral satisfaction in the clearness and fairness of the state- 
ment. All this affects agreeably the literary form, and helps 
to give Lincoln's style at times the charm of imaginative utter- 
ance; for imagination in literature is, essentially, the faculty 
of seeing clearly and the art of stating clearly the actual real- v 
ity. There was nothing of invention in Lincoln's imagination ; 
his was the imagination that is implied in a strong realization 
of the truth of things in the mind of the writer or speaker. 

Where and how did Lincoln gain his mastery of expression i 
He said of himself : 

The aggregate of all his schooling did not amount to one year. He 
was never in a college or academy as a student. . . . "What he has in the 
way of education he has picked up. After he was twenty-three and had 
separated from his father, he studied English grammar — imperfectly, of 
course, but so as to speak and write as well as he now does. He studied 
and nearly mastered the six books of Euclid since he was a member of 
Congress. He regrets his want of education and does what he can to 
supply the want. 

As a boy at home we are told that he would write, and do 
sums in arithmetic, on the wooden shovel by the fireside, 
shaving off the used surface and beginning again. At nine- 
teen it is recorded that he "had read every book he could find, 
and could spell down the whole country." He read early the 
Bible, JSsop's Fables, Robinson Crusoe, Pilgrivi's Progt '••>>. 
a history of the United States, Weems's Life of Washington, 
Franklin's Autobiography; later, the life of Clay and the 
works of Burns and Shakespeare. Not a bad list of books 
taken seriously and not mixed with trash ; for, of course, cul- 
ture has to do not so much with the extent of the information 
as with the depth of the impression. 

The youthful Lincoln pondered also over the Revised St 
utes of Indiana; and " he would sit in the twilight and read 
a dictionary as long as he could see." John Hanks said, 
" When Abe and I returned to the house from work he woulu 
go to the cupboard, snatch a piece of cornhread, take down » 
book, sit down, coek his legs up 03 high as his head, and K ■ 


Lincoln? & Povjer of Expression. 


At twenty-four, when he was supposed to be keeping a shop, 
Nicolay and Hay speak of the "grotesque youth, habited in 
homespun tow, lying on his back, with his feet on the trunk 
of the tree, and poring over his book by the hour, grinding 
around with the shade as it shifted from north to east." 

The youth not only read and thought, but wrote, among 
other things, nonsensical verses; and he composed speeches. 
He went early into politics, and soon became a thoughtful 
and effective speaker and debater. Of the language that Lin- 
coln heard and used in boyhood, says Nicolay, is an essay on 
M Lincoln's Literary Experiments " printed since the Life was 
issued, u though the vocabulary was scanty, the words were 
nhort and forcible." He learned among men and women poor 
and inured to hardship how the plain people think and feel. 

In his young manhood at Springfield he measured wits with 
other bright young lawyers, in plain and direct language be- 
fore plain and simple-minded auditors, either in political dis- 
cussion or in the court room ; either in the capital or in the 
country towns of Illinois. His mathematical and legal studies 
were an aid to precise statement, and his native honesty made 
him frank and convincing in argument. He felt himself to 
be a poor defender of a guilty client, and sometimes shirked 
the job. 

If for a brief period in his youth he indulged in anything 
resembling the spread-eagle style of oratory, he was quick, as 
Xicolay declares, to realize the danger and overcome the 
temptation. His secretary relates that in his later years he 
used to repeat with glee the description of the Southwestern 
orator of whom it is said, "He mounted the rostrum, threw 
hack his head, shined his eyes, and left the consequences to 

% practice in extemporary speaking Lincoln learned to do 

& most difficult thing, namely, to produce literature on his 

kgs. It is difficult thus to produce literature, because the 

frords must flow with immediate precision. It is unusual for a 

politician to go through life always addressing audiences, and 

vet always avoiding the orator's temptation to please and 

^ptivate by extravagant and false sentiment and statement. 

' he writer, and particularly the political writer, is tempted to 


Methodist Bevievj. 


this sort of immorality, but still more the speaker, for with 
the latter the reward of applause is prompt and seductive. It 
is amazing to look over Lincoln's record and find how seldom 
he went beyond bounds, how fair and just he was, how re- 
sponsible and conscientious his utterances long before these 
utterances became of national importance. Yet it was largely 
because of this very quality that they assumed national im- 
portance. And then both his imagination and his sympathy 
helped him here, for while he saw and keenly felt his own side 
of the argument, he could see as clearly, and he could sympa- 
thetically understand, the side of his opponent. 

Lincoln was barely twenty-three when, as a candidate for 
the Legislature, he issued a formal address to the people of 
Sangamon County. It is the first paper preserved by Kicolay 
and Hay in their collection of his addresses and letters. 
.Nicolay well says that " as a literary production no ordinary 
college graduate would need to be ashamed of it." 

In this address we already find that honest purpose, that 
"sweet reasonableness" and persuasiveness of speech, which 
is characteristic of his later and more celebrated utterances. 
In his gathered writings and addresses we find, indeed, touches 
of the true Lincoln genius here and there from the age oi 
twenty-three on. In the literary record of about his thirty- 
third year occur some of the most surprising proofs of 
the delicacy of his nature — of that culture of the soul which 
had taken place in him in the midst of such harsh and un- 
promising environment. Reference is made to the letters 
written to his young friend Joshua F. Speed, a member of 
the Kentucky family associated by marriage with the family 
of the poet Keats. 

In Lincoln's early serious verse the feeling is right, though 
the art is lacking; but the verses arc interesting in that the)' 
show a good ear. Note has been made of a pleasing cadence 
in Lincoln's prose ; and it is not strange that lie should show 
a rhythmical sense in his verse. He showed a good deal oi 
common sense in not going on with this sort of thing, and 
in confining the publication of his inadequate rhymes to the 
sacred privacy of indulgent and sympathetic friendship. 

AVe come now to Lincoln the accomplished orator. Ill* 


Lincoln's Power of Exjrression. 


ipccch in Congress on the 28th of January, 1848, on the 
Mexican War, strikes the note of solemn verity and of noble 
indignation which a little later rang through the country and, 
with other voices, aroused it to a sense of impending danger. 

It was in 1851 that he wrote some family letters that not 
©lily show him in a charming light as the true and wise friend 
of his shiftless stepbrother, but the affectionate guardian of • 
his stepmother, who had been such a good mother to him. 
There is something Greek in the clear phrase and pure reason 
of these epistles. 

Dear Brother : "When I came into Charleston day before yesterday, 
1 learned that you are anxious to sell the land where you live, and move 
to Missouri. I have been thinking of this ever since, and cannot but 
think such a notion is utterly foolish. What can you do in Missouri 
better than here ? Is the land any richer? Can you there, any more 
than here, raise corn and wheat and oats without work? Will anybody 
there, any more than here, do your work for you? If you intend to go 
to work, there is no better place than right where you arc; if you do 
not intend to go to work, you cannot get along anywhere. Squirming 
aud crawling about from place to rjlacecan do no good. You have raised 
i:o crop this year; and what you really want is to sell the land, get the 
mouey, and spend it. Part with the land you have, and, my life upon 
it, you will never after own a spot big enough to bury you in. 

We find in his Peoria speech of 1S51 a statement of his 
long contention against the extension of slavery, and a proof 
of his ability to cope intellectually with the ablest speakers of 
the West. His Peoria speech was in answer to Judge Doug- 
las, with whom four years afterward he held the senatorial de- 
late. Lincoln was now forty-five years old, and his oratory 
contains that moral impetus which was to give it greater and 
greater power. 

In 185G occurred the Fremont and Dayton campaign, which 
came not so very far from being the Fremont and Lincoln 
campaign. In a speech in this campaign he used a memorable 
phrase: "All this talk about the dissolution of the Union is 
unmbug, nothing but folly. We do not want to dissolve the 
Union; you shall not" In his famous speech delivered at 
Springfield, 111., at the close of the Republican State Conven- 
tion of 1S5S — in which lie had been named as candidate for 
I Kited States senator — the skillful and serious orator rises 


Meth od is t Rev ievj . 


not merely to the broad level of nationality, but to the plane 
of universal humanity. As events thicken and threaten, his 
style becomes more solemn. So telling at last his power of 
phrase that it would hardly seem to be an exaggeration to 
declare that the war itself was partly induced by the fact that 
Abraham Lincoln was able to express his pregnant thoughts 
with the art of a master. How familiar now these words 
of prophecy : 

" A house divided against itself cannot stand." I believe this govern- 
ment cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not ex- 
pect the Union to be dissolved— I do not expect the house to fall — but I 
do expect it will cease to be divided. 

The cadence of Lincoln's prose with its burden of high 
hope, touched with that heroism which is so near to pathos, 
reminds one of the Leitmotif \ the " leading motive " in sym- 
phony and music-drama, of which musicians make use, and 
which is especially characteristic of the manner of Wagner: 

Two years ago the Republicans of the nation mustered over thirteen 
hundred thousand strong. We did this under the single impulse of re- 
sistance to a common danger, with every external circumstance against 
us. Of strange, discordant, and even hostile elements, we gathered 
from the four winds, and formed and fought the battle tb rough, under 
the constant hot fire of a disciplined, proud, and pampered enemy. Did 
we brave all then to falter now — now, when that same enemy is waver- 
ing, dissevered and belligerent ? The result is not doubtful. TT<r 
shall not fail — if ice stand firm, ice shall not fail. Wise counsels may ac- 
celerate or mistakes delay it, but, sooner or later, the victory is sure to come. 

We have arrived now at the period of the joint debate be- 
tween Lincoln and Douglas. In Lincoln we have the able 
and practiced attorney, with one side of his nature open to 
the eternal ; in Douglas the skillful lawyer, adroit and ambi- 
tious, not easily moved by the moral appeals which so quickly 
took hold upon Lincoln, but a man capable of right and pa- 
triotic action when the depths of li is nature were stirred. 

One of the most characteristic qualities of Lincoln's explo- 
sion is its morality, its insight, its prophecy ; and in the no* 
famous debate he reached well-nigh the fullness of his power 
to put great thoughts into fitting language. Straight hii 
words went into the minds and hearts of eagerly listel 


Lincoln's Power of Expression. 


crowds. The question, he contended, was as to the right or 
the wrong of slavery : 

That [he said] is the real issue. That is the real issue that will con- 
tinue in this country when these poor tongues of Judge Douglas and 
myself shall be silent. It is the eternal struggle between these two 
principles — right and wrong — throughout the world. They are the two 
principles that have stood face to face from the beginning of time, and 
will ever continue to struggle. The one is the common right of hu- 
manity, and the other the divine right of kings. 1 

A recent biographer of Lincoln, Mr. John T. Morse, Jr., says 
that "it is just appreciation, not extravagance, to say that the 
cheap and miserable little volume, now out of print, contain- 
ing in bad newspaper type The Lincoln and Douglas De- 
bates, holds some of the masterpieces of oratory of all ages 
and nations." 

It is interesting to recall the fact that, in the pause of his affairs 
after the debate with Douglas, Lincoln took up the then pop- 
ular custom of lyceum lecturing. In the very year before his 
election to the Presidency the great statesman and orator was 
engaged in delivering a totally uninspired lecture on "Discov- 
eries, Inventions, and Improvements" in towns near Spring- 
field, and in Springfield itself on Washington's Birthday in 
the fateful year of 18G0. There was little in this lecture to 
attract the slightest attention; and while it may have given 
satisfaction among neighbors, it could never have added to his 
fame. Yet when he had the opportunity of an engagement 
to lecture on political subjects in the same month of February, 
lie made what is now known as the "great address " at Cooper 
Union. Soon after this came his nomination, then his elec- 
tion to the Presidency of the United States; and with these 
events he may be said to have resumed his true literary career, 
*or, as said already, his style was at its best only when he was 
dealing with a cause in which his whole heart was enlisted. 

Ly way of contrast to what has passed and is to come, 
M ns cull some of the passages in which shone Lincoln's wit 
Mid humor. How pleasing it is to know that his melancholy 
R&ture, his burdened spirit, were refreshed with glimpses — 
Often storms — of mirth ! They say that to sec Lincoln laugh 
an amazing sight. 


Methodist Review. 


The humor of which we learn so much from those who 
heard him tell his quaint and often Rabelaisian stories came 
out sharply and roughly in one of his congressional speeches, 
in which he referred with grim sarcasm to General Cass's 
military record as used for political ammunition. Here are 
some later touches of his wit : " The plainest print cannot be 
read through a gold eagle." " If you think you can slander a 
woman into loving you, or a man into voting for you, try it 
till you are satisfied." Again : " Has Douglas the exclusive 
right in this country to be on all sides of all questions?" 
Again : " In his numerous speeches now being made in Illi- 
nois, Senator Douglas regularly argues against the doctrine of 
the equality of men ; and while he does not draw the conclu- 
sion that the superiors ought to enslave the inferiors, he evi- 
dently wishes his hearers to draw that conclusion. He shirks 
the responsibility of pulling the house down, but he digs under 
it that it may fall of its own weight." 

" The enemy would fight," said the President once, in a 
letter to General Hooker, "in intrenchments, and have you 
at a disadvantage, and so, man for man, worst you at that 
point, while his main force would in some way be getting an 
advantage of you northward. In one word, 1 would not take 
any risk of being entangled upon the river like an ox jumped 
half over a fence and liable to be torn by dogs front and rear 
without a fair chance to gore one way or kick the other." It 
was also to Hooker that he wrote: " Only those generals who 
gain successes can set up dictators. What 1 now ask of you 
is military success, and I will risk the dictatorship." 

In a letter written in 1S59 to a Boston remittee he said, 
in describing a change in party standards : " I remember being 
once much amused at seeing two partially intoxicated men 
engaged in a fight with their greatcoats on, which fight, after 
a long and rather harmless contest, ended in each having 
fought himself out of his own coat and into that of the other. 
If the two leading parties of this day arc really identical with 
the two in the days of Jefferson and Adams, they have per- 
formed the same feat as the two drunken men." And this is 
from Ins very last public address: "Concede that the lie* 
government of Louisiana is only to what it should be as the 

I IK) J. J 

Lincoln *§ Power of Expression. 


egg is to the fowl, we shall sooner have the fowl by hatching 
the egg than by smashing it.' ? 

A specimen of 3 lis spoken wit is the story told of his reply 
to the countryman who at a reception said — in the prepared 
speech that patriots so often shoot at the President as they 
plunge past him in the processions through the White House 
— "I believe in God Almighty and Abraham Lincoln.'' 
11 You're more than half right," quickly answered the Presi- 
dent. When, at a conference with Confederate leaders, he 
was reminded by the Southern commissioner, Mr. Hunter, 
that Charles I entered into an agreement with "parties in 
arms against the government," Lincoln said : " I do not pro- 
fess to be posted in history. In all such matters I will turn 
you over to Seward. All I distinctly recollect about the case 
of Charles I is that he lost his head." 

Lincoln was elected to the Presidency of the country on 
the verge of civil Avar. In his farewell to his fellow- 
townsmen sounds again that musical " motive " of which I 
have spoken, recurring like the refrain of a sad but heroic 
poem. Remember the passage quoted before. It occurred 
in his speech of 1858 : " The result is not doubtful. We shall 
not fail — if we stand firm, we shall not fail. Wise counsels 
may accelerate or mistakes delay it, but, sooner or later, the 
victory is sure to come." 

In parting from his old neighbors he said : 

Here my children have been born, and one is buried. I now leave, 
uot knowing -when or whether ever I may return, with a task before me 
greater than that which rested upon Washington. "Without the assist- 
ance of that divine Being who ever attended him I cannot succeed. 
With that assistance I cannot fail. Trusting in him, who cau go with 
me and remain with you, and be everywhere for good, let us confidently 
hope that all will yet be well. 

The First Inaugural concludes with a passage of great ten- 
derness. We learn from Nicolay and Hay that the suggestion 
of that passage, its first draft indeed, came from Seward. Put 
COtnpare this first draft with the passage as amended and 
adopted by Lincoln ! This is Seward's : 

I close. We arc not, we must not be, aliens or enemies, but fellow- 
<(, untrymen and brethren. Although passion has strained our bonds of 


Methodist Review. 


affection too hardly, they must not, I am sure they will not, be broken. 
The mystic chords which, proceeding from so many battlefields and so 
many patriot graves, pass through all the hearts and all hearths in this 
broad continent of ours, will yet again harmonize in their ancient music 
when breathed upon by the guardian angel of the nation. 

And this is Lincoln's : 

I am loath to close. "We are not enemies but friends. We must not 
be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our 
bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from 
every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone 
all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union when 
again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of oui 

There is in this last something that suggests music ; again 
we hear the strain of the Leitmotif. Strangely enough, in 
1858 Lincoln himself had used a figure not the same as, but 
suggestive of, this very one now given by Seward. He was 
speaking of the moral sentiment, the sentiment of equality, in 
the Declaration of Independence. " That" he said, ;1 is the 
electric chord in that Declaration, that links the hearts of pa- 
triotic and liberty-loving men together, that will link those 
patriotic hearts as long as the love of freedom exists Id the 
minds of men throughout the world." 

In the final paragraph of the Second Inaugural we find 
again the haunting music with which the First Inaugural 
closed. On the heart of what American — North or South- 
are not the words imprinted? 

With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the 
right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work 
we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall 
have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orpbau — to do all 
which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselvt^. 
and with all nations. 

As the great mi sician brings somewhere to its highest exptt - 
sion the motive which has been entwined from first to last in 
his music-drama, so did the expression of Lincoln's passion for 
his country reach its culmination in the tender and majestic 
phrases of the Gettysburg Address : 

In a larger sense wc cannot dedicate— we cannot consecrate— 
cannot hallow — this ground. The brave men, living ami dead, Wild 


Lincoln's Power of Expression. 


it niggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or 
dVtiact. The world will little note nor long remember what we say 
lu re, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, 
rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who 
fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be 
here dedicated to the great task remaining before us— that from these 
honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they 
gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that 
lhe6e dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, 
■ball have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, 
|.y the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. 

Hut there is a letter of Lincoln's which may well be associated 
with the Gettysburg Address. Here again is the Leitmotif, 
It was written, just one year after the delivery of the Ad- 
dress, to a mother who, the President heard, had lost five sons 
in the army. 1 believe the number was not so large, though 
that does not matter. 

Executive Mansion, 

November 21, 1864. 

Mrs. Bixby, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Dear Madam: 1 have been shown in the files of the War Department 
a statement of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts that you are the 
mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle. I 
feel how weak and fruitless must be any words of mine which should 
attempt to beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I 
cunuot refrain from tendering to you the consolation that may be found 
in the thanks of the Republic they died to save. I pray that our 
heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, and 
leave you only the cherished memory ol the loved and lost, and the 
solemn pride that must be yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon 
&e altar of freedom. 

Yours very sincerely and respectfully, Abraham Lincoln. 

This letter of consolation in its simplicity and fitness again 
recalls the Greek spirit. It is like one of those calm monu- 
ments of grief which the traveler may still behold in that 
Mnall cemetery under the deep Athenian sky, where those 
*bo have bem dead so many centuries arc kept alive in the 
•memories of men by an art which is immortal. 


Methodist Meview. 



It is very often a thankless task to call attention to possible 
improvements in either the general polity or practical workings 
of organizations of a charitable or religions character. To 
many minds every attempt of this kind seems like opposition 
to a good cause, or perhaps like an attempt to lay hostile hands 
npon a sacred ark, and a well-meant criticism is too often 
repelled as an attack by an enemy instead of being welcomed 
as the counsel of a friend. It is quite possible that the great 
missionary enterprise has suffered in some measure in this 
way. It has survived many hostile attacks and is still strongly 
defended, but it is thought by not a few that it would have 
fared better if its merits had been more freely discussed by its 
friends, and possible improvements in its methods not only 
sought after but freely adopted when there seemed good rea- 
son for doing so. The Methodists of the present generation 
are rapidly extending their missions, and it would be strange if 
a comparison of their lines of policy at home and their methods 
abroad should not bring to light the fact that in all the great 
divisions of the English-speaking world they have much to 
learn and some things to unlearn before they will be prepared 
to play a part worthy of their illustrious ancestry, to say noth- 
ing of their transcendent opportunities. 

A glance at the missionary statistics of three leading divi- 
sions of the great Methodist family brings to light some strik- 
ing contrasts. The Wesleyan Methodists of England, for 
instance, maintain a missionary society in the interest of foreign 
missions exclusively. They also have a society devoted to the 
home field and a foreign society under control of the women 
of the Church. In addition to these agencies they liave great 
" forward movements " in London, Manchester, and other 
cities, which are prosecuted with great vigor and at 
expense, but no report of their cost lias been published. 

The Methodist Church of Canada maintains a missionary 
society, but extends its sphere of action both to the home field 
and to foreign lands. It also has a woman's missionary society. 
Not a little of the work of the Canadian Methodists whicli 

|901.1 O ur Missionary Polity. 707 

reckoned as belonging to the home field is practically foreign, 

it is carried on among remote Indian tribes more difficult to 
reach than if living on the shores of India, China, or Japan. 

Turning next to the Methodist Episcopal Church, we find 
a general missionary societ}' for home and foreign work, with 
two societies under the control of women, one for the foreign, 
and one for the home field. A society for city evangelization 
li also in operation, and other agencies are employed with some 
freedom within the bounds of Annual Conferences. 

If now we olance at the statistics of the three leading socie- 
tics of these three Methodist Churches our attention is at once 
arrested by what seems to be an extraordinaiw discrepancy. 
The Wesleyan Methodists are reported as giving for the for- 
i ign work at the rate of one dollar and thirty-seven cents per 
Member; for both home and foreign one dollar and seventy-three 
cents per member. The Canadian Methodists give at the rate 
of eighty-one cents per member, for both home and foreign 
missions, while the Episcopal Methodists give at the rate of 
hut forty -five cents per member, for home and foreign mis- 
M"ns, of which twenty -five and a half cents are sent abroad 
and nineteen and a half expended in the United States. It 
thus appears that the leading branch of British Methodism 
pves more than five times as much, in proportion to numbers, 
for foreign missions as does the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
while the Canadian Methodists give for both home and foreign 
nearly twice as much. This is certainly a surprising discov- 
ery and will probably appear incredible to many readers, 
hut the disagreeable figures stare us in the face and cannot be 
explained away. 

It can hardly be said that American Methodists are less able 
to give than their English or Canadian brethren. It is very 
t'ue that the large colored membership in the Southern 
States is made up chiefly of very poor people, but, unfortu- 
nately, the showing is hardly better if a comparison is made 
hetween our foreign brethren and a select portion of the 
Northern States. Take, for instance, the rich and prosperous 
States of Ohio and Indiana. The Methodist membership in 
these two States is nearly equal to that of British Methodism, 
■iwi the average ability of the people i^ probably equal t«> that 


Methodist Review. 


of any English-speaking people on the globe. The people of 
Ohio are certainly not less prosperous than their Canadian 
neighbors, and yet, they give, per member, less than half as 
much for the great missionary cause. Taking Ohio and In- 
diana together, the average annual missionary contribution of 
our membership amounts to the pitiful sum of thirty-three and 
a half cents. Explanations may be offered, no doubt, but it 
will be found that our brethren in England and Canada are as 
well provided with exceptions as we are, and that, while a 
correction may be made here and there, in the main, when 
estimated by the same rule, those who ought to be first are last. 
And, to make the matter worse, our people are not mending 
their ways, but are receding rather than advancing so far as 
the ratio of personal giving is concerned. 

How can this unexpected, and indeed extraordinary, state 
of things be accounted for ? The membership of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church is not perfect, and yet in point of devo- 
tion it is probably not inferior to that of the other Churches in 
question. Our people are not wanting in missionary spirit, 
and volunteers for service at the front are found as readily 
among them as anywhere in the world. The explanation must 
be found in our policy or methods. Do we adopt the same 
methods as the Canadian and English Methodists, or do we 
persistently adhere to plans of our own, in the face of monot- 
onous failure, and insist that we are succeeding while so man- 
ifestly failing ? 

It will be found on investigation that we are somewhat 
peculiar both in the policy which we have adopted and in the 
methods which we employ in carrying it into effect. One 
little paragraph in our Discipline touches the root of the mat- 
ter: M The support of missions is committed to the churches 
congregations, and societies as such." The whole Church U 
regarded as one great missionary society, and each society 
is made, so far as finance is concerned, an auxiliary. This may 
do well enough in theory, in practice it has virtually reduced the 
local missionary organization to a shadow. Though here and 
there a missionary committee may be found, more commonly 
the whole burden of responsibility is thrust upon the presiding 
elder and paster. A " Missionary Committee M is provided for, 

1001. J Out Missionary Polity. 709 

but seldom appointed, and when appointed rarely acts. In short, 
die so-called " Missionary Society " is little more than a skeleton 
organization, having no constituency of its own, and repre- 
senting only the departmental operations of the Church in 
home and foreign missions. In each Annual Conference a 
ikeleton society, having a president and secretary, is expected 
to exist, but the functions of these societies are usually limited 
to the holding of a public meeting once a year. A secretary 
\s provided for by the Discipline in each presiding elder's dis- 
trict, but the office is often left vacant and its duties are nom- 
inal. Each presiding elder and pastor is made responsible for 
a missionary collection, and many of these brethren wince 
under the pressure which is put upon them, and do not find 
their love for the missionary cause increased by the procedure. 

In both England and Canada the course pursued is different. 
Collectors are not only appointed, they are drilled and super- 
intended in their work. No pastor is left to bear the burden 
alone, and no source of income is despised or rejected because 
to business men it may seem trivial. It is not enough that the 
pastor must " raise " a specified sum ; the people accept the 
duty of giving, and do give, whether the pastor is faithful or 
not. The illusive value of "collections " does not deceive the 
Methodists abroad as it does in the United States. A public 
collection taken once a year, and subject to the fluctuations 
caused by stormy weather, counter attractions, bad manage- 
ment, and other incidental contingencies, is a most uncertain 
lource of revenue for any enterprise, and yet, year after year 
tins is the plan adopted generally in our churches, so far as 
our adult membership is concerned, for replenishing our mis- 
sionary treasury. The result is a slowly receding ratio of giv- 
ing and a complete failure to reach a large proportion of our 

When the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society was organ- 
ized the good sisters who had the work in hand were required 
to forego the right to take public collections, and this restric- 
tion was regarded by them as a great hardship. As a matter of 
»*ct, it proved the very life of the society. These energetic 
*omen proceeded to enroll, a constituency of permanent giv- 
(1Y and at the same time put in motion agencies of various 


Methodist Review. 


kinds which were intrusted to persons who had conviction 
on the missionary question, and whose efforts were not contin- 
gent upon either weather or incidental events. The result 
has been a long series of successful years, and steady, and at 
times rapid, increase of revenue. Indeed, so marked and so 
uniform has the advance of this society been, that its very 
success has been esteemed a fault by some who evidently failed 
to perceive the secret of its prosperity. 

We shall never secure a sound financial basis for our mission, 
ary work until we adopt a plan for securing permanent annual 
subscriptions from the whole membership of the Church. Nor 
can we ever hope to secure a healthy and intelligent intea 
in the missionary enterprise until we learn to place the cause 
upon the hearts and in the hands of the people. Thousands of 
pastors are made to feel that their ministerial standing depend 
upon their success in reporting a good collection ; but, as for 
the rank and file of the membership, a very large proportion 
are indifferent to the cause of missions. The peojrfe, the 
individual members, must be reached before a material change 
for the better can be expected, and this can only be done by 
making the Missionary Society in fact, what it is in name, an 
organized, effective, self-directing agency for bringing the 
whole world to Christ. 

The unit of organization in such a society should be a local 
society in each congregation. Next, there should be a district 
society in each presiding elder's district. In the next pi v 
the Conference missionary society should be lifted into actual 
existence and clothed with functions which will give it a prom- 
inent place in the Church. Its anniversaries should not 
held at the session of the Annual Conference, and its member- 
ship should be composed of ministerial and lay members ' 
of both sexes. In each General Conference District a branch 
society should be organized, to which delegates should be B 
at annual meetings. Lastly, a working majority of the Gen- 
eral Committee should be composed of delegates chosen by 
these branch societies and the corresponding secretaries should 
be elected by the General Committee. 

The mere statement of this outline will probably condemn 
if, at first sight, in the mind of (he average loader, and yet 

1901.] Our Missionary Polity. 711 

certain that it points in the direction to which both opinion 
Hid events are tending. Our present machinery is both out- 
irorn and outgrown. Locally, one man bears almost the whole 
responsibility. In the district the presiding elder is expected 
\c bear the burden, while in the Conference the very names 
of the president and secretary of the Conference society are 
nnkuown. As for the General Committee it has never been 
a representative body in any broad sense of the word. It is no 
longer able to perforin its chief duty, which is the task of dis- 
tributing the annual revenue of the society. It is an able body, 
much given to debate, and by no means wanting in statesman- 
hip- but as a business organization it is badly managed, and 
its work is not always well executed. 

A visitor to the annual meeting of the "Woman's Foreign 
Missionary Society will find eleven district secretaries seated 
around a large table with the estimates from the foreign fields 
before them. These estimates are read out, item by item, can- 
vassed in a conversational way, and subjected to careful scru- 
tiny. In the General Committee, on the other hand, there is a 
rigid enforcement of parliamentary rules; a procedure which 
lometimes adds dignity to the proceedings, but at other times 
■'likes a casual visitor as little short of ludicrous. The esti- 
mates are supposed to have been examined before presentation, 
but, if so, those who do the debating and the voting have no 
|»crsonal kno "ledge of the fact. To say that a committee of 
over fifty persons cannot act otherwise is only another way of 
toying that the business in hand has outgrown the organization 
*bieh is expected to manage it. 

The proposal to have the corresponding secretaries elected 
by the General Committee will strike some readers as little 
'•>ort of revolutionary, but it is perhaps the most important 
Wggestion contained in this paper. Those who observe eare- 
Jfllly the trend of thought in our Church are aware that there 
5 * dissatisfaction with the policy of electing all manner of 
f iuirch officers by ballot in the General Conference. Such 
Elections are more or less demoralizing to the best interests of 
*ui ecclesiastical assembly, and they certainly do not increase 
J"to confidence of the Church in the General Conference, 
tfor do they tend to put men in places best adapted to them. 


Methodist Review. 


Sometimes a secretary is chosen because he is thought to be 
the best man for the post, but quite as often he falls heir to 
the appointment because of failure to get another place, or per- 
haps because the secretaryship is used as a stepping-stone on 
the way to supposed promotion. A missionary secretary 
should be chosen because of his known faith in the missionary 
enterprise, his fitness for the work to be done, his leadership 
among the people, and Ins previous achievements in promoting 
the work of missions among the churches. Such a man would 
be much more readily found by a General Committee, brought 
together from all sections of the Church, than by a General 
Conference in which a series of spectacular elections thrusts 
all manner of aspiring men to the front, and in which the 
methods inevitably called into action much resemble those 
observed by politicians of this world. 

It would be impracticable to give a detailed outline of the 
kind of organization needed by such a society as the one pro- 
posed, but one possible error should be avoided. While it has 
become popular in our Church to advocate a reduction of elect- 
ive officers to the lowest possible point, this policy may easily 
be carried too far. An increased revenue of a million dollars 
a year is needed by our work abroad and at home in the im- 
mediate future, and all past experience ought to convince us 
that a million dollars cannot be gathered by a series of public 
appeals, nor can it be secured by two or three popular orator-. 
It can only be realized by an organized leadership, as every 
business man in the world will instinctively understand, and 
in such a plan as that proposed there should be provision for 
the appointment of a field secretary for every branch socio:/. 
This secretary in many cases might be a young man, lay or 
clerical, and need not be an expensive addition to the working 
force of the Church. Though superfluous officials arc always 
to be avoided, needed workers should not be dispensed wit" 
simply because a prejudice exists against office seekers ftS a 
class, and one hundred true-hearted young men could be profit- 
able employed in this kind of work for at least the next fivo 

For more than half a century past the question of dividing 
the M issionary Society, creating one organization for mission n J 


Our Missionary Polity. 


work in foreign lands and one for home evangelization, Las 
from time to time been pressed upon the attention of the 
Church. It has never yet received a full and fair hearing, but 
it cannot be much longer thrust aside. The objections to the 
present plan are manifold, and are becoming more imperative 
every year. In the popular mind and heart the word mis- 
sionary is a term which since the days of Carey and Coke, of 
Heber and Judson, belongs to the Christless nations. The 
persistent idea which animates the Churches of Christendom is 
that of wresting the kingdoms which sit in darkness from the 
power of sin and Satan, and adding them to the household of 
nations which bears the Christian name. The work of evan- 
gelization in the home land is in many of its features a difier- 
ent work and it is a mistake to confound the two, and espe- 
cially to insist on assuming that they are alike, when all the 
world can see that they are not. In fact, a difference is recog- 
nized by our Missionary Society itself. The administration of 
the office is almost wholly absorbed by the foreign work, the 
appeals to the public are made almost exclusively in the name of 
the heathen world ; the so-called home mission work consist- in 
voting subsidies to certain Annual Conferences, and with this act 
the work of the Missionary Society begins and ends. This very 
neglect of the functions which a missionary society is expected 
to exercise has led to the creation of other societies : that of 
Church Extension and the Freedmen's Aid and Southern Edu- 
cation Society. Both of these are, in current phrase, home 
missionary societies ; in Asia and Africa our missionaries are 
expected to build their churches and carry on their educational 
work by the aid of the Missionary Society, but in the United 
States these duties have been provided for by the creation of 
the two new societies. Why not consolidate these two into one, 
or rather unite them with a new organization to be called the 
Home Evangelization Society ? Such a society would at once 
take its place as the most powerful organization in the Church, 
and while its work could be carried on in three depart ments, 
or under three bureaus, it would render better service to each 
separate cause than is possible now. The revenues would he 
more than doubled at a stroke, and for the first time in its his- 
tory our leaders in the cities would begin to feel that thev had 


Methodist Review. 


something to hope for in one of the great soeieties of the 

The failure of the present plan is pitifully evident when the 
" city problem " is brought before the General Committee. 
The utmost that can be expected is a petty appropriation of 
two or three thousand dollars when ten times that sum would 
not suffice for any really effective work. Eloquent appeals are 
heard, setting forth the startling condition of the millions who 
are fast gaining control of our cities, and, through them, of the 
nation, but year after year such appeals are absolutely wasted. 
The Missionary Society as at present constituted never has 
been, and never will be, able to grapple with such a problem. 
Small appropriations are given to aid a few missions to for- 
eigners in our cities, but the real problem — the greatest prob- 
lem now confronting our Christian civilization — is left 
untouched. What is a home missionary society for if it can- 
not look such a problem in the face? Better, a thousand 
times better, confess to a failure, and provide an organization 
which will be adapted to such an emergency. We shall be 
met at this point by the objection that legal obstacles stand in 
the way of any consolidation of societies. But legal resources 
will be found abundantly able to cope with legal obstacles, 
and no serious doubt need be entertained on that score. 

Six objects are set before the Church as " official benevo- 
lences." Two of these receive annually about three fourths of 
a cent for each member of the Church, and with the exception 
of the Missionary Society no one of the Boards named receive 
so much as five cents a member. For the credit of the 
Methodist name, this spectacle should be removed from view. 

One important question beset with peculiar difficulties 
remains. Two woman's missionary societies have come into 
existence in recent years, one for the foreign and one for the 
home field. Both arc well organized, vigorous, and BUCC© 
fnl. The former stands second in point of income to the 
Missionary Society among all the " benevolent " societies of the 
Church. The latter has an income almost equal to that of the 
Church Extension and Freed men's Aid Societies combined. 
These figures ought to startle the Church. The two BOcicti* 
are subordinate to the Missionary Society, but ought to 

1901.1 & ur Missionary Polity. VI 5 


»uxiliary. Their existence and successful career demand that 
the foreign and home mission work of the Church should be 
divided ou natural lines and placed under two thoroughly or- 
ganized societies. In these the two woman's societies could 
have due representation and some elements be thus harmon- 
ised which are now slightly discordant. 

It will be easy enough to find flaws in the imperfect outline 
i^ketched in this paper, but it would be a poor plan indeed 
which would not be preferable to the present unsatisfactory 
drift of our missionary interests. Alike at home and abroad 
we have entered upon a new era. New dangers confront us, 
new opportunities invite us, new obligations command us. We 
are living at a supreme crisis in the history of the race. The 
least and most obscure mission in all our oriental field presents 
more signs of promise, more trophies actually won, and more 
open doors than could have been found in the whole of our 
foreign fields a brief generation ago. God is thrusting the 
missionary into the foreground of the world's great events. 
With Dr. Livingstone the era closed forever when the Chris- 
tian missionary could be regarded as a pious hermit, living 
• part from the world of active affairs. He is abroad in the 
wide world to-day. He lays the foundations of empires, 
blends together the elements of new civilizations, constructs 
Bow institutions, and from this time forth marches in the van 
of every great movement which marks the progress of the 
race. The present is a supreme moment in the history of 
the missionary enterprise. In God's name let us be up and 
doing. Our present situation is critical in the extreme.' 
Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, and Africa, the regions where 
wo Christlcss myriads are found, are all beckoning to us 
from their distant shores. Two hundred thousand dollars 
"fill be needed in November next to make even a partial re- 
sponse possible. At such a time, in the face of such events, 
should be, what shall be our response ? 


Methodist Review. 



In a phrase of striking beauty and suggestiveness Paul calls 
the Church " the household of faith." We may well study 
the comparison. Like the family the Church has its adult 
members and its little children, its strong and its weak, its 
robust and its ailing ones. The pastor, set apart officially to 
minister in doctrine and discipline, stands for the father. The 
laity, with its numerous auxiliary organizations composed of 
men and women, may well correspond to the older brothers 
and sisters. But — where is the mother ? The Roman Catho- 
lic Church has felt so deeply the need of the feminine ele- 
ment in its organization that for nearly a thousand years it 
has denied its pastors the right of literal fatherhood that they 
may ideally be both father and mother to the flock. The gift 
to the Roman Church of the Virgin Mary herself, deified 
increasingly in these later centuries, has been in farsighted 
response to the same ever-recurring demand. But Protestants 
understand how worse than useless are these unnatural make- 
shifts. Our ideal, were we forced to give enough thought to 
the subject to formulate an ideal, is that the perfect pastor, 
unrestrained in the social and family relations which go to 
make up perfect manhood, unites in himself the qualities of 
an entire humanity — feminine as well as masculine. But 
there are two reasons why this ideal can never be realized. 
•The first is found in the very constitution of a man. by 
which he is unadapted, mentally and spiritually, for much of 
the work of " the household of faith ; " and the second appears 
in the artificial limitations placed upon every pastor — the BOcial 
restrictions that bind him, and, above all, the unwritten law 
which, with rare exceptions, places only one* man at the head • 
a parish, no matter if that parish numbers tens of thousands.* 
Nor can it be successfully maintained that woman's helpful 
but necessarily limited activity in unofficial lines supplies the 
need of the mother in the Church, even though tins activity 
is a matter of grateful comment the world over. For, If SO, 

* TIlQ school census of 1W. sh0W8 ;i population of ninety thousand people within a 

radius of eight blocks from Hals ted street Methodist Episcopal Church, li iChh? - 


The Mother in the Church. 


then the converse would hold, that because of the assistance 
of our stewards, trustees, class leaders, and Sunday school 
superintendents, who are usually men, we do not need the 

There are two chief sources from which we may hope to 
know God's will touching the fundamental needs of mankind 
— the Scriptures and that other great book, the human heart 
as it is revealed in the social conditions about us. "What, first, 
has the Bible to tell us of the work of woman in the early 
Church ? The record is fragmentary, but it is suggestive. The 
first hint of formal Church organization, aside from the apostolic 
college, was the appointment of the seven deacons. The occasion 
was the murmuring of the Grecian Jew r s " because their widows 
were neglected in the daily ministrations." These " widows " 
arc popularly supposed, to have been pensioners on the Church, 
and we frankly concede that the weight of authority is in favor 
of this view. But no less a scholar than Dean J. S. Howson, 
the well-known co-author with Conybeare of the standard Life 
"f St. Paul, contends earnestly that such an understanding is 
not in accord with the spirit of the Church at that time.* 
He maintains that we have here rather the first germs of that 
organization of almsgiving widows, or deaconesses, so well 
known in the later Church; and that these women received 
the bounty of the Church, not to expend it upon themselves, 
but to bestow it upon the poor about them ; that even at this 
early time there began to flow through woman's hands those 
streams of beneficence which were so marked a characteristic 
of the early Church. f And, in proof of this, we notice Paul's 
direction concerning " widows" in 1 Tim. v, 9, 10, " Let not a 
widow be taken into the number under threescore years old, 
• . . well reported of for good works; if she have brought up 
children, if she have lodged strangers, if she have washed the 
saints' feet, if she have relieved the afflicted, if she have dili- 

* Ucan Howson says, in Evidential Value of the Acts of (he Apo$U$$s "Tor my 
1 1 am inclined to think that 1 the widows ' wore . . . enrolled, not for the receiving 
1 f relief, but for the administration of relief, it is remarkable that tiu> first organl- 
» aiion of the deacons, the earliest named part of the establishment of a Christian 
totnlstry, arose out of questions of practical charity, if the suggestion i have ven- 

r, < l to make is a sound one, the very earliest ministry ID the Church Of Christ, 

stwier the Apostles, was a ministry ol women for the exercise of sympathetic help." 
tSce Uhlhorn*! ChriHtan Charity in the dmottni chunk. 


Methodist Review. 


gently followed every good work." These widows are com- 
monly credited with having all been alms receivers, but the 
authorities are not few who believe that many among them 
were deaconesses.* In incidental confirmation of this theory 
we have the fact that the deaconesses of the early Church were 
at first always chosen from among the " widows " and were 
always over threescore years of age. It is worth while to 
notice, also, in this connection that it is now generally agreed - 
that the yvvatKag of 1 Tim. aii, 11, does not mean " wives." 
Chrysostom says of this passage that it means, not women in 
general, but deaconesses. Jerome, looking back to the dea- 
cons just preceding, translates it " mutieres similiter" And 
following many modern authorities also there is good ground 
for believing that Paul had in mind here, not the women in 
general of the Church, but the women of the Church who 
corresponded to the deacons of the verses preceding. 

But, dismissing these " widows n — and we speak of them 
not so much argumentatively as suggestively — the Phoebe of 
Pom. xvi, 1, has a strong claim to recognition as a deacones>. 
Ancient scholarship accorded her the ofiice unhesitatingly, 
and modern scholarship has struggled with its conservatism 
until she has at last been named a " deaconess " outright 
in the margin of the Pevised Yersion. And it cannot be 
denied that in the Church of the second, f third, and fourth 
centuries deaconesses, or helping widows, were very numer- 
ous and very active. They occupied an official position,;}: and 

*The word Kara?.e}icOu (1 Tim. v, 9) means not loosely " taken into the number," 
as in the Authorized Version, but " enrolled," as in the Revised Version. There 
may have been a more careful enrollment from the list of the widows. Notice the 
reading preferred by the American revisers for the verses following, wherein the 
younger widows are refused because they may reject their first pledge. SoBM 
widows doubtless were alms receivers, but how unlikely that the women of Ihls 
"number" who had houses and lands for the exercise of a wide hospitality a;i<i 
other good works, with children now grown who would surely, according to apos- 
tolic direction, support them— how unlikely that siu-h women, a whole elas- of them, 
should become pensioners on the Church. How much more likely that they were 
women who, by these very characteristics and this very training, were now r< 
ognized as qualified to become the almoners to others of the bounty of the (/lunch 

A curious variation of tin 1 Arable Version is to the point here. Thai TOJ aloa sap 
boldly, " If a widow be chosen a deacon." 

t Pliny in a letter to Trajan, about A. D. lost, asks about the "duo- nurit'., " th i' 
are called M ministra ." Tin' class was evidently known M such, Since Pllnj gi*** 
it the technical explanatory designation. 

tin the Oriental Churches the deaconess undoubtedly belonged to the clergy. 
riilhorn's Christian Vfiuriti/ i>i the Anri>>it Church. 


The Mother in the Church. 


were the counterpart of the deacon,* They were even 
ordained,t or at least set apart to their office by the imposi- 
tion of hands and by prayer.^ Chrysostom, the " golden- 
mouthed " bishop of Constantinople, was profoundly impressed 
with the value of the work of deaconesses,§ and numbered 
among them trusted advisers and personal friends. The story 
of his friendship with Olympias, a woman of " exquisite 
beauty " and noble birth who had given not only herself but 
her vast fortune to the diaconate, has often been told.] 

It is not to the purpose, however, to trace in detail the history 
of woman's diaconate in the early Church, its wide scope, and 
later decay. It is enough to show, as has been done, that 
probably in the time of the apostles and certainly in the years 
immediately following, when the Church, still directly under 
apostolic influence, was slowly crystallizing into organized 
form, the place of woman as an officer in the Church was 
clearly recognized and authorized, and that notwithstanding 
her exceedingly circumscribed social position. 

Let us now turn from God's written will to those conditions 


* This appears constantly in the literature of the early Church. 'II diannvoc stands 
side hy side with 6 6lcikovoc in the Apostolic Constitutions and in the writings of the 
Church fathers whenever hoth classes are mentioned. The same form of words are 
used for the ordaining or setting apart of deacons and deaconesses. The functions of 
the two differed, however. The work of the deaconess was much with her own sex, 
and was less public than that of the deacon. 

One form of the word, 6ianovog, was at first used for both genders. The feminine 
form, diandvicca, came into use later. The English Bishop Brown is authority for 
the statement that dianovoq is never applied in the secular sense to woman. 

tThe Apostolic ConstiUttions say, "Touching the deaconesses, 1, Bartholomew, 
do thus ordain: O bishop, thou shalt lay on her thy hands in the presence of the 
presbytery, of the deacons and deaconesses, and thou shalt say, 'O eternal God,' " 
etc. But her duties are limited. She must not " bless " (pronounce the benediction), 
and must not baptize ; for " to ordain female priests would be pagan." 

A canon of the Nicene Council (A. D. 320) ordained deaconesses in the Church. 
Western gatherings of the Church from A. D. 410 on, including the Synod of Orange 
and the Council of Orleans, forbid the ordaining of any more "widows who are 
called deaconesses." 

t This is not stated to broach tn any way a disquieting claim to similar recognition 
in modern times, but simply as a curious fact of history. The laying on of hands 
seems not to have been as formal and technical an act in ancient times as it has 
since become. Doubtless the acts of ordination and benedictiou shaded into each 

§ Speaking of rhrrbe (Rom. xvi, 1), Chrysostom says: "See how many ways tM 
[Paul] takes to give her dignity. For he has both mentioned her before the rest and 
called her sister. It is no mean thing to be called a Sister Of Paul. Moreover, ho 
has added to her rank by mentioning her being a deaeoneSS. Paul places on each 
side this blessed woman her praises."— Homilies on Roman*, 

II Seventeen of the two hundred and forty-tv.o letters of Chrysostom still extant are 
addressed to Olympias. 


Methodist Review. 


of human society hi whose significant undertone we hear 
his voice speaking to his Church and saying : " In these 
needs also find your call to service. Let the empty mouths 
and the half-clad bodies of the poor, let the starving souls of 
the rich whom you never reach with your preached Gospel, 
let the moans of the uncared-for sick and dying, and the needs 
of friendless children be as the voice of the Son of man plead- 
ing with you for relief." In the light of such a call can we 
not see how pitiable is our inadequacy ? The question resolves 
itself into simply this : Can the Church as at present organized — 
excluding the deaconess movement, which is hardly yet an 
appreciable force in our midst — meet all the demands of 
society that it ought to meet ? Let it be distinctly understood 
that the efficiency of the Gospel message is not questioned 
here, but only the present sufficiency and adaptability of the 
means for conveying that message. And it is contended that 
there is an urgent need, not only of the administrative and 
teaching ministry of men, supplemented by such social and 
physical ministry as they may be able to give, but also of the 
characteristic ministry of women. 

We may look, for instance, at the need among children. 
The eminent French philanthropist, M. Georges Bonjean, made 
the astounding assertion some years ago that according to care- 
ful calculation there were in France one hundred thousand chil- 
dren, between the ages of twelve and sixteen, who were out- 
cast or youthful criminals* (" abandonnes on coujpahles It 
makes the brain reel and the heart swell to bursting to think 
of what underlies this condition, of the vast mass of slum- 
born suffering babyhood that makes possible this great army 
of a hundred thousand outcast youth. The better moral and 
industrial conditions of America prevent our statistics from 
rising to such frightful heights, but every thoughtful 
student of the situation knows that there are hundreds and 
thousands of outcast or abandoned children in the United 
States. They are in our poorhouses, or absolutely unsheltered 
and unmothered on our city streets. And has the Church of 
God no responsibility concerning these little ones? Ela9 it 

* Quoted Id leaflet t>y the late Pastor Hoc art calling attention to the work <^f I ]i 
daughter's "Itftoteoti det Fnf<ints," 81 Rue de Corneille, I.evailoU-IYrivt. pHt Pal *- 

1901 J The Mother in the Church. 721 

forgotten that childhood is God's special time of opportunity 
for inculcating religious truth ? We mourn over the obduracy 
of the adult sinner and train all our strong batteries of argu- 
ment and effort to beat down the hard w 7 alls of his habit and 
prejudice, while we neglect the low swinging portal of the 
heart of the child, ready to yield at the gentlest touch. But 
a? the Church is now organized, with its unofficial women 
members occupied so largely with social duties or blessedly 
busy with family cares, can it do more than the most frag- 
mentary work for orphan and needy children \ According to 
Our last Year Book, it is taking the efforts and contributions 
of almost three thousand of our Church members to care for 
one orphan child." * 

But look in another direction, at the tens of thousands of 
not entirely abandoned but criminally neglected children. 
The evangel of the public school is doing much for the gen- 
eral intelligence of its pupils, but there are hundreds of thou- 
Bands of children in the great cities of the United States not 
reached at all by the public school. For instance, a study ol 
the school census of the city of Chicago reveals some start- 
ling facts. In the twenty-four central wards of that city there 
were, by the census of 1898, 242,780 children of school age — 
that is, between six and fourteen. According to the report of 
the Board of Education there were at that time only 114,065 
sittings in the public school buildings of these twenty-four 
wards; less than half that of the number of school children. 
Allowing 50,000 for children who may have been attending 
private and parochial schools, and for those enjoying the partial 
relief of half-day sessions — and this estimate is a liberal one — 
it etill remains true that there were more than 75,000 children 
•n the heart of the second greatest city of our land who were 
Bot in any school whatever, f 

But what of the moral and spiritual training of even that 
part of the children who are in the public school ? The 
government of Mexico, though it represents a reaction against 

' There ai e 1,0-20 children listed in the rear Book as the average attendance m out 
Children's homes ami orphanages- pp. to.v-in. r.ut our total lay membership in 
United States is 2,716,652. Soo pa^e 33of Tour Honk. 

' Por iiiis statistical study the author is Indebted to Dr, w. k. Mel ennan, Pastor 
N Trinity Church, Chicago. 


Methodist Review. 


the most common form of religion in that country, has put into 
its public schools an excellent text-book on ethics ; but there 
is no required ethical teaching in the United States. Multitudes 
of children in our public schools are never found in any place 
of religious teaching. They never hear a prayer, and are in 
such ignorance of the bare historical facts of Christianity that 
it is easy to cite case after case where even the names of God 
have been known only as convenient bywords — blasphemy 
itself condoned by ignorance. 

Moreover, what as to the industrial and social future of 
these children ? ' Occasionally an exceptionally advanced public 
school touches the border of " manual training " — teaches a 
boy to drive a nail and a girl to sew a seam — but not one 
gives them a trade. Our Trades Unions make the old-fashioned 
apprenticeship next to impossible. Our few manual training 
schools are far too expensive for the many, not to speak of the 
further complicating fact that the almost exclusive division of 
labor into " piece work" is greatly lessening the possibility 
that even the boy who has a trade will be able to earn a living 
b} T it. How are these children of the slums going to learn how 
to earn a respectable livelihood when the time comes that they 
must shift for themselves ? Has the Church of God no responsi- 
bility in this matter? Has it no golden opportunity ? What 
if it has not yet fully thought through the problem, shall it 
withhold a present, practical help, even if partial, because 
it cannot make a theory of perfect eventual relief? Shall it 
hesitate as to its own plain duty while speculating as to what 
the State ought to do ? What if teaching the industries and 
feeding the hungry is not the highest function of the Church. 
Jesus Christ fed the hungry in emergencies. The apostolic 
Church fed the hungry in emergencies. Perhaps the pro- 
foundest impression upon society made by the early Church 
was because of its feeding the hungry and clothing the naked.* 
And is there not an emergency now? Let it be conceded that 
it is the State that should be chanrcd with the duty of giving 

•Julian the Apostate, speaking of the " Galileans," toll? us that by their charity to 
the poor they "begot the greatest admiration for their religion in the minds of men." 
lie even urged systematic efforts among heathen for the relief of poverty, decli 
" It is disgraceful, when there is not a beggar found among the .lew < snd when W 
godless Galileans support Olir poor as their own, that our people should be Witho I 
our help."— ffocomen, Ko. fflst., v. LC. 

1001 .J 

The Mother in the Church. 


her children such a start in life that with honest labor they 
may gain at least a respectable living ; the fact is the State Js 
not doing it. Moreover, till there shall be wrought a vast 
change of public sentiment on this subject, the State can- 
not do it. It has not the buildings, it has not the money to 
pay teachers. But the Church has hundreds of millions of 
dollars' worth of magnificent buildings, used now but six or 
eight hours a week. It has a great body of women, unem- 
ployed, or inadequately employed, who, once their eyes were 
opened to the need of such work, would volunteer to do it. 
Ought it not to throw open its buildings and establish and 
operate a thousand industrial schools, where cooking, and 
dressmaking, and housekeeping shall be so thoroughly taught 
to the girl of ten or twelve that she shall not at fourteen or 
fifteen be driven into the " ways that take hold on hell " by 
the bay of the gray wolf of starvation at her heels \ And 
schools where boys may learn to use their hands in such a 
way that in the swift-coming years they may not be forced 
into the life of a criminal for lack of food to eat?* And 
especially since the prosecution of this work opens up the 
most admirable opportunities for the molding of character and 
furthering of spiritual development. 

But look at still another great class of needs : those, phys- 
ical and spiritual, when the body is laid low by sickness. Only 
within the last few years, and largely because of the senti- 
ment' which our few deaconesses have created, has the modern 
Church so much as recognized that it had the slightest respon- 
sibility in this matter. The early Church, with its great 
u hospices," was not so blind. Our Lord's command was not 
only " Preach the Gospel," but " Heal the sick." f What a 
painfully imperfect understanding is that which makes it the 
dnty of all ages to preach the Gospel, yet practically declares 
the duty of healing the sick to have ceased with the miracu- 
lous gifts of the apostolic age. Illness, like childhood, is a 

' , Said a N$w York Judge of the Supreme Court a few years ago, " There is a large 
*w I was about to say a majority— of the population of New York and Brooklyn 
vr>< > Just live, and to whom the rearing of two or more children means Inevitably a 
1*7 for the penitentiary and a girl for the brothel."- Henry Gborgdt Social Prob- 
" v " ! *. i». os. Quoted by Josiah strong in Our Country. 

1 Matt. X, 7, 8; j jU | v0 Iv O: X.O. 


Methodist Review. [September, 

God-given opportunity for religions influence. When flesh 
and heart grow weak and hands are stretched out for help 
in mortal agony, when dear ones are passing into the vast 
unknown and solemn thoughts of the life hereafter are forced 
upon the mind, or when long days of convalescence come 
and there is " nothing to do but think," then words concern- 
ing Jesus, and sin, and heaven are seed falling into good 
ground. Do we not owe it to the world that wherever trem- 
bling hands are stretched out, groping in the dark, some agent 
of the Church be there, some representative of Jesus Christ, 
with comfort and help ? If we were wise to see and seize 
these opportunities, if we had trained, tactful servants of the 
Church ready to take advantage of them, we might in the 
first decade of the century just dawning win half the world 
for Christ. Yet the Church can never seriously undertake to 
care for the sick without the help of the official women. 
None other will have at her command uninterrupted time for 
such service, and none other will have the requisite skill, for 
this helper must be technically trained. 

With the thought of the modern world's great need in 
mind we may well turn again for a moment to the history of 
woman's diaconate. It never lapsed entirely ; the organized 
authorized work of women was too vital to the well-being of 
the Church to permit the loss of the idea. Underneath the 
perverted forms of the Roman Catholic Church we find it 
still struggling for existence. In the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries it broke out in a most interesting and carious move- 
ment — little companies of pious women, the Beguines, lightly 
bound by rules, devoting themselves to works of mercy, the 
care of children, and the sick. The fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries saw the corruption and decay of these Beguines, but 
the rise of the " Sisters of Common Life,-' whose work was 
also largely objective. But in the seventeenth century, in the 
founding by Vincent de Paul of the order of the a Bisters 
Charity," the Roman Church most nearly approached the 
diaconate of the early times. Vincent de Paul was its Flied- 
ner. To him that Church is very largely indebted for pi 
tical methods of organizing women, not for the cloister but 
for objective benevolent work. 


The Mother in the Church. 


The women in various branches of this order in the early 
days were not nuns ; they were not bound by lifelong vows. 
They were free to come and- go as needed. The beautiful 
directions of Vincent de Paul are still extant, " Your convent 
must be the home of the sick; your cell the chamber of 
suffering; your chapel the parish church; your cloister the 
Streets of the city or the wards of the hospital ; your rule the 
general vow of obedience ; your grille the fear of God ; your 
veil, to shut out the world, holy modesty." But the rules of 
this and similar orders hardly waited their founder's death to 
Ik; modified in harmony with the monastic spirit, when very 
much less of liberty was allowed. Yows were made burden- 
some, and obligations to formal devotions at very frequent 
intervals interfered greatly with practical work. This is true 
also of the multitudinous Roman orders of women at the 
present time. While woman's activities in the Roman Church 
have undoubtedly deeply influenced Protestantism we do not 
find there at any time the true diaconate of woman. 

It is exceedingly interesting to observe, in certain reforma- 
tory movements of the Church before the Reformation proper, 
attempts to reinstate the Early Church diaconate of women. 
The Waldenses in France, the Moravians in Bohemia, and the 
Mennonites in the 'Netherlands endeavored to reinstate isolated 
deaconesses in their congregations. There was, however, no 
endeavor to connect with these efforts that which history would 
seem to show to be essential to permanency and success — the 
sisterhood life, and the attempts are principally interesting as 
showing the persistence of the idea. Luther took no energetic 
Steps toward the retention of sisterhoods in the Reformed 
Church, - but there is no lack of testimony from him as to his 
recognition of the value of woman's religious work, and even 
of that work carried on through sisterhoods, free, of course, 
from the compulsions and corruptions only too common in 
Romanism. f There was, however, so much well-founded 

' But Luther wrote, in 1532, to the senate of the City Of Herford, w hich was plan* 
•dhg to abolish its convents: " Inasmuch as these . . . sisters lead au honest life, 

and have an honorable, well-conducted community, moreover as they faithfully 
honor and obey the pure doctrine, It is my friendly petition that . . you will allow 
»hi»tn to wear their clerical habit and practice all praiseworthy customs. For such 
convents please me beyond measure." 

' i he election of the seven (Acts vi) and the remembrance of the charitable work 
" : the Church could not (all to direct Luther's attention to the diaconate, He says, 

726 Methodist Review* [September, 

dread in Protestantism of the convent system as illustrated 
in the Roman Church, that all that was done for centuries to 
reinstate the diaconate of women was some feeble attempt 
here and there to appoint a congregational deaconess, notably 
in the congregations of the Puritans and in the Reformed 
Church of Germany. It remained for the good Lutheran 
pastor, Theodore Fliedner, to bring about in Germany, in the 
first half of the nineteenth century the true renaissance of the' 
office of deaconess. He saw, as did no other of his times, the 
possibilities of the organized work of Christian women. The 
social statns of women in Germany sixty years ago, the con- 
servatism of our Teutonic cousins, and the lower moral plane 
of the Lutheran Church in German} 7 — which, for instance, even 
to this date permits the Kaiserswerth work to be aided by great 
lotteries carried on under the "mother house" roof — made 
it inevitable that the work of the Fliedner deaconesses, judged 
by American standards, should be limited. Even at the present 
time, though their number has increased amazingly and their 
influence in philanthropy has been immense, yet we find 
Lutheran deaconesses mostly as nurses and as caretakers in 
orphanages and reformatories. But it is to be gratefully noted 
not only that Fliedner brought into the modern world a work- 
able plan for a Protestant sisterhood, but* that our present 
splendid system of nurses' training schools, the civilized world 
over, originated directly in his effort to train Christian women 
to care for the sick. For Florence Nightingale and Agnes 
Jones drew not only their skill, but to a large extent their 
inspiration, from Kaiserswerth. 

But the deaconess movement in American Methodism is 
strikingly spontaneous. It is not a growth from the German 
root. Its workers bear the same name as those in Germany, 
and do in some respects a similar work, but it originated inde- 
pendently and on a far broader and more evangelistic basis. 
About the time Fliedner was founding his deaconess "mother 

" It were well, if we had the right kind of people to begin it, that the city be di\ Wed 
into four or five parts, and each part be assigned a pastor and several deacons. W ho 
would supply that district with preaching and almsgiving, visiting the stek,etc" 
Here the entire province of the diaconate, as a personal office for rendering bodily 
and spiritual aid, is placed beside that of the ministry, Had such an arran;.ein< i t 
been practicable, christian women would h,n z undoubtedly toutid their place in It." 

—Emil W acker, in The 0M0OIMM Callin<j. 

1901.] The Mother in the Church. 727 

bouse" in Germany the women in England and America were 
organizing their missionary " Female Prayer IMeetings," and 
one third of a century later the Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society in the Methodist Episcopal Church was struck out of 
'.he hearts of women white hot with love and pity for the 
woes of their heathen sisters. A decade later the unde- 
nominational Woman's Christian Temperance Union was 
Mri^anized, affecting all classes, but Methodism very deeply. 
Tiien came the "Woman's Home Missionary Society in Metho- 
dism, born out of a great desire to help the ignorant and 
■^dless of our own land. Women were not only going for- 
ward to meet their share of the responsibilities of a lost world, 
I mt they were rapidly learning wisdom. They were perceiving 
die tremendous advantages of organization. All these move- 
ments were prophetic of the organic innovation coming to the 
Church in the aptly named Deaconess Movement. 

There was established in Chicago, in 1SS5, a date which Dr. 
Abel Stevens says "will hereafter be commemorated as an 
historical epoch in American Methodism," * the first center 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church to which women believing 
lliemselves called of God for special religious work could 
gather and in which they could receive preparation for that 
work. It soon became also a meeting place for missionaries, 
Mid an institution in which women not intending to enter any 
mission field might nevertheless study the Bible and social 
problems. The spontaneity of the movement is strikingly 
illustrated by the fact that this institution, the Chicago Train- 
jug School for City, Home, and Foreign Missions, was estab- 
I i^lied not in connection with any society,f but by the personal 
fllorts of a few individuals. It was, however, promptly rec- 
1 :mizcd by the Annual Conference within whose territory it 
was established. Two years later the deaconess work proper 
M the Methodist Episcopal Church in America had its first 
informal beginnings in the Chicago Training School. Willi 

* Central Cliristian Advocate, 1803. 

J The Womau's Foreign anil the Woman's Homo Missionary Societies were both 
"formally represented in the first committees of the Training School, ladies being 
iMted to serve who were known to be active in these societies. The school had DOt 
in existence a month before both societies formally recommended it it has, 
" over, from time to time received small donations from botli societies, But it 
*ml always has been, organically independent of any organization but the 
Church itself. 


Methodist Review. 


the preparation and oncoming of companies of women, and 
the increasingly loud call from the great city in the midst of 
which the school was located, the result was inevitable. Here 
was the need, here was the means to meet the need; they 
could not fail to come together. It was as if God had opened 
a door and thrust one through it. Not till months afterward 
did the founders of the work in America learn that the efiort 
in the United States was closely akin to the work of the 
Lutheran deaconesses across the water and that there was in 
existence in that country a little nucleus of Methodist dea- 
conesses. For those German Methodist deaconesses, while 
intensely evangelical, were very naturally patterning closely 
after the Lutheran sisters in organization and work, and they 
had not then become an appreciable force in Methodism. 

The first deaconess institution in American Methodism* 
was the Chicago Deaconess Home established in the building 
of the Chicago Training School in June, 1887. It received 
the recognition of the Rock River Animal Conference, in 
which Chicago is located, a few months later. It attracted 
much attention. After nearly a year of successful operation 
a memorial concerning it went up to the General Conference 
of 1888. It fell into the hands of Dr. — now Bishop — Thoburn, 
who for years had been planning for some kind of a sisterhood 
to reinforce mission work among women in India, and now he 
came bringing also a memorial, from the Bengal Conference, 
looking to this object. To the Missionary Committee, of 
which Dr. Thoburn was chairman, this memorial and the one 
from Chicago were referred, and it was largely by the doctor's 
earnest advocacy that favorable legislation was secured. In 
the General Conference of 1900 the paragraphs "On Deacon- 
esses" were recast, and adopted as they now appear in the 
present Discipline. No formal definition of a deaconess is 
given, but all the characteristics which had been stamped upon 
the deaconess in the spontaneous development of the move* 
ment are therein recognized. She is a trained free volunteer, 
usually living in an institution. She is unsalaried, but ,l en- 
titled to support." She is licensed and "consecrated" by the 

* The limits of this article do not permit mention <>f tbc much smaller work of ibi 

Protestant Episcopal and the Lutheran deaconesses hi America. 


The Mother in the Church. 


authorities of the Church. She is bound by no vows. Her 
preparatory course of study is by no means nominal. It is 
nearly always taken in a training school. When consecrated 
the becomes a Church officer. The bishop, in the beautiful 
( 'oiisecration Service, takes her by the hand and says, u I 
admit thee to the office." Whether in or out of institutions 
lite is directly under the care of the Board of Bishops, which 
has become a " General Deaconess Board " for " general super- 
vision over all deaconess work throughout the Church." The 
Annua} Conference il Deaconess Boards," however, have cer- 
tain responsibilities, chief among which is the granting of the 
license of the deaconess. The approval of the Conference 
itself must be given every year for the continuance of the 
deaconess in office, reminding one of the " passing of char- 
acter " of the deacons. Transfers to and from Annual Con- 
ferences must be made with the approval of the District 
Bishops. Deaconesses in institutions are under the immediate 
direction of the superintendent of the institution. 

Once given ecclesiastical recognition the deaconess move- 
ment immediately entered upon a period of development so 
rapid that it has been difficult to supply it with the necessary 
workers. In December, 18SS, the second home was estab- 
lished, the great Gamble Home — and, later, Hospital — in Cin- 
cinnati. The year 1889 was marked by the opening of 
deaconess homes in Kew York, Boston, and Minneapolis. 
Wesley Hospital was organized in Chicago, the first in Amer- 
ica under deaconess auspices. It was in this year also that 
the Woman's Home Missionary Society at its annual meeting 
in November resolved to combine with its growing activities 
methods of deaconess work.* The first home under the au- 
spices of this society was opened in Detroit in January, 1890. 

At the present time there are about eighty centers f of dea- 
coness work in the United States, including three Orphanages 

• Tills society held from the fust the ideal of training for its employees. Rut the 
lour most characteristic features of a deaconess— namely, that she Is (1) unsalaried, 
costumed, (3) adopts usually the community life, and especially (4) that she is hy 
»*i license and consecration recognized as an officer In the Church bad their pro?l- 
wntlal rise iu American Methodism in Uie work started In Chicago, June, 1887, 
fcw.l were now for the first time adopted by the Woman's Home Missionary Society 
W Us workers. 

J Itcckonlugas "centers" places where not leas than two deacouessea are at work, 
'"''t thirty "stations." places at which a single deaooness h at work, are alSO 
ute red throughout the country. 


Methodist Review. 

T September, 

and Children's Homes, three Old People's Homes, and seven- 
teen Hospitals." * There are, including probationers, about 
eight hundred women, devoting themselves to this work. In- 
cluding the three hundred Methodist deaconesses of Germany 
and the sixty in foreign mission fields, for which this kind of 
work is admirably adapted, there are eleven hundred and 
sixty deaconesses and probationers in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. f The German Methodists in America have taken up 
the work with enthusiasm, giving this branch of the work a 
strong impulse toward the u mother-house " idea, as is the 
case with all the work in Germany. 

The most characteristic feature of deaconess work in Amer- 
ican Methodism is its spontaneity. Though greatly aided and 
strengthened by the recognition of the General Conference it 
did not originate with that body. The women themselves 
had inaugurated the work, had mastered the initial difficulties, 
and had carried on the work almost a year before General 
Conference recognition. That recognition was, indeed, almost 
wholly because of the work. The real origin of the work in 
America was in the mother instinct of woman herself, and in 
that wider conception of woman's " family duties " that com- 
pels her to include in her loving care the great needy world 
family as well as the blessed little domestic circle. And the 
development of the work is satisfactory and expansive just in 
proportion as in its details and responsibilities it is laid directly 
on the hearts and hands of the deaconesses themselves, J 

As to the character of the work being done by deaconessc . 
the two original ideas in America were the religious visitation 
of the neglected in great cities and nursing the sick poor in 
their own homes. But in the rapid development of the move - 
ment other work has sought these willing hands. As maj 1 

* Adding the three deaconess hospitals in Germany, at 1'rauUfort-on-Main, B< 
and Hamburg, we have u total of twenty deaconess hospitals in the Methodist Rpis* 
copal church. These hospitals cared for seven thousand and dfty-foux resident i 1 
tients last year, with much dispensary and OUtstde work. 

t Bee Methodist r<<<r Book, iooi, p. 119. 

t In America, in the English-speaking work, nearly all the homes and hospital* 
have deaconess superintendents, unsalaried, of course, as Is the case with all dc»< 
conesses. Upon the shoulders of adeaoonoss rest all the detail work and the ' 
financial responsibility of an orphanage containing more than ninety children ,v 
conesses are successfully managing I large hospital \ u Omaha, which last | 
cared for eight hundred and ninety-eight patients, and are collecting inoncj 
great building. So in soores of similar Instance a 

1901.1 2%^ MotJier in the Church, 731 

,. n by reference to our Year Book, orphanages, hospitals, 
K'ttlements, homes for the aged, even literary schools — all sorts 
of helpful institutions — have been established by deaconesses 
or have been put into their hands by a confident Church or by 
j hilanthropic individuals. Literary enterprises have been un- 
dertaken.* About two million dollars' worth of property and 
endowment is now being used in deaconess work. Land, private 
| ouscs, school and hospital buildings are seeking deaconess 
ownership quite as fast as deaconesses can be prepared to take 
rise possession. Among our eleven hundred and sixty deacon- 
( bscs there are nurses, caretakers of children and the aged, ma- 
trons, singers, kindergartners, stenographers, financial agents, 
j.hysicians, teachers in literary schools, editors, evangelists, and 
fiipcrintendents of homes and hospitals. Many women have 
left lucrative positions to devote themselves to this work. Some 
ire using their own private funds to support themselves in it 
There is nothing that a Christian woman can do, and that 
needs to be undertaken in the church, which may not be done 
by the deaconess. She is free to do anything; she is trained 
to undertake with courage and devotion whatever may be put 
into her hands. She has no vow of service, but a loving will 
that is stronger than vows pledges her to move against the 
mountain of human sorrow and need, with the assurance that 
it will in God's good time be removed. 

By far the most urgent need of the Deaconess Movement at 
present is more workers. In the Roman Church of America 
done — including Canada — there are to-day more than sixty 
thousand Sisters of Mercy,f a very large majority of whom 
*J*o actively prosecuting the most practical forms of benevo- 
lent work. They educate and care for the youth, of whom 
they have considerably more than half a million in hand. 
They nurse the sick and aid in all sorts of reformatory work. 
1 hey have charge of six hundred and ninety-five houses of 
uiercy — hospitals, homes for the aged, orphanages, industrial 
K'hools — and are founding new ones almost every day. Their 
tapitah alone number one hundred and sixty-seven. Honor 

* A hook on Deaconess Work has been written by a deaconess. A monthly pert- 

si with a circulation of about twenty-five thousand is sent out i>> deaconess* 
I Catholic Directory for 1900. Official. Published by M. U, WUtzlus and Co., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 


Methodist Review. 


to them. But docs the devotion of the women of that Church, 
where entering a religious order means so often a living en- 
tombment, exceed that of the women of our Church in which 
to enter this office means a life of free and joyous service for 
Christ ? Who does not know that the real work, the telling 
work, of the Roman Catholic Church in America has been done 
very largely by its women ? It is their devoted service in 
hospital and yellow fever camp that has not only gained 
friends and converts to the Church by scores and thousands, 
but lias created an enormous public sentiment in its favor 
and brought money by the millions of dollars into its treasur- 
ies. It is their quiet but unceasing work with the young that 
gains adherents by the hundreds of thousands. But the 
women of Methodism, breathed upon by a wind from heaven, 
are " rising up," u at ease " no longer, and are coming forward 
to do the same work — nay, a better, purer, more spiritual 
work for our beloved Church. Nearly eleven hundred volun- 
teers in fourteen years — that is their record. And the num- 
ber through two quadrenniums has increased at the annual rare 
of twenty-six per cent. Two hundred and fifty thousand reli- 
gious calls made last year! Twenty thousand religious meetings 
held with mothers and children ! A score of hospitals estab- 
lished and in hand, wherein were cared for by Methodist dea- 
conesses last year more than ten thousand patients, not to 
speak of the half as many more poor sick ones given lovinp, 
Christian ministration in their own homes. Do we under- 
stand the significance of this already great work ? Who can 
realize what it will mean to Protestantism when the Mother 
shall have been fully established again in her place in the 
Household of Faith ? 



A Day at Old Troy, 



For a week we had been sailing about the J^gean, touching 
at all the points of interest to archaeologists and historians. 
4«>ina, with its famous temple to Athena : Poros, with its 
sanctuary of Poseidon, where the heroic but ill-starred De- 
mosthenes took poison in the presence of his Macedonian foes ; 
Del os, with its shrine and oracle of Apollo, the religious cen- 
ter of the ancient Greek world; the neighboring island of 
Tenos, in some respects the religious center of the modern 
Greek world— these and numerous other places had laid claim 
to our attention and our interest. It had been six days of rare 
opportunities, and on the fair May Sabbath we lingered at 
Assos, where our route intersected one of St. Paul's devi- 
ous journeys. The ancient city is a mass of ruins, saved from 
utter desolation only by a squalid Moslem village whose crum- 
bling mosque is built in part of fragments of splendid edifices 
that may have echoed the burning words of the great apostle. 
On the morrow we should arrive at Troy. There were about 
fifty in our party, Germans, Austrians, Russians, Greeks, 
Englishmen, and Americans, and Dr. "Wilhelm Dorpfeld, whose 
peripatetic lectures on — literally on — the ancient ruins at 
Athens, Olympia, Mycenae, and other points, many of us had 
followed with so much interest and profit, was our leader. 

At Assos we were in the dominion of the Sultan for the 
first time. Our arrival was expected and a detachment of 
troops had been waiting for us three days, sent by the gov- 
ernor of the province, to do us honor and incidentally, perhaps, 
to keep a watchful eye upon us. The Turk is nothing if not 
suspicious. Peaching Tenedos at dawn on Monday, we were 
informed that for fear foreigners might see from so near a 
point the dilapidated old fort, we should not be allowed to land 
M the mouth of the Hellespont, from which a short two miles 
Walk would bring us to Troy, but at a place several miles 
down the coast, and ride for an hour and a half across the plain 
to our destination. It was amusing but exasperating, and 
Coincided with the restrictions which had been laid upon 
Doctor Dorpfeld, in 1S92, when he came to survey and map 


Methodist Review. 


the site of Doctor Schliemann's work. For months neither 
transit nor level, not even a tapeline, indeed, was allowed at the 
excavations. At last permission was given to use these instru- 
ments, but only at the bottom of the trenches, and under the 
close supervision of Turkish officers, lest the foreigners should 
learn too much about a Turkish mud fort out of sight behind 
a hill three miles away ! 

For this long ride across the plain we were afterward not 
altogether ungrateful. A large number of saddle horses and 
some gaudily painted springless wagons of grotesque form, 
called by an excess of courtesy carriages, were in waiting at 
the landing place. The horses were as beautiful as the wag- 
ons were ugly. Firm in their belief that few Westerners know 
enough about a horse to be trusted with one — doubtless more 
true than we are willing to admit — the owners of the horses 
carefully led them, in some cases not even trusting the reins 
into the rider's hands. Fortunately my man could speak 
Greek, and I soon found my way to his heart by caressing his 
horse, calling it by its name, and complimenting him upon its 
line appearance. Soon he even resigned the leading strap to 
me and trotted alongside, keeping up a continual chatter. The 
horse, a large gray, quick-motioned, and spirited animal, but 
gentle and good-natured, was a fast walker, and we were con- 
tinually laying ourselves open to reprimand, from the pompous 
gray-haired Turkish captain of cavalry who rode in advance, 
because we presumed to come too close to the head of the line. 

The day was perfect ; the sky cloudless ; the summer heat 
tempered by a breeze from off the ^Sgean, the atmosphere of 
that indescribable clearness which increases theransre of vision 
and reveals unsuspected capabilities of the eye. Our way lay 
over the Scamander plain, level, rich, deep-soiled, covered here 
with fields of ripening grain and grass, and there with groves 
of great oaks, landmarks now upon the plain as in heroic days, 
and cultivated for the acorns, which arc exported and used lor 
tanning. There are no human habitations for miles, and our 
party alone broke the almost holy silence that brooded over the 
plain to which one poet's lines have given eternal fame. At 
tlie ford the Scamander is three feet or more deep, thick with 
mud as black as ink. The natives waded through, regardless 

A Day at Old Troy. 


ot shoes or trousers or coats. In most cases the mud did not 
make the clothes dirtier than they were before. Doctor Dorp- 
fcld and two or three friends had galloped ahead : the rest of 
us were held back by our captain to the pace necessary for the 
.lecrcpit wagons. When the officer was busy supervising the 
passage of the ford I found an opportunity to work my 
ItOrse farther from the river and, turning his head in the 
direction of Troy, gave him free rein. The glory of that 
iral lop alone across the silent plain is with me yet. I over- 
look the advance party just as they reached the ancient city, 
b half hour in advance of the others. 

Forever linked with the name of Troy is the name of Hein- 
ricli Schliemann, the poor German boy with an ideal and an 
idea. He proved that on this site rose the proud walls and 
towers and palaces of a city with a civilization that astounds us 
with its age and its character. The story of Schliemann's life, 
of its devotion to a purpose formed in boyhood, of the pluck 
that overcame obstacles, of the almost dramatic fulfillment of 
his plans and his predictions — this story reads like a wonder 
tale. But the popular estimate of Schliemann credits him 
with much that is not his own, while the judgment of scholars 
lias been perhaps unduly severe. His self-confidence led him 
into countless blunders ; his lack of exact scholarship and judi- 
cial temper, his impatience of leisurely investigation and pains- 
taking comparison, often obscured his real achievements. At 
MycenaB, for instance, he declared his expert ation of finding on 
■ certain spot the graves of Agamemnon and his four friends 
which had been pointed out to Pausanias seventeen hundred 
years before. As luck would have it, he did find, at the exact 
j'laco lie predicted, five graves, containing the remains of per- 
ils evidently of kingly pomp and wealth. Unfortunately, 
bo ceased work at this point. He was looking for five graves ; 
"0 had found five. Why look further? A few months later 
"fliers took up the work where he left it, and they found a 
' JXth grave, undeniably belonging to the same group ; making 
!: <!iculous Schliemann's pompous telegram in which he had 
enounced the fulfillment of his prediction, and rendering 
Untenable his theory that he had found the actual grave and 
bones and armor, and golden death mask of "Agamemnon, 


Methodist JReview. 


prince of men." So at Troy bis dramatic announcement that 
he had found King Priam's treasure caught the ear of a 
sensation-loving public, but was totally unfounded in fact. 
This unfortunate method cost him the confidence of very 
many scholars. They recognized his zeal, and acknowledged 
their debt to his expenditure of time and money, they were 
grateful for what his spade uncovered, but they refused to 
accept his interpretation of his finds. Some were even led to 
doubt his statements, but in this they erred. No more honest, 
investigator ever lived. 

Doctor Schliemann was by instinct and by training a shrewd 
business man. He measured his work by its immediate and 
tangible results. To him more than to any other man is due 
the present system of archaeological research, the system of 
testing all theories by actual excavations. The spade outranks 
theory. This practical element, which has entered into and 
revivified every department of classical study, was due to 
Schliemann. But he was not, either in temper of mind or in 
training and experience, a scientific archaeologist. He was in 
too much of a hurry. After making a series of excavations he 
would rush into print with a massive book interesting in its 
recital of experiences and valuable as a catalogue of actual 
finds, but worthless as a statement of their real meaning. 
Within a month or two after the excavations at Tiryus he 
had his usual big book ready, but Doctor Dorpfeld, whom he 
had associated with him, was to discuss the architectural 
features of the discoveries. Dorpfeld took more than a year 
to prepare his few chapters. To-day those few chapters con- 
tain all that is of permanent value in the volume. Doctor 
Schliemann was prone to let a preconceived theory blind him 
to the facts lying revealed before him. At Tiryus he sunk 
shafts in several places because that method had brought such 
fortunate results at Mycenae. He found no graves, no gold, 
no treasures, and so gave up the search and reported that 
there were no remains of ancient life. 

On his second trial he uncovered the floor plan of a great 
castle, one of the greatest trophies of modern archaeological 
research. On his first trial he had actually cut through the 
concrete floor eight inches thick, without noticing it. and 


A Day at Old Troy. 


failed to find any of the great house walls which even a shallow 
trench would have uncovered. He was looking for graves 
&ml treasure; castle walls and floors did not count. At Troy 
he ruthlessly cut through and cleared away walls and build- 
ings of unburnt brick, some unrecognized, all unspared in his 
haste to make sensational finds. To-day we would gladly part 
with much that he did find could we but have those walls back 
to explain what is now a puzzle. 

It was fortunate for Doctor Schliemann's fame and for the 
interest of learning that in the last eight years of his work he 
bad as an associate Doctor Dorpfeld. This young architect 
had been employed in the German excavations at Olympia in 
1S75-81, where he had taken high place for his masteiy of 
ancient architecture, his success in restoring ancient buildings 
from fragments, and in reconciling literary evidence and 
actual remains. It is told of Agassiz, that he excited un- 
bounded admiration on one occasion by drawing on a black- 
board the complete skeleton of a fish he had never seen, the 
only basis for his work being one small bone. Similarly, 
Doctor Dorpfeld has restored great temples from what seemed 

heap of worthless fragments, and. told their date, their vicis- 
iitudes of destruction and rebuilding, and their place in the de- 
velopment of Greek architecture. He put order into the be- 
wildering mass of ruins at Tiryus. He properly explained 
& liliemann's finds at Mycenae. He discovered the ancient 
Athena temple on the acropolis at Athens, and brought to light 
'*iie famous water system of Pisistratus. He has banished from 
Uie old Greek theater the high stage, and has touched onty 
to make more understandable nearly every ancient site in the 
*»reck world. He has brought to successful completion the long 
series of investigations on the site of Troy, and has fully rounded 
'•' lJ t in spirit, if not in literalness, the ideal of the German 

« of half a century before. Nowhere is this versatile and 
1 bolarly German seen to better advantage than in the tangled 
: ize of walls on the steep hillside of Priam's town. 

»Schliemann's work at Troy had resulted in the uncovering 

T "ine cities, some mean, some magnificent, that had in BUO 
ion occupied the top of the hill at Hissarlik. The top- 
: <*t one was the Roman city, Ilium, regarded in its day as 


Methodist Review. 


the Troy of Homer. Under its remains were those of a city 
of late Hellenic times, and an earlier Greek city perhaps as old 
as 900 or 1000 B. C. The fourth stratum from the top con- 
tained what Schliemann at first took to be evidences of Lydian 
civilization ; later on he recognized them as closely related to 
the finds at Tiryus and Mycenae. Still lower were the remains 
of three poorer, scantier settlements of early date. Under 
these lay what Schliemann fondly believed to be the Troy of 
Priam and Hector and iEneas. A stately city it had been, 
with a mighty palace, massive walls and gates, and many evi- 
dences of wealth and power. It was here that Schliemann 
found the so-called great treasure, gold ornaments literally by 
the peck. No one who has not seen them as now arranged in 
the Museum fur Y olkerkunde in Berlin can have any adequate 
-conception of the number, the variety, the uniqueness of the 
articles in bronze, in silver, in gold, in pottery. Doctor 
Dorpfeld has shown that this city was twice destroyed by fire, 
and twice rebuilt, being finally ruined in a mighty conflagration 
which left its marks on brick walls and stone foundations. 
Under this city again were the remains of a still earlier set- 
tlement, going far back into prehistoric times, with walls of 
small rough stones and clay and of the most primitive character. 

It was proved that this hill of Hissarlik had been from the 
earliest period the seat of petty chiefs or powerful king?. 
Much was found that seemed to bear out Schliemann's con- 
tention that the second city, counting from the bottom, was 
the Homeric Troy. But the excavations at Tiryus ami 
Mycenae had revealed a splendid civilization beside which 
Schliemann's Troy took secondary rank. That civilization, 
called by a convenient but misleading name, Mycemean, 
agreed in all essential points with the life depicted in the 
Homeric poems. These were the same great palaces with 
noisy courtyards and echoing corridors, with richly decorated 
megara, where the smoke lazily lifted from the central round 
hearth up among the tall columns to the vent in the root 
There were remains of the same art, of the same handicraft. 
There were the same life, in the one case forever embalmed in 
wall and floor and column, in gem and pottery and implem< 
in the other case pictured with faithful but idealizing ; 


A Day at Old Troy. 


•deathless literature. No one could deny that these cities be- 
longed to the age of which Homer sang. But the city Schlie- 
mann found was evidently smaller, much older, more primi- 
tive, more barbaric. 

It was one of fate's cruel mockeries that Doctor Schliemann 
died just before the real truth became known. The scanty 
remains of the fourth city from the top, the sixth in chronolog- 
ical order, which lie took at first to be of Lydian origin, and 
latterly as related to Mycenaean life, held the key to the solu- 
tion of the problem. In the excavations conducted by Doctor 
Dorpfeld after Doctor Schliemann's death there has been laid 
bare a mighty fortress of the Mycenaean age, with a great cir- 
cuit wall, massive towers, and imposing gateways. The city 
walls and the houses were of well-dressed stone, of far better 
workmanship than the stone city walls and unburnt brick 
house walls of the second city. Numerous articles in metal 
and pottery were found which clearly link this city with the 
cities of the Mycenaean age in other parts of the Greek world. 
Of this sixth city, undeniably the real Homeric Troy, nothing 
is left except the circuit wall and house walls that stood close to 
it. The builders of the Roman city cleared off the top of the 
rounded hill, dumping the delris over the sides, thus obliter- 
ating all ancient remains in the center of the city and burying 
out of sight the outer and lower portions. Doctor Schlie- 
mann sank shafts at and near the center of the hill, hitting 
the remains of the Homan city, but utterty missing the remains 
of the sixth city. The fortress he discovered covers an area but 
little more than one third that of the sixth city. Its city walls 
bear a general resemblance to those of the sixth city, but are 
distinctly inferior in massiveness and workmanship. The 
house walls of the second city were of sun-dried brick ; those 
of the sixth city of carefully dressed stone. The pottery and 
other small articles found in the second city are quite unlike 
those of the sixth, both in general style and in skill displayed. 
No such astounding finds were made in the sixth city as the 
great treasure of the second, but in the general process of 
leveling carried on by the builders of Roman times every 
vestige of the grander buildings, which naturally stood at or 
near the top of the hill, was wiped out. The great circuit. 


Methodist Review. 


wall, however, was left almost complete, being entirely covered 
with debris. In one place it was cut through in laying the 
foundation of a great Roman building, but the builders, so far 
as we know, took no notice of the giant remnant of a forgotten 
city except to open a gap for their own wall. 

The chronology of the Mycenaean age is uncertain, but we 
assume that the period of greatest prosperity fell within the 
second half of the second millennium before Christ. If we 
date the sixth city at 1500 B. C, audits fall at 1200 B. C, we 
shall be as near the truth as we can now come. This throws 
the second city, Schliemann's Troy, back a thousand years 
earlier. The civilization whose tangible remains Schliemann's 
spade first laid before us goes back as far, perhaps, as the end 
of the old empire in Egypt, and antedates the traditional date 
of Abraham by not less than five hundred years. "No longer 
can Egypt and Babylonia claim to be the sole representatives 
of civilization four thousand years ago. At Troy there was a 
royal city as old as the pyramids, the remains of whose life 
are unique and important to the study of prehistoric man. 
And, while the resemblances between the sixth city and the 
cities of Mycensean time in Greece are numerous enough to, fix 
the same date for both, the differences prove that Troy and 
Mycenre were not sister cities, but rivals. Helen may never 
have followed Paris from Sparta to Troy, but two great and 
growing states glowered at each other from opposite sides of 
the JSgean and finally met in deadly conflict, in which Hel- 
lenic civilization triumphed over Asiatic civilization ; a drama 
acted again in the days of Marathon and Salamis, and later on 
the fields of Issus and Arbela. It is the same old story of 
two nations sprung from a common mother but separated 
through long centuries and growing to full estate on differs nt 
soil, with different surroundings, with unlike ideals. Each 
comes to touch the other at a hundred sensitive points. Indif- 
ferent ignorance turns to rivalry, and rivalry to hate, and 
hate sooner or later is assuaged in a war of extermination. 

1901.] Needed, a New Division of General History. 711 



Doubtless a new division of general history is demanded. 
The old one, divided into Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern, has 
served its purpose as a tentative, imperfect division, but one 
more scientific and philosophic by fitting itself to facts recently 
reached is plainly to be desired. In the old plan the Ancient 
period reached to the fall of Rome, 476 A. D. ; the Mediaeval 
to the discovery of America, 1-192, or to the fall of Constanti- 
nople, forty years earlier ; while the Recent period reached to 
the present time. This division hardly takes into consideration 
the laws that make natural divisions in man's historical progress. 

It seems to me that some such laws as these should govern 
the division of general history : (1) Some distinct, rounded- 
out aggregation of attainments in man's development and 
civilization ; (2) The decay of peoples who have reached, and 
to that time conserved, those facts of evolution ; (3) The con- 
sequent demand for further advancement, with some enlarge- 
ment of human rights ; (1) More virile races to take up and 
carry forward the torch of enlightenment. Under these laws 
there would be three divisions, as heretofore used, but the 
periods would cover differently divided parts of man's progress. 
The first would reach from the earliest historical times to the 
end of aggressive national life in the valley of the Nile and in 
Mesopotamia and India ; the second period thence to the be- 
ginning of Christianity ; the third period from that to the 
present time. They might be named, Ancient, Middle, Mod- 
ern periods. This division would coincide with the more 
salient and prominent facts of human progress. For up to 
the period of Greek and Roman enlargement there had been 
great advancement in many ways, but now Egypt and Assyria 
were slowing up in the race, and even decaying. Then like- 
wise there came a time when Greek and Roman progress 
showed a fatal slowing up and new races again came on the 
stage of action. 

It is probable that under the old division not enough credit 
was given for what came before the time of Greece and Rome. 


Methodist Review. 


Almost every day is adding to our knowledge concerning the 
magnificent progress made by Egypt and Assyria and other 
adjacent peoples. The Greeks were chary about admitting that 
much of their earlier civilization was other than indigenous, 
though confessing that some of it came from Egypt and the 
East. But we now know that they were originators in hardly 
any department of human progress, but only a brilliant race 
that received the past, improved greatly upon it, then, on their 
own decay, sent it down. The same may be saict of the Ro- 
mans. Let a rapid survey be made of what was attained before 
the Middle period, that of the Greeks and Romans, and facts 
will bear out the claims. 

One cannot help being impressed with the vast number of 
• things we now have that were used by the people of the An- 
cient period. The Egyptians cultivated many kinds of fruits, 
as the apple, plum, pear; many varieties of vegetables; oi 
grain, wheat, barley, durra ; medicinal plants and vegetable 
oils ; they had the horse, ass, camel, humped ox, cow, sheep, 
goat, pig, cat, and dog. They mined on a vast scale different 
kinds of building stones, also copper, iron, gold, silver, lead, 
tin, precious stones, salt, natron, petroleum. Their fine linen, 
glass work, bronze, porcelain, veneering, and wood inlaying 
were most exquisite, and gem cutting was good. Their writ- 
ten language took three forms, after the primitive pictures 
before the alphabet was invented, each form more practical 
than the preceding — the hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic. 
Their extensive literature lias not been fully put into modern 
language but consists of treatises in " religion and theology, 
poems historical and lyric, travels, epistolary correspondence, 
books on geography, astronomy, astrology and magic, calen- 
dars, books of receipts, accounts, catalogues of libraries, and 
many others." The Book of the Dead is an elaborate produc- 
tion purporting to be revealed from heaven, while the epic ol 
Pcntaur, written to commemorate the success of Ramesc 
against the Ilittitcs, was produced fifteen hundred years bef< 
Homer. The fertility of the soil and the industry and frugal- 
ity of the people made Egypt the granary of the world for 
two thousand years. They raised linen and cotton for cloth- 
ing and had extensive irrigation works. 

1901.] Needed, a New Division of General History. 743 

Their engineering skill was remarkable. Tlie Great Pyra- 
mid, in the arrangement of the passages and their covering 
and the provisions against any settling of the masses of im- 
measurable weight, exhibits mechanical skill that has never 
been excelled. Their success in smoothing and exactly adjust- 
ing the hardest stones of great size, the means by which they 
cut out and transported and placed the immense masses of 
hundred tons' weight found as colossi, obelisks, and slabs are 
the wonder and despair of engineers to-day. Bricks burned 
four thousand years ago are hard now. Their columns in 
four distinct orders led the way to the four well-known orders 
of the Greek columns. Their temples have been the wonder 
of all succeeding ages. That of Karnak at Thebes, with its 
suggestion of the Jewish temple, is deemed by students of 
architecture to be the greatest result of man's constructive 
building genius, the noblest effort of architectural magnificence 
overproduced. The graceful obelisks have never been copied. 
They used decorative painting, the colors of which are still 
bright; the arch was known and used. Their sculpturing was 
imperfect, compared with the perfection of the Greek work, 
since conventional religious conservatism, keeping them from 
the study of nature, restricted them to certain limitations, yet 
as having no models 'before them their art was rich. They 
used arithmetic, notation, geometry, trigonometry, and their 
astronomy covered eclipses, the motions, periods, and occupa- 
tions of the planets with tables and constellations of the stars ; 
they knew the obliquity of the ecliptic to the equator, and 
settled the exact length of the solar year. The Greek sages, 
as Pythagoras, Thales, and others, studied science, medicine, 
and history among the Egyptians. 

They had reached and elaborated a great complicated system 
of religion. The priests at least believed in one God, a pure 
spirit, perfect, all-wise, almighty. To him they gave the name 
by which Jehovah revealed himself to Moses at the burning 
bush — "I am that I am" — Nuk Pu NuJc. But the popular 
cult of the masses was concerning multitudinous gods, 
whom they worshiped, good and evil ones, with imposing 
ceremonies and ritual. They believed in existence after this 
life, in rewards, punishments, transmigration. They offered 


Methodist JRevievj. 


sacrifices, both of animals and earth products, and counted 
man}* of the animals sacred, raising the bull to the dignity of 
a god. In society were many classes and occupations. Next 
the king were the priests, then soldiers. Elaborate duties, 
training, and customs kept each class effective. They had 
fleets and commerce, both domestic and foreign. Music highly 
cultivated produced many kinds of instruments. Schools were 
open in all the large towns, in which reading, writing, and 
arithmetic were taught, and by these men became scribes, 
secretaries, bookkeepers. 

The second most prominent development before the Middle 
period was in the Mesopotamia valley. Here at the dawn of 
history was the Chaldean people who had already a language 
of elaborate structure, the verbs especially being of great 
development ; they had invented at an early date the cunei- 
form mode of writing, the simplest method of writing known 
till the alphabet was invented, and used it with much success. 
For building in the broad valley, where they could hot 
obtain stone, they used bricks, both sun-dried and fire-burned, 
making temples and palaces whose material exists to our d \y ; 
raised buildings three stories, and of considerable size ; used 
the arch ; were successful potters ; adepts in gem cutting ai 
in fabricating stone implements and weapons ; knew of 
bronze, gold, silver, iron, and manufactured textile materials. 
In mathematics they had proficiency in arithmetic, a table 
having been found in which squares were completed from 
one to sixty ; their astronomy was well developed and aided 
them in making important mercantile voyages. Their zed 
acal constellations were passed down to the Greeks, as was the 
legend of the twelve labors of Heracles, an astronomical myth- 
Their religious system was polytheistic, and extensive in it* 
doctrines and ritual. In it was mostly worship of the In 
enly bodies. They had two or three greater triads besidt a 
other great gods, both male and female. One of their god • 
II, was in the name but a root-equivalent of the Old Test 
ment El. Their system of gods had something to do wit 
that of the Greeks and Romans. Their cosmogony seem- ' 
have been taken from original documents from which 
much of the creation story of Genesis was taken. * 

1901.] Needed^ a New Division of General History. 745 

iccount of the flood by them was wonderfully like that of 
JCoab. Their reliable chronology must date back as much as 
tlx thousand years B. C. Early they founded cities, as Ereeh, 
Accad, Calneh, Babylon, that later became very great. By 
ihe sixteenth century B. C. great systems of irrigation canals 
wore dug by the Arab conquerors of that region. 

There grew up, apparently some centuries later, another 
great people north of the Chaldeans termed the Assyrians, or 
worshipers of the god Asshur. They soon attained great 
development, building large cities, Nineveh, Calah, Asshur, 
and others. They were given greatly to agricultural life, and 
of domesticated animals had the horse, mule, camel, sheep, 
goat, dog, cattle, fish. Like other Semites they were very 
religious, were fierce and successful in war, used the wedge in 
writing on clay and stone, developed great skill in architecture 
tnd as designers and sculptors, as metallurgists, engineers, up- 
holsterers, workers in ivory, glassblowers, and embroiderers of 
dresses. Palaces, and not temples or tombs, were their special 
buildings — vast, ornate, sculptured, strong, their sculpturing 
fine though lacking the artistic beauty of the Greeks; their 
bas-reliefs depicting scenes of war, religion, hunting, proces- 
sus, ordinary life. They cast superb figures, incised and in 
relief. They worked bronze, sometimes with iron cores for 
greater strength, and also gold and silver. Their enameled 
''ricks were of many colors and designs and their terra cotta 
work of high excellence ; their glass, both white and colored, 
3 ields the antiquarian fine specimens. A lens, plano-convex, 
*n inch and a half wide and half an : nch thick, shows that 
«»ey had a knowledge of optics ; their furniture was often 
: Host elegant. They worked at philology, and the structure 
w their own language was very elaborate. In mechanics they 
excelled, moving masses of sculptured stone by means of 
,0 pes and rollers. In gem cutting they were progressive, and 
r ot, like the Egyptians, at a standstill. 
Hieir soldiers fought as foot, cavalry, and charioteers. For 
' 'pons they had bows, spears, swords, slings, maces, axes. 
At feast in later periods their army was fully organized, could 
■wecessfally besiege strong places and took vast booty in 
They were royal hunters, having royal game — lions, 


Methodist Beview. 


wild bulls, wild asses, stags, gazelles, and other. Music was 
fully cultivated, and they used a dozen different instruments. 
Boats were successfully used, and rafts, and bridges over their 
rivers. Situated as they were on the highway between eastern 
Asia and Europe, their commerce was extensive. Gold, 
copper and tin for bronze, ivory, precious stones, fragrant 
cedar, pearls, spices, perfumes, and rich dresses were some 
of their commodities. Irrigation was most extensive, their 
canals enabling the whole rich valley to be highly cultivated. 
Their grains were wheat, sesame, barley, millet; the vine was 
cultivated for grapes and wine. In times of war they rode in 
chariots, in times of peace in carriages. Their houses were 
simple, their dress adapted to the warm climate. In their 
religious system Asslmr stood as the great god, the great 
lord, the father of the gods, in this sharing with Belus. The 
system itself was mostly like that of the Chaldeans. Their 
many gods had various places and duties assigned them, both 
as male and female, and their worship settled into the gross- 
est idolatry. They worshiped by means of sacrifices and in- 
vocations, feasts and festivals, and sensual ceremonies. Their 
royalty was magnificent, the monarch absolute, yet having 
those who counseled and advised. "Westward their conquests 
reached to the Mediterranean Sea, eastward across the Zagros 
Mountains. But by the ninth century B. C. their strong 
spirit began decaying as luxury and effeminacy came in. The 
genius of Sennacherib gave a transient glory to the gloom of 
decay, his military greatness and the building activity by 
which he greatly adorned Nineveh shedding luster on the 
national name. 

On In's assassination revolts and conspiracies succeeded. By 
the seventh century B. C. the mighty Assyrian empire bad 
become so weak that it could not defend itself against the 
Scythian swarms that, ravaged all that part of Asia, as those 
of Attila did a thousand years later, and when their force wai 
spent a new enemy pushed to the attack. These were the 
Medes, from the Zagros Mountains, who renewed their effort* 
made before the Scythian devastation, which had also ravaged 
them. Success attended the Medes, for the decaying 1 
was to be taken in stronger hands. Nineveh falling, the I 

1901.] Needed^ a New Division of General History. 747 

burned his palace, his family, and himself in one awful holo- 
, aust, and the vast Assyrian empire yielded to the survival of 
the fittest in human progress. Cyaxares the Median accom- 
plished this victory B. C. 624, after Assyria had flourished a 
thousand years. It was never more than a loosely aggregated 
mass of provinces, ready to fall away from the controlling 
center if a weak prince were on the throne. 

If we take our stand at the division proposed between the 
Ancient and Middle periods what do we see ? That the human 
race had little to hope for in advancement from Egypt or 
Mesopotamia. Both peoples were in decay. Israel also, save 
in prophecy, was a forceless fragment. The mighty Hittites 
wore but a name. Any promise of greatness in the Arabian 
peninsula was past. Little light from India reached the West. 
Only in new races was there hope, and those were ready. The 
grand elements of civilization already reached were not to be 
lost. The Western world was not to return to barbarism. 
Better things still were to be reached by the new peoples. 
The past had been advancement, the present was not to stay. 
Swift progress, not decadent conservatism, was the law then 
w now. The stronger, more virile peoples ready at this junc- 
ture were the Medo-Persians, the Carthagenians, the Greeks, 
kbd the Eomans. 

The first of these, issuing from the eastern mountains and 
high plains in the Mesopotamia valley, had been bred in 
hardy habits, veracity, a warlike spirit, and other good ele- 
ments. Iu their new location they found a soil yielding phe- 
nomenal returns for toil, elaborate irrigation works, great 
^tics even though dilapidated, subservient tributaries ; yet 
*ith these and other conditions of speedy culmination of 
National greatness, also, sad to state, conditions of speedy 
National decay. The climate, so unlike their vigor-giving 
highlands, was a depressing force upon them. 

ihe satrapial form of governing his vast empire of forty 
'"illions of people, instituted by Darius, was a great advance 
0Vcr the government of any preceding people or monarchy, 
•t was an effort at governing by delegated authority — entirely 
"tw. Before this time the king was the sole ruler of the 

dm ; now twenty or more petty kings, all under the control 

74-8 Methodist Review. [September, 

of the great king, held sway. A military commandant 
watched and checked the satrap, while a secretary, as the eye 
or ear of the king, watched both. Three things seemed to be 
aimed at by this new form of government : uniformity in gov- 
erning the varied people of the empire, definite burdens upon 
tbe people, and a counterpoising of the powers of each satrap. 
This satrapial form of government was for the time highly 
successful. Then the Zoroastrian religion held by the Per- 
sians took the place of the Baal worship of the Semitic Baby- 
lonians. The doctrines were more elevating, the ritual and 
practices better for human enlargement and advancement. 

Still, with these advantages, the Medo-Persian empire soon 
showed weakness; its gigantic struggle with Greece, its final 
defeat in that great contest, and, later, Xenophon's expedition 
of the Ten Thousand with Cyrus, all betokened the fall of the 
colossus, and it only waited the strokes of Alexander's sword 
to yield. 

Another of the fourfold group to start the Middle period 
was Carthage. This people had obtained such a beginuing 
and reached such progress that the historian laments that they 
were not permitted the opportunity to evolve their trend to a 
greater consummation. The daughter of Phoenicia inherited 
much of the commercial genius of that successful people, but, 
unlike them, attempted a cycle of conquests that, bringing 
her into contact with Home, led to her final destruction. Of 
the constitution of Carthage Aristotle said it was the best 
that had ever been produced and he had the Greek and Roman 
models before him. It is one of the regrets of history that 
we know so little of that African commonwealth and even 
that little from its mortal enemies. Their commercial, colo- 
nizing, republican, constitutional spirit gave promise of vast 
worth to humanity, but Pome, finding a dangerous rival over 
the way, and once tasting the delight of foreign conquest in 
Sicily, would not be satisfied until her brutal instincts wrought 
the total subversion of that rival. Cato's cry in the senate 
that Carthage must be destroyed evinced at once the high 
purpose of Rome and her bloodthirsty spirit; throwing ^ d' 
tressing glare on the conditions out of which so many 
thin g8 could come as those Rome has finally sriven the worW 

1901.3 Needed^ a New Division of General History. 749 

Of course the vastest progress and worth of the Middle 
period came from the two peoples nearly always named to- 
gether, the Greeks and the Romans. If Medo-Persia failed 
through internal decay, and Carthage was swept from exist- 
ence by Rome's hatred, these two peoples for well-nigh a mil- 
lennium took of the former development of man, revising it 
and enlarging and adding to it, and their progress may easily 
be considered as forming an epoch by itself. 

If the real themes of history are, first man, and then his 
works and evolving conditions, then in these two peoples there 
was much of true history produced and shown. As a phys- 
ical, mental, moral being, man was greatly enlarged in the 
Middle period. The renowned games, athletic and gymnastic 
exercises, the drill for the hand-to-hand warfare of those 
times, as well as the gladiatorial shows, helped to give the 
fortunate or unfortunate actors in them a physical development 
ueldom, if ever, attained elsewhere by mankind. With that 
frpleudid physique seems to have existed a superior and incom- 
parably fertile mental activity. Out of that came their superb 
art, their profound philosophy, keen religious insight, and 
their success in government", science, letters, oratory, conquest. 
Personal human rights, at least in some of the Greek states — 
as Athens, where democracy had its fairest fruitage in that 
period — attained great advancement. But with them, and 
the Carthagenians and the Spartans as well, those attainments 
were confined to the few ; the dominant classes denied to the 
lower grades of the people and the slaves any part in the 
Rational growth and increase of human rights. But it was not 
wholly so at Rome. There the plebeians through various 
Itroggles obtained the right to have tribunes from their own 
class to protect them, finally obtaining the right to be elected 
to consular dignity. But even with these gains among the 
Upper classes and fortunate plebeians, and the colonists to 
whom Roman citizenship was extended after the Margie Wars, 
Uncounted millions were denied, by slavery, lowliness, and 
misfortunes, almost every claim to human rights. The power 
W l'fe and death even was in the hands of the masters, own- 
C W, aristocrats. Still Rome gradually learned to trust its 
conquered provinces, and many people, as now with Great 


Methodist Review. 


Britain, were better off under the eagles of Borne than under 
their own rulers. Through all of Home's advance, law guided 
the evolution, for law was the core of Rome's growth ; accord- 
ing to that principle was the progress of humanity in those 
centuries. Indeed since her material decay Home has given 
law to much of the world. Humanity was to be asked to 
submit to a new moral law, high, strong, and with a mighty 
significance, and as preparation for that needed to learn the 
power of natural and political law. 

Already the decay of Greece had been very marked. Athens 
was blotted out, the supremacy of Sparta, won in the dreadful 
Peloponnesian War, yielded to that of Thebes, and later ail 
Greece had succumbed to the ambitious Philip. The unique 
civilization of Greece did not run the risk of being so utterly 
lost as the older ones before the Middle period, for its art was 
embodied in marble and bronze in forms destined to endure 
through the ages, while science, poetry, history, philosopl^, and 
other magnificent elements of human evolution were almost 
as imperishably fixed by letters to endure. The Greek race 
was perishing, but it had perfected a rich, flexible language to 
carry forward the incomparable literature and to take up one 
of the most distinctive elements of the coming and better 
civilization and history, the New Testament, and thus with 
theii* own decay send down conditions for better things. 
Greece became a Roman province 146 B. C. 

The historian who makes an epochal point at the downfall 
of the Western empire would seem to leave out of sight the 
decay of Rome that had set in centuries before. Even if the 
Augustan age were the historic culmination of Rome's develop 
ment it still contained in itself many and swiftly growing 
forces of decay. For a hundred years before Christ the liber- 
ties of Rome — meaning by that the broadened rights granted 
to man as man, to cities, classes, provinces, and peoples— were 
mostly lost. The small farms and conservative owners of 
them were disappearing, great estates, rich families, patrician 
luxury and indolence and corruption became the common con- 
dition. The attempts of the Gracchi to save Rome from 
these things ended in defeat, and also introduced domei 
feuds and bloodshed, private assassination, and a dangerous 

|90l.] JS 7 ceded y a New Division of General History. 751 

regular army, thus paving the way to the great civil wars that 
followed. The legionaries were being taken from the prov- 
inces, from the stronger, hardier peoples, who were learning 
: hereby the dependence placed upon themselves. The cor- 
rupt bribe-taking senate was but a travesty on the magnificent 
Unly of Scipio and Cato. They were training Marius and 
Sulla, Pompey and Csesar, and the empire was in sight. Sulla 
was the first disaffected general to lead an army devoted 
to him against the sacred capital of his own country, and he 
i»x>k bloody vengeance on those opposing his methods. Then 
China and Marius in Sulla's absence turned the tables, and the 
itreetfi of Home flowed with the blood of reprisal. But Sulla 
returned victorious from the Mithridatic "War, again set up 
the corrupt senate, after a bloody civil war, and remanded the 
party of the people to destruction. Italy was bespattered with 
intestine blood from Sicily to the Alps. The orations and 
letters of Cicero throw reflections of the lurid light. Pirates 
controlled the Mediterranean ; provinces were remorselessly 
^ueezed by avaricious senators and governors ; from head to 
foot Home was becoming a mass of putrefying corruption. 
The conspiracy of Oataline was but one of many. The first 
ttiumvirate, concocted privately between Caesar, Crassus, and 
Pompey, founded on the genius of the first, the wealth of the 
weond, a_id the military successes of the third divided the 
chief influence, offices, and power of Rome. Crassus, slain in 
battle, the vast empire was not large enough for the ambition 
of both Caesar and Pompey. After Italy had been deluged 
in blood the far fair plains of Pharsalia, soaked in Roman 
blood only in the fratricidal contests, saw the struggle ended 
which left but one master of Rome, and the world thence- 
forth governed by the Dictator, the Imperator, Caesar. The 
second triumvirate was also dissolved in blood, and the 
H'cond Caesar, Octavius, surnamcd Augustus, brushed aside 
&o seeming remnants of the republic and the consolidated 
GttJpire gave a better peace than Rome had obtained for a 
hundred years; but it was a peace foreboding decay, as the 
opened apple is in the first stages of rottenness. In his reign 
Christ was born, and in the reign of his successor, Tiberius, 
t ^ pregnant three years of the Master's teaching, crucifixion, 


Methodist Review, 


and resurrection took place. The Augustan age, which pro- 
duced the magnificent literature, was yet a time when there 
was at least a stay in Roman advancement, and that stay gave 
letters a chance to flourish at the expense of progress. The 
vigor which pushed conquests over large shares of three con- 
tinents was now resting, not from satiety alone, but from early 
stages of exhaustion. The Romans were not, like the Greeks, 
to be best known by their literary triumphs; so when their 
conquests ceased, and freedom granted to those conquered 
was extended to no new peoples, their peculiar vocation, at 
least in progress, ended. The immoralities were such as 
startle, then disgust, and lead to deep indignation that such 
magnificent powers should be so prostituted to low, vile ends. 
Morality was openly flouted, marriage was despised, and few 
children were being born of the real Roman blood ; drunken- 
ness was weakening and killing off the conquerors of Carthage 
and Greece, so that the star that had seemed in the zenith 
had begun to pale. Gladiatorial shows were brutalizing the 
people and their thirst for human blood seemed no mild 
insanity. Now for a century or two Rome could do the 
world the best service by protecting the tender shoot of 
Christianity. This done, it was ready to perish, to give way 
to peoples who were waiting to receive in themselves the 
best that Rome had produced, and be capable of further 
evolution toward individual freedom and social enlargement. 

The Modern period, from Christ to the present time, owes 
its greatness to many different forces at work, four of which 
seem to stand out most prominently to view. These are the 
Roman laws, Greek culture, the new races, and Christianity. 
Roman laws, at first and for some centuries directly operative, 
were less so as disintegration took place. In those days oi 
dissolution the force of Rome's laws was operative espe- 
cially in the cities and their municipal institutions. On the 
revival of learning, and as the more developed conditions ol 
Western civilization demanded it, jurists and legislators turn- I 
to the vast depositories of wealth in Roman laws arid (juari 
for new structures. Similar things were true of Greek Cttl« 
ture. By it Romans were taught and cultured after tl 
beginning of the Modern period, and it afforded language 

1901.] Needed^ a New Division of General History. 753 

ready means for apologetics and for teaching for the nascent 
religion. It fell into disuse as the barbarian hordes were over- 
turning the old, and only rebuilding slowly. A spark of the 
true fire was kept alive by the monks in the monasteries until 
the mighty Renaissance, when the Greek culture grew to be 
u great impelling power that, like Roman laws, has been 
touching every phase of development. Our children are its 
debtors long before they see a Greek book. 

The third element I name as shaping the Modern period 
was the Northern races. They were strong and brave. They 
bad a restless energy which by the time of the Christian epoch 
hud impelled them again and again upon Roman territory. 
The final subversion of Italy by them was not to take place 
until four centuries were past. Even before contact with 
southern Europe they had emerged from the savage state, as 
rated by Morgan's laws, into that of barbarous. Nomadic in 
life, they had occupied the central plains of Europe, behind 
the Danube, the Rhine, and the Alps, for ages, ;and when 
finally coming into contact with the highly civilized races 
were themselves in the lower grades of the civilized state. 
As for the Celts, they had, in Gaul and Britain and other 
parts, been in contact with Roman civilization long enough 
to imbibe many of its rich results, but the main stream of it 
was to be Teutonic. Other racial elements also entered, one 
being the original Turanian stock that overspread Europe be- 
fore the Celts came in or the Romans entered Italy. It is 
probable that the peculiar vivacity of mind in some of the 
present peoples of western Europe may be traced to an in- 
fusion of that blood. But in so late a period of man's 
development as the Christian era the various races and fami- 
lies were blended so much that it was impossible for anyone 
to know that he had pure racial blood in him. Yet blood 
tells. The predominance of Teutonic elements boded good 
{ *t the incipience of the epochal change. They were quick 
and strenuous for personal independence, according to each 
individual both free rights and direct responsibility. By 
toem the individual was put in front of the state. 

Doubtless the greater force in Bhaping the Modern period 
*as to be the New Testament. Jesus and the Book made out 


Methodist Review. [September, 

of his life, teaching and immediate impulse will in this paper 
be considered only historically. The divine origin of Chris- 
tianity and the inspiration of the Book are foreign to the 
scope of this study. It is impossible to say just what part of 
human progress in this period was the result of Christianity 
and what was the result of other forces at work in the epoch. 
A higher conception of man as man began to grow as the teach- 
ings of the Great Master became diffused. That there was no 
difference between Jew and Gentile, Greek and barbarian, was 
a new teaching. It was an advance now needed in man's 
evolution. Only the few before were the favored ones of 
states or of Heaven ; now bond and free, rich and poor, great 
and small, were to stand on an equality. This one teaching, 
man's inherent individuality, inherent grandeur, and natural 
rights, was to affect all of man's progress to our time. 

Tk'e^ of the mistakes of historians in dividing human 
progress has been in not recognizing the epochal character 
of the beginning of Christianity. To be sure, it cut no great 
figure in the world at the first, but the leaven was swiftly 
at work. As we gaze the vastness of the Roman empire 
rises like a huge mountain, seeming to overshadow the light 
rising for humanity in that little obscure province of Palestine ; 
yet that was the light enlightening every man coming into 
the world. 1 urge that the Modern period of histoiy, 
scientifically considered, should begin with Jesus. Forces then 
set at work have continuously expanded to our time. The 
giant power of Home thoughtlessly protected Christianity at 
first, then failed to extirpate. The direct apostolic teachings 
were already profoundly affecting thought and conduct beyond 
Palestine ; another century saw Rome alarmed at what seemed 
pernicious superstitions ; the fourth century saw a Christian 
emperor ruling the Roman world. By this time the monks 
and priests and bishops were deeply imbued with a purpose to 
carry to the steadily encroaching northern people the force6 
and benevolent influences of the new religion, and AVodcn 
gradually gave way to Christ. But the gold had dross mixed 
with it. Churchmen were allured and corrupted by power. 
An overweening hierarchy grew up on the Tiber EU3 the politi- 
cal power of Rome was perishing. Still there were mi 

1901.1 Reeded) a New Division of General History. 755 

•.ries who were willing to devote life itself to the conversion 
of the coming people of western Europe. They saw that the 
iccpter was being taken by stronger hands, that the great 
forces of advancement were passing from the effete Romans 
to the sturdier races crowding so resistlessly into the provinces, 
towns, and cities once only Roman. 

The changes from the old to the new went steadily onward. 
Tito attempts of Charlemange and Otto and Theodoric to 
revive the glories of the Roman empire were distressing fail- 
ures, but a better order was coming. Man as man was worth 
more than empires. Personal manhood was to be one of the 
strong columns supporting the new structure. The Christian 
Church was putting genius, wherever found, into foremost 
places. Slavery was gradually shined away ; letters came to 
bo cultivated ; science was being recovered from the Greeks 
and was seeking new truths ; universal thought was getting 
free — there were no Dark Ages. From the birth of Christ 
the one who sees evolution in human progress cannot fail to 
understand that that progress was continuous. Right onward 
it went, ever lifting man upward, enlarging his vision, adding 
to his rights, and helping him in every element of his growing 
civilization. In time the use of gunpowder in war enfran- 
chised the lowly with a sense of his importance ; the compass 
widened man's mercantile and geographical horizon ; the dis- 
covery of America gave the grandest impulses to knowledge 
and energies the world has ever reached ; the printing press 
began scattering clouds and bringing sunlight of universal 
education ; the Reformation set men's consciences and re- 
hin'ous practices free ; republics arose, and constitutional 
monarchies granted still wider human rights ; and the latest 
material developments were reached that are annihilating time 
and space. All are a part of this Modem period which, be- 
diming its work those eighteen centuries ago, bears mightiest 
forces of advancement in our present time. 


Methodist Review. 



By experience we understand the response in the human 
spirit to facts and truths. It is the general name for what 
takes place in us when we come up against certain facts or 
under the influence of certain truths. Let a man lose his prop- 
erty, and at once he will have an entirely new experience. 
The fact of poverty will affect him in a manner peculiar to 
itself. Let a man be possessed by the truth of the transitori- 
ness of wealth, and his experience will be altogether different 
from that of him who has never been impressed by this truth. 
It will give him a new view of things, and will make a new 
person of him. 

By religious experience, consequently, we mean the re- 
sponse in the human spirit to the facts and truths of religion. 
This response is both general and special. Thus there is the 
experience that all men have, more or less, in one way or an- 
other, because of the fact of God ; and which expresses itself in 
phenomena so universal, though varying, as to prove that man 
is essentially the religious animal : and then there is the spe- 
cial religious experience peculiar to the devotees of the different 
religions, the truths, or the assumed truths, of each one of 
these producing their own effect, and so developing their own 
type of experience in each person who accepts them. 

By Christian experience, then, is intended the norma! 
response in the human spirit to the facts and truths of the 
Christian religion as these are set forth in the Bible. The 
word normal should be added for the reason that there is 
much experience of which Christianity, though the occasion, 
is not the cause. For example, the abundant, positive, and 
diverse experience which follows the rejection of Christian- 
ity is the effect, not of it, but of the sinner's own hard heart. 
All such experience, therefore, we must at once rule out as 
unchristian. It is only the experience of those in wl 
Christianity produces its effect that we need or, indeed, may 
consider. By the facts and truths of Christianity we mean 
those which constitute it. Such facts are, God's compassion for 

I901J Apologetic Worth of Christian Experience. 757 

linners; the incarnation, the character, the work, the death, the 
resurrection, the ascension, of Christ; and his mission of the 
Holy Spirit. Such truths are the doctrines which interpret these 
facts, as, for example, the doctrine of God's love, the doctrine 
oi (lie incarnation, the doctrine of the sinlessness of Christ, the 
doctrine of the atonement, the doctrine of the exaltation of our 
Lord, and the doctrine of the operation of the Holy Spirit. 
These and other like facts and doctrines make up Christianity. 
It is because of them that it is what it is. These facts and doc- 
trines, moreover, must all be considered as they are presented 
in the Bible. This does not mean that the sacred writers fabri- 
cated the facts and doctrines of Scripture. They only recorded 
them. These facts and doctrines were such before the Bible 
was written ; and its authors were divinely inspired to write it 
just in order that these facts and doctrines might be infallibly 
Stated and communicated. In this, then, we have the reason 
why the Bible must be the source and, it should be noted, also 
the norm of all genuine Christian experience. It is not that the 
facts and truths of Christianity may not, even now, be learned 
independently of the Bible, and are not, even to-day, often pre- 
sented quite otherwise than in its words. It is that in the Bible 
we have the only divine, and, hence, infallible and authoritative, 
exhibition both of the facts and truths of Christianity, and of 
what should be the effect of these in the spirit and so on the 
life of man. It may not be expected, therefore, that the Holy 
Spirit, who is the only Giver of life and of light, will develop 
in any a life not in harmony with that depicted in his Word, 
or that he will give for life any light which does not emanate 
from its facts and truths as he lias recorded them for the 
express purpose of making us " wise unto salvation." To do 
either would be to "deny himself," and God cannot "deny 
himself." Indeed, as Professor Stearns well says (T/w Evu 
dence of Christian Experience, p. 117), "There never was 
Christian experience, after the Bible had become the pos- 
session of the Church, that could not be traced back to the 
Bible as its source; there never was any mature and complete 
Christian experience that did not grow out of the diligent 
personal use of the Bible." 
This experience that, for the reasons given, we call Chris 

Methodist Review. 


tian is tbe same essentially in all who have it. Incidentally it 
varies so greatly that in no two persons is it exactly alike. 
Temperament has much to do with it. So has environment. 
So lias training. So has occupation. So has the previous atti- 
tude toward Christ. The experience of a phlegmatic Chris- 
tian will be quite different from that of a sanguine one. Ritu- 
alistic surroundings will develop one type of Christian and 
revivalistic another. The child who has been brought up on the 
u Shorter Catechism " will not think or feel with reference to 
religion or, indeed, with reference to anything, as will one 
whose theological training has been less systematic. The man 
who is immersed in the business of the street and the woman 
who is given over to works of charity will not have, and may 
not be expected to have, the same experience when they be- 
come Christians. The child who has never gone far in rebellion 
, against God will not, and cannot, when converted, experience 
the same horrors of conviction of sin that he will who for half 
a century has gloried in blaspheming Christ and in despising 
his grace. In spite, however, of the number and importance of 
these differences, it is still true that Christian experience is 
distinctly one and the same. It could not be otherwise. The 
facts and truths of Christianity change not, neither does human 
nature. Thus the object and the subject of this experience 
cannot vary. 

To make this appear, it is necessary only to analyze the ex- 
perience of Christians who differ widely in every particular ex- 
cept that they are followers of Christ. The same great elements 
may be seen in the experience of all of them. " Compare, h 
says President Hopkins (Evidences of Christianity, p. 1SS). 
u the statements given respecting the power of the Gospel by 
Jonathan Edwards, by a converted Grccnlandcr, a Sand- 
wich Islander, and a Hottentot, and you will find in them all 
a substantial identity. They have all repented, and believe J. 
and loved, and obeyed, and rejoiced ; they all speak of simi- 
lar conflicts and of similar supports. And their statements 
respecting these things have the more force because they an 1 
not given as testimony, but seem rather like notes, varying, 
indeed, in fullness and power, which may yet be recognized RS 
coming from a similar instrument touched by a single band. 

1901.1 Apologetic Worth of Christian Experience. 759 

If I might allude here to the comparison, by Christ, of the Spirit 
lo the wind, I should say that in every climate, and under 
ail circumstances, that divine Agent calls forth the same sweet 
notes whenever he touches the JSolian harp of a soul renewed. 
And this uniform testimony does not come as a naked expres- 
sion of mere feeling ; it is accompanied with a change of life, 
and with fruits meet for repentance, showing a permanent 
change of principle." To sum up, Christian experience always 
and everywhere includes, as its antecedent, a more or less pro- 
found sense of guilt before God and of consequent antagonism 
to him ; as its beginning, a consciousness of justification in his 
tight and of reconciliation to him ; as its subjective meaning, 
that the heart has been changed so that the sinner's whole 
tendency has been reversed ; and in its development, a constant 
conflict with the world, the flesh, and the devil, as the Christian 
grows in appreciation and appropriation of the riches that are 
in Christ Jesus. Thus Christian experience does not consist 
::t hearing an audible testimony in the soul, or in having a 
unique feeling of assurance of salvation. Either of these would 
he a direct revelation and would itself call for authentication. 
But Christian experience does consist in a work in the Chris- 
tian, manifesting itself to him internally and to others exter- 
nally, in consequence of which he is conscious that, " whereas 
be was blind, now he sees ;" that " old things have become new;" 
and that he himself is a a new creature in Christ Jesus." This, 
it should be added, is, in the main, true even of the many who, 
M we believe, are regenerated in infancy or early childhood. 
The conflict with sin in the case of these shows that there must 
have taken place in them such a change as has been described, 
though they were not conscious of it at the time. Otherwise, 
v ''hy should there be the conflict? 

It is not the purpose of this paper to consider the genesis, 
development, and perfection of this uniquely blessed experi- 
ence, though nothing could be more interesting and more 
practical. Neither is it the aim of this essay to determine 
"OW far Christian experience may be the source of theology, 
*&d what are its contributions to it, difficult and important 
though cither of these investigations would be. Our task is 
h |>ologctic, and apologetic only. The one question that wo 


Methodist Review. 


raise is, What kind and degree of proof may be drawn from 
the experience the elements of which we have outlined and 
with which every reflecting Christian is familiar, of supernat- 
ural power congruous witli and applying the facts and truths 
which constitute Christianity, and in connection with which 
and on account of which this experience has arisen, and with- 
out which it cannot be explained? Yet, let it not be supposed 
that this inquiry is less called for than those which have been 
mentioned. As we are bidden to have a "reason for the hope 
that is in us," so, in the case of many, their experience as 
Christians is the only reason that they have, or can have ; and 
as it is of supreme concern to the impenitent themselves as 
well as to the Church that they should be brought to Christ, 
so if the experience of Christians should commend Christ to 
the world, no more than we ourselves, can men generally 
afford to be left ignorant of the force of this evidence. We 
notice then : 

I. The direct apologetic worth of Christian experience- 
This falls naturally under two heads : 

1. The apologetic worth of Christian experience to the 
Christian himself. What kind and degree of evidence does it 
afford to him that his religion is " the wisdom and the power of 
God ? " To determine this we need to examine : 

A. The realit}' of the evidential facts. The internal work, 
the illumination of mind, the reversal of will, the change of 
feelings, in a word, the " new man," in which, as we have seen, 
Christian experience consists — is there any proof that this is 
real ? May it not be a mere fancy, and so the argument based 
on it be without foundation ? The following considerations 
forbid any such supposition : 

(a) The particular experience under notice is, in the case of 
Christians, antecedently probable. Siucc Christianity professes 
to save men who are " dead through trespasses and sins," it 
must, if true, work in them the mightiest and most radical of 
all changes. It is absurd, then, to think that there could be 
no real difference between the experience of him who is a 
Christian and of him who is not. It is more absurd than it 
would be to suppose that one born blind could gain the use ol 
his eyes and not both feel himself a new man and be ;> new 

> 'MO* 

1901.1 Apologetic Worth of Christian Exjyerience. 761 

man; for the contrast between physical blindness and phys- 
ical sight is as nothing compared with the contrast between 
ipiritual death and spiritual life. In the case of contrasts so 
great there can be no question as to the reality of the experi- 
ence of change. Claim, as we do, that the change under consid- 
eration is supernatural ; it would be preternatural, were it not a 
real change. Indeed, as President Hopkins says (Evidences 
if Chrlstmnity p. 1S4), "£To religion could do for man what 
Christianity proposes to do, without furnishing to those under 
its influence experimental evidence of its truth." That, 
therefore, Christian experience is real, whatever may be its 
evidential worth, is probable in advance. It is to be expected 
if Christianity be true. In a word, it is a necessity of the the- 
ory that we would establish. Heat may not prove the sun to 
be a globe of fire ; but if it is such, we may not doubt that our 
experience of heat is real. 

(b) This presumption of the reality of Christian experience 
is confirmed by the promises of Scripture. The experience 
which we see cannot but result from the acceptance of Chris- 
tianity the "Word of God" asserts shall attend and follow it. 
The Bible speaks of this change as a " new creation," a u pass- 
ing from death unto life," a " resurrection," a " new birth." 
It declares that the subject of it has become a " new man," 
that he possesses a " new heart." Let the reader consult 
wch passages as 2 Cor. v, IT ; Gal. vi, 15 ; John v, 24 ; 1 
John iii, 14; Rom. vi, 13 ; Eph. v, 14; John i, 12, 13 ; iii, 
3-8 ; Tit. iii, 5 ; 1 John iii, 9 ; Eph. iv, 22-24 ; Col. iii, 9, 
10. We cannot study these statements and not feel that it is 
• real experience that is referred to. As it is only such an 
experience that would be consistent with the nature of Chris- 
tianity, so it is distinctly such an experience that it promises 
to all who yield themselves to its influence. 

(o) This promise is fulfilled in us in proportion to our faith 
8| id obedience. The Christiau knows himself to be a " new 
r,l &n in Christ Jesus." He knows this as surely because as 
directly as he knows himself to be a man. He is immediately 
conscious both of his existence and of the radical change in 
">e mode of his existence. True, he cannot demonstrate the 

"''I', but neither can he the former. So far at least aa he him- 



762 Methodist Review. [September, 

self is concerned, there is no reason why he should. What you 
see you do not need to prove. Your sight of it is worth more 
than any demonstration. At best, the latter is only derivative : 
it presupposes immediate knowledge. Consciousness, however, 
is immediate and fundamental. It is the basis and condition 
of all knowledge. What you are conscious of as real must be 
real, if there be reality at all. The reality of Christian ex- 
perience, therefore, may not be doubted by the Christian him- 
self. It is antecedently probable; it is positively promise*] ; 
it is the object of consciousness itself. The Christian, if he 
questions its reality, must question all reality. 

jB. Christian experience is the direct effect of Christianity 
itself. It may not be attributed to some other cause. Its 
evidential force, therefore, whatever this may be, must be 
credited to Christianity and to it alone. Several considera- 
tions show this to be so. 

(a) We never find distinctively Christian experience in con- 
nection with other facts and truths than those of Christian- 
ity. Many circumstances and many doctrines, and of divers 
kinds, do affect men powerfully : but they never produce in 
them what we have seen to be the elements of Christian expe- 
rience. They may even make them better in the sense of more 
serious, more moral, more spiritual in their aspirations. They 
may go so far as to develop highly the sense of sin, to re- 
veal much of the exceeding beauty of the character of Christ, 
to effect a well-nigh complete reformation of the life so far as 
it can be observed, even to cause continuance in the welldoing 
thus entered on. But all this is totally different from that 
dread and loathing of sin as displeasing to God, that appropria- 
tion of Christ as your own gracious and indispensable Redeemer, 
that change of heart or disposition involved in beginning to 
love God more than self, that growth in true likeness to God, 
in all of which wo have seen genuine Christian experience to 
consist. This particular experience can be found only in those 
who are real, even if sometimes secret, disciples of Christ. 

(b) In them it may be discovered. Of course, many are 
called by his name who are not his. In these, therefore, **< 
should not expect the experience in question. So, too, u 
who follow Christ do so only at a distance. Wo Bhoald not 1 

1901.1 Apologetic Worth of Christian Experience. 763 

surprised, consequent!} 7 , if in them the experience under con- 
sideration were very vague and unsatisfying. With these ex- 
ceptions, however, which, moreover, are exceptions that prove 
the rule, it remains true, as Stearns has observed (Evidence 
of Christian, Experience, p. 302), that "the normal Christian 
experience is one which involves the element described." Not 
more regularly is the pear the fruit of the pear tree, and of it 
only, than Christian experience is the fruit of consecration to 
Christ, and of this only. 

(c) "We can see why it should be. As Baxter has shown 
with great fullness and clearness (Reasons for the Christian 
Religion, p. 290), such an experience Christ was fitted and 
lent to illustrate and to impart to those who should become 
his disciples ; and he promised that after his ascension his Spirit 
would apply for the same end and in the same manner the 
facts and truths concerning himself. In this, therefore, we 
have the explanation of what we have just observed. The 
experience that we call Christian is not only real, but is really 
Christian. We never discover it apart from Christianity ; we 
always discern it more or less clearly in the genuine Christian ; 
Christianity, if true, would be inexplicable without it and it- 
n?lf explains it. 

C. Christian experience is experience of the super natural. 
This is its evidential force. By this we do not mean that the 
Christian becomes directly conscious of God. True, this view 
>s held by many. It is the position of the influential school 
of Dorner. He says, for example (Glaubenslehre, p. 161), 
41 Faith already has the immediate spiritual intuition of God as 
Father ; it has knowledge not simply of itself, of its being re- 
deemed, but also, and that primarily, of the redeeming God." 
" This teaching," however, " seems to cross the line that sepa- 
rates the true mysticism from the false. We cannot know any 
objective reality whether physical or spiritual except through 
3l 8 effects in our consciousness." As Stearns continues (Evi- 
dence of Christian Experience, p. 424), " This knowledge is 
teal and immediate, though not unmediated ; but it is wry 
different from a direct intuition of the object." 

What we do mean, however, when we speak of Christian 
**pcrience as an experience of the supernatural, is that the 


Methodist Review. 


effects experienced in connection with Christianity, the ex- 
perience already outlined and considered, regeneration and 
sanctification, both presuppose and reveal the supernatural. 

(a) Take, for example, regeneration. It is an effect that can 
be rationally ascribed only to the immediate interposition of 
God in the life of the soul. There are two reasons for this. 
One appears in the primary sphere of regeneration. This is 
the heart or disposition. What is distinctive of the Christian 
is not that he has decided to follow Christ ; it is rather that 
he has come to see in him " the chiefest among ten thousand " 
and the one " altogether lovely.'' That is to say, regeneration 
does not consist only in a change of will ; it is also, and fun- 
damentally, a change of the disposition underlying the will. 
Now, not to enter on the vexed question of the will, this 
much will probably be granted by all, that no one can change 
his own heart. Tie cannot make himself love what formerly 
he hated. Hence, if he has experienced a radical change 
of feeling toward Christ, it cannot be that he himself has 
been the cause of it. At least, we must look outside of the 
human will, if we would explain regeneration. But this is not 
all. Regeneration is not only an experience which begins 
below the will and so beyond our control ; it is character- 
istically an experience which develops in direct opposition to 
nature. It cannot, therefore, be an evolution ; it is really the 
contradiction of that out of which on the evolutionary hypoth- 
esis it must have come. When a rushing river is turned in a 
direction contrary to that in which it used to run, we know 
that a power other than that of its own stream or its own banks 
has done it, and must have done it ; it is the change in its 
own tendency that is decisive. And precisely so, when Saul 
the Pharisee and persecutor of the Church becomes Paul tbo 
Christian and " bond servant of Christ,-' we ought to know 
that a force other than and above that of his own nature and 
environment has wrought the transformation, and must have 
wrought it. Nor does it signify that as a Christian he 18 the 
same honest intense man, the identical man, that he was a • ■ 
Pharisee; it is the absolutely new direction of his whole life 
that we are considering! and this most be regarded as a cause- 
less efTcctsave on the supposition that there has been divine 

1901.1 Apologetic Worth of Christian Experience. 


imparted to liim a life from without and from above. In a 
word, such experience presupposes a miracle of grace. 

(/y) Consider sanctification. It reveals the supernatural. 
Two facts evince this. On the one hand, the Christian is 
conscious of his own inability. " He knows that in him, that 
i , in his flesh, dwelleth no good thing." " The good that lie 
would he does not ; the evil that he would not, that he prac- 
lices." On the other hand, he is sure that " he is guarded by the 
power of God through faith unto salvation." He is conscious 
that Lis " grace is sufficient for him." Thus his sanctification 
\i a continuous miracle. Y\ T e know that, though with our co- 
operation, it is carried forward by the Holy Spirit himself. 

(c) Nor may it be replied that all this is due to the natural 
power of the truth in the facts and doctrines of Christianity. 
Were there space, a strong argument for the supernaturalness 
of our religion might be constructed from the adaptation of 
its facts and truths to the regeneration and sanctification of 
sinners. This adaptation is such as to imply both the wisdom 
and the power of God. It cannot, however, by itself explain 
Christian experience. The reason for this is that very often 
it does not produce this experience. To many the Gospel is 
11 a Bavor from death unto death." Why \ Because they re- 
ject it. But why do some reject it, whereas others accept it? 
We may not answer that it is because the former are consti- 
tutionally opposed to it, while the latter are constitutionally 
predisposed to it. Observation shows that such is by no means 
ftlwaysthe case. Many that " are not far from the kingdom of 
God " continue outside of it, and many that were far from it 
press into it. But one answer, then, seems to be warranted 
ky the facts. The facts and truths of Christianity produce 
their appropriate effects in experience when and because they 
ire accompanied by the " demonstration and power " of the 
Holy Spirit. In their operation they reveal, as in their nature 
way presuppose, a miracle of grace. 

('/) This conclusion is confirmed by the Gospel's own tes- 
timony concerning itself. This testimony must be true ; for 
l«e Gospel is too beneficent an agency to bo false at all, and 
•cast of all on its face. Now this testimony is that the prr- 

*°na] influence of the Holy Spirit on us is necessary to the 


Methodist Review. 


reception of the Gospel by us. (Vide Eph. i, 17.) Divinely 
adapted though it is to our need as sinners, its appropriate 
effect on us it itself ascribes to nothing less than a miracle of 
grace. The evidential force, therefore, of Christian expe- 
rience must be as we have maintained. It is an experience 
of the supernatural. 

D. A word should be added on the verification of this ev- 
idence. Though often decried, its sufficiency and, were there 
space, its superiority might be vindicated on the following 
grounds : , 

(a) Its scientific character. Scientific method involves 
three processes. There is, first, hypothesis ; the reality of some 
fact or the truth of some law is assumed. There is, secondly, 
deduction ; the consequences of the assumed fact or truth are 
carefully deduced. There is, thirdly, experiment ; the fact or 
truth is put to the test to see if the consequences deduced actu- 
ally follow. If they do, the assumption has become knowl- 
edge ; there has been scientific proof. But this is precisely 
what there has been in the case of every Christian. He has 
assumed the reality of the facts and the truth of the doc- 
trines of the Gospel. He has done so in view of the stated 
or implied consequences of these. He has put them to the 
test by acting in accord with their requirements. And the 
consequences have followed. The new life promised if they 
were acted on has been experienced. Again, there has been 
scientific proof, and it has been as scientific in this case as in 
the other. 

(I) The abundance of consentient testimony. He who 
makes trial of Christianity does not find it true in his own 
experience only, lie finds also that all others who have 
made trial of it have had the same experience. Thus he is 
confirmed by them. Not merely is his experiment successful : 
it is successful in unnumbered instances; in not one is it 

(c) The objective character of the evidence. Though it 
consists in experience, this experience expresses itself ID the 
outward life. The Christian sees himself act as a " new man " 
as well as feels himself to be a " new creature." He ol)S< 
that the same is more or less but yet distinctively true of ill 

1901.] Apologetic Worth of Christian Experience. 767 

Christians. Were there room for subjective delusion in esti- 
mating the apologetic worth of Christian experience, this ob- 
jective verification would make it impossible. 

Such, then, is the evidence that we are considering. To 
the Christian himself it should be absolute. His experience 
of the facts and truths of the Gospel presupposes and reveals 
a miracle of grace. It demonstrates supernatural intervention, 
therefore, in connection with these facts and truths as really 
as the miracles in nature wrought by Christ attested as super- 
natural the revelation that he was making. There are these 
differences, however, and these decided advantages: of the 
miracle in Christian experience we are directly conscious ; of 
the miracles in nature we learn only indirectly through the tes- 
timony of others. The miracle of Christian experience authen- 
ticates the Gospel as a system of facts and truths which exert 
supernatural power to-day ; but the historic miracles in nature 
only authenticated it as supernatural in origin and in influ- 
ence at the time of its manifestation. 

2. The apologetic worth of Christian experience to the 
world. With reference to this there is a wide diversity of 
opinion. The unbeliever says to the Christian, " Your experi- 
ence of the power of Christianity may be all very well for 
you, but it is nothing to me. I have never had such an expe- 
rience. I cannot imagine myself having it. What you say as 
to having been 'born again' and as to Christ having been 
formed in you 1 the hope of glory ' and as to ' the witness of 
the Spirit,' all this seems to me an idle tale; so far from 
disposing me to become a Christian, it repels me as being itself 
mere delusion." Is the unbeliever, however, justified in tak- 
ing this ground? If the evidence of Christian experience is as 
we have seen, valid and sufficient for him who has it, should it 
not be so for all others? That such is the case, the following 
considerations will make plain : 

A, The evidence afforded by the experience of others is 
regarded as valid in every sphere except that of religion. If 
your friend testifies that he was cured by a certain remedy, 
you, when sick in the same way, feel that you ought to try it. 
If large numbers of persons, of all classes, of high character 
for intelligence and honesty, from purely disinterested mo- 


Methodist Review. 


tives, testify to the same effect, you judge that it would Le- 
the height of foil} 7 and sin for you not to act on their testi- 
mony. Why should Christian experience be the only kind that 
is not trustworthy ? 

B. The evidence of the experience of others is, in the case 
of the" majority, that which is most easily understood and so 
most forcible.' Many cannot follow an argument ; but every- 
one can appreciate such a statement as, " I took it, and it 
cured me." All this is specially true in the sphere of spiritual 
truth. Here reasoning is necessarily abstruse ; and so here the 
testimony of the experience of others, because of its simplicity, 
is peculiarly valuable. For the masses it is the best evidence, 
because it is almost the only sort that they can appreciate. 

G. There is no reason why the testimony of Christians as 
to their experience should be less valid than the similar testi- 
mony of others. As a class, are they more readily self-de- 
ceived, are they less honest ? 

D. There is every reason why the testimony of Christians as 
to their experience should be worth much more than the like 
testimony of others : 

(a) There is the singularly high reputation of representative 
Christians for breadth of intellect, for keenness of discernment, 
for trained ability in the weighing of evidence and the giving 
of testimony. Paul, Jonathan Edwards, Isaac Newton, Wil- 
liam E. Gladstone — if these men can be self-deceived, then no 
man can be trusted ; and if their testimony as to their expe- 
rience may not be received, then no testimony should be. 
But the significant fact is that their testimony as to their expe- 
rience is essentially the same as that of all Christians. Even, 
therefore, though ordinary Christians were peculiarly liable to 
self-deception, this would not weaken their testimony as to 
their religions experience; for their testimony as to this ia 
confirmed by that of men who may not be supposed capable 
of being self-deceived. Nor is this a biased judgment. The 
keener and the more practical one may be in historical criti- 
cism, if only he be fair, the higher will be his confidence in 
the testimony of such witnesses. One who know Dr. Aruold, 
the great historian of Home, says that he never will forget tho 
unutterable scorn with which that master critic once r< marfc 

1901.] Apologetic Worth of Christian Experience. 


»• As though mythic theories of Christianity could arise under 
the Roman empire to be believed in by a Paul! " It was as 
inucli as to say, If this could be, then all history is mythical 
and all testimony unreliable. 

(b) There is the singularly high character, not only of repre- 
icntative Christians, but of Christians generally, for honesty. 
They may be depended on to tell the truth no less than to 
j t recive it. This is a fact that ought to be emphasized. 
Why is it that such a hue and cry are raised whenever a Chris- 
tian is convicted of dishonesty ? It is largely because the oc- 
currence is so exceptional as to be remarkable. If, then, the 
testimony of men generally to their experience is valid, ought 
Dot that of the Christian to be so regarded ? 

(c) The argument is much strengthened when we remember 
the number and the uniformity of the testimonies as to Chris- 
dan experience. "In the mouth of two or three witnesses 
*hall every word be established." What, then, shall be said 
when an inconceivably great multitude, of every age and race 
and condition, agree in their testimony as to such a change 
Laving been wrought in them in connection with the facts 
and truths of Christianity as compels them to infer the imme- 
diate exercise of divine power? According to the laws of 
evidence, there is but one thing to do, and that is to accept the 
testimony. If it be not valid, no testimony is. 

(d) The testimony of Christian experience often derives 
great additional force from the circumstances under which it 
w given. These are such as are best fitted to secure the truth ; 
for example, affliction, poverty, the bed of death. It is 
when one comes to die, if only his brain continues clear, that 
matters of experience appear to him in their true light. Now 
while there have been many doubting Christians, did one ever 
N; v in the hour of death that the grace of God was a delusion ? 
() i> the contrary, have not very many with their dying breath 
^tified to the divinely sustaining power of the Gospel? 

(f) The argument is clinched by the objective confirmation 
Wnich it receives from the changed lives of Christians. Not 
on ty do they agree in affirming that they have become "now 
creatures in Christ Jesus;" they agree, on the whole, quite as 
: acli in showino; by their lives that they have. Their assorted 


Methodist Hevicw. 


experience of divine power cannot be a delusion ; for they are 
themselves "epistles of Christ known and read of all men." 
St. Paul's case has been referred to, but it is far from singu- 
lar. The Epistle to Diognetus, which general consent assigns 
to the second century, gives us (chap, v) a picture of the Chris- 
tian life as unique as it is vivid. " Every foreign country,' 1 
we read, " is to the Christians a home, and their home to them 
is foreign ; like all, they many and they beget children, but 
they expose them not when born, . . . they are in the flesh-, 
but they live not after the flesh. They abide on earth, but 
their citizenship is in heaven. They obey the established 
laws, but in their lives far excel them. They love all, and 
by all they are persecuted. They are unexamined, yet con- 
demned ; they are killed, yet made alive. They are poor, yet 
making many rich ; in want of all things, in all they abound. 
They arc dishonored, and in their dishonor glorified. They 
are blasphemed, and yet justified. They are reviled, and they 
bless ; insulted, and they honor. Doing good, they are pun- 
ished as malefactors, and when punished, they rejoice as 
quickened. War is raised against them as aliens from the 
Jews; unrighteous suffering befalls them from the Greeks; 
and the cause of this enmity no hater of them can tell." Kor 
is this a biased because Christian view. The pagans bore 
essentially the same testimony to the lives of the early Chris- 
tians. " See how they love each other!-' " See how happy 
they are ! " Such were common exclamations. We notice to- 
day these supernatural changes of character. Jerry McAulcy 
may continue to live in the slums, but he is a radically differ- 
ent; man after conversion from what he was prior to it. The 
neighborhod of Bethany Church, Philadelphia, is now one of 
the best in that city. Before this church was built, it was ex- 
ceedingly dangerous. An even more striking objective con- 
firmation of the evidence of Christian experience is the num- 
ber and the fortitude and the influence of the martyrs ; " for 
while it may be true that every religion has had its martyr-, 
no martyrology but that associated with the Bible records exalU 
whole masses and even nations; nor have the martyrs 
doubt and negation been conspicuous either by (heir numbers 
or by their fortitude." Surely, then, we are justified in cl i 

1901.] Apologetic Worth of Christian Experience. 771 

ing, not merely as Watts has so well shown {Sermons, vol. 
i, p. 50), that the evidence of Christian experience is the only 
kind that can be appreciated by the masses or that can be nsed 
by ordinary Christians ; but also that, specially in view of the 
objective confirmation just considered, it is as valid for the 
world as we have seen it to be for the Christian himself. For 
both it is of all the evidences the most scientific and effective. 
As Dr. De "Witt has said {Presbyterian and Reformed Review, 
No. 21, p. 84), '"'The Christian himself is the most convinc- 
ing evidence of Christianity that the Church can offer to the 
world to-day. 

II. The indirect apologetic worth of Christian experience. 
By this is meant its contribution to the force of the other evi- 
dences of Christianity, the historical or external, the rational 
or internal, the practical or collateral. These are all of inde- 
pendent value. Each has its own purpose : the historical, to 
prove the validity of the supernatural facts of Christianity ; 
the rational, to prove the reasonableness of the supernatural 
doctrines interpretative of these facts; the practical, to prove 
the reality of the power of these facts and doctrines in the 
world to-day. Each of these evidences rests on its own basis, 
and so they form different, though converging, lines of proof. 
Any one of them, and certainly all of them together, are suffi- 
cient to convince anyone who is open to evidence of the truth 
of Christianity's claim to be the absolute because supernatural 
religion. Yet it must be admitted that the force of these evi- 
dences, or of any one of them, will be much greater for those 
who have themselves experienced the power of the Gospel. 
Thus one who is conscious of the miracle of experience will 
see in the miracles of nature and of history just what his expe- 
rience would lead him to expect. His reason, because regen- 
erated, will find nothing contradictor} 7 to itself or uncongenial 
in the Christian system. ( Vide Owens, Works, 1S52, vol. iv, 
p. 54.) His own supernatural experience will be the key to 
the working of the same divine power in the world. ( Vide 
Stearns, Evidence of Christian Erjtericnce, p. 36S.) Indeed, 
it is here as elsewhere : sympathy is essentia] to appreciation. 
The perfection of a statue may be demonstrated and ought to 
be admitted because of measurements, but it cannot be felt 


Methodist Review. 


until one has received something of the spirit of the artist 
The ordinary evidence ought to constrain us to take Christ ;. 
he is "freely offered to us in the Gospel. 5 ' In view of these 
evidences, it is as irrational as it is wicked to reject him. Yet 
only the "new heart " cm feel the utter folly and awful sir, . j 
such a course. One must have Christ within him to disc* n 
his true glory. The evidences are fitted and intended to \». r 
suade us to make trial of him, but only that trial can bring 
out the full force of the evidences. Our limits, howcv< 
forbid the discussion of this very interesting and impor: 
phase of the subject. So, too, we may not even touch tl 
many objections often raised to the evidence of Christian i 
perience. "We can only remark in closing : 

1. How thankful should we be that that evidence of oui 
religion which is the simplest of all, the one kind that most 
can appreciate or use, is really the strongest because I • 
most scientific. 

2. "What need can be so urgent in this "'age of doubt' • 
that the Church should act on what we have seen to be tb< 
apologetic worth of Christian experience ? 


1901.] Self-help and Cost at Methodist Colleges, 773 



That the Methodist Episcopal Church has no great univer- 
sity like Yale or Harvard can easily be explained. The nine- 
teenth century had entered on its second quarter before 
Methodism succeeded in founding one college, but the dawn 
of the twentieth saw over fifty firmly established. Many of 
them are not wealthy institutions, but fine buildings and a 
large endowment do not make a college. It must rest with 
the men who are graduated every year to determine whether 
the institution is worthy of the title. And it is also true that 
many of the students are not wealthy. Undergraduates often 
find the most rigid economy necessary in order to complete 
their course of study. Never are they looked down upon on 
this account, by their fellow-students, but rather the reverse. 
The secretary of the faculty at Wesleyan says, " There are 
no false standards of society at Wesleyan : the hard-working 
man of slender means is to be found in every fraternity, 
and he lacks none of the social and intellectual advantages of 
his more fortunate brother," and such conditions generally 

The methods of self-help vary with the size, location, etc., 
of the college. At Wesleyan they consist of acting as college 
reporters for local newspapers, tutoring students, preaching, 
singing in church choirs, collecting laundry, working in stores, 
running agencies for athletic goods, acting as monitors, selling 
stationery, etc. Board and room have been obtained for work 
as night clerk in a hotel. One student worked his way through 
by writing for newspapers, press associations, and magazines; 
and as a result a position on a large daily was waiting for him 
upon graduation. One alumnus is reported to have made 
$3,075 during the four years he was in college, A commons 
has been instituted to provide plain but wholesome food to 
the poorer students at a low cost. An employment bureau, to 
aid students in securing work, has also been established by the 
college. A similar bureau, under the control of the Young 
Men's Christian Association, has been established at Syracuse. 

Methodist lieview. 


The following methods employed to earn money by a recent 
graduate are typical of the conditions there : taking care of a 
furnace and walks for a private family at $1 per week ; acting 
as an agent for a city laundry on a commission of 30 per cent 
for all work collected ; working in the library at from 121- to 
25 cents per hour ; canvassing for the college annual on a 
10 per cent commission ; ditto for the college weekly at 15 
per cent ; posing for students in drawing and painting at 25 
cents per hour ; working in a store Saturday evenings at $1 a 
night ; running errands for the librarian at 25 cents a trip ; 
pumping an organ at 15 cents per hour; selling tickets to col- 
lege functions on a 10 per cent commission ; mowing lawns at 
25 cents for one of average size; doing odd jobs, such as put- 
ting up storm doors, at 15 cents per hour, with a minimum 
charge of 25 cents, and tutoring at 40 cents for a lesson of 
forty-five minutes. In a cooperative bookstore, where books 
are sold at 10 per cent above cost, employment is found for 
two undergraduates, their profits being 5 per cent of the value 
of books sold. 

Although Northwestern does not undertake to aid students, 
the registrar says that many students reduce their expenses 
by caring for furnaces, lawns, stables ; by stenography, book- 
keeping, teaching, canvassing, and as laundry agents. A stu- 
dent at Baker University, who had been a section hand on a 
railroad, tells how to live cheaply : "\\ r e burn wood. For 
my share of it I go to the 'timber' and cut it, receiving the 
wood for clearing the ground. I give a part to have it brough' 
to town, so my fuel costs me no money. There are two of us, 
and we do our own housekeeping." Another student in the 
same institution not only kept his expenses for the year down 
to $110, but also earned nearly half this amount by doing cho 
working in gardens, and cleaning yards — incidentally he ; ; 
led his class. To aid students who wish to rent rooms and 
board themselves, small cottages, of three or four rooms each, 
are rented at §3 a month. A student at Albion College, v. 
had had some practical experience in typesetting, obtained el 
ployment in ono of the local newspaper offices and earned 
considerable part of his year's expenses in that way. An 
student during his college course split wood, worked on a fai • 

1001.] Self-help and Cost at Methodist Colleges 


canvassed, kept books, was a clerk in a hardware store, and 
even drove a stage. 

As to the opportunities for self-help at other Methodist 
colleges the following information has kindly been furnished 
for this article by the presidents of the various institutions : 

Boston University : Some engage in clerk work on Satur- 
days, some teach in night schools, some accept employment 
as readers of gas meters, some have supported themselves by 
writing for the press, etc. One summer some of the young 
men visited England, working their passage on the steamer out 
and return. 

University of Denver : Young women have the opportu- 
nity here to live with Christian families and assist with the 
housework five hours a day, and so provide for all their living 
expenses. The relation of a young woman to such a family is 
that of a daughter and not that of a servant. 

Allegheny College : Five or six students do more or less in 
the way of janitor work. About half a dozen are commissa- 
ries or assistants in clubs, two or three wait on table, some 
take care of furnaces and do other chores for town people. 
About three students each term are employed as assistants in 
the laboratories. 

De Pauw University : Thirty students are working their 
way through. Some of them have paper routes, others wait 
on tables, and others are janitors. 

Lawrence University ; A large number of students work 
their own way. Many of them act as agents during the sum- 
mer vacations, selling books, views, machinery, nursery sup- 
plies, etc., during the school year, many work as stenographers, 
as barbers, help in stores nights and Saturdays, take care of 
horses and furnaces, clean buildings, are church janitors, repair 
machinery, saw wood, and do miscellaneous job work. 

Dickinson College : Some of the students hold positions in 
tlie gift of the college, others as stewards of boarding clubs, as 
baiters, or hold agencies of different kinds. Honest work is 
considered no disgrace at Dickinson, as is shown by the fact 
that at least two hundred students in the several departments 
in the institution are contributing to their own support in 
greater or less degree. 


Methodist Review. 


Bust University : The young men work in the garden, on 
the farm, and do janitor work. One is assistant cook and 
another is the baker. 

Kansas Wesley an University ; Many of the students help 
themselves by securing odd jobs of general work. An em- 
ployment bureau is being organized. 

Simpson College: Between forty and fifty young folks earn 
either tuition or board, or both, by working in connection 
with the institution or by doing odd jobs in the town. 

Illinois Wesley an University: Some earn money by doing 
table work and the various chores required about a house. 

Taylor University : Two students earn their entire expen- 
ses "by janitor work. Two or three do tutoring. Four young 
men earn their board by waiting on the tables, and two others 
by sweeping the dining hall and other rooms. 

Nebraska Wesley an University: Students wait on tables, 
make fires, wash dishes, secure paper routes, and do all sorts 
of work. 

Mount Union College: Students serve in the dining hall 
and help in the kitchen, besides gathering and distributing 
laundry, managing a boarding club, acting as a^ent for secur- 
ing roomers, and doing work on the city papers. 

Ohio Wesleyan University : Tending furnaces in private 
homes, acting as club stewards, waiters, laundry agents, etc., 
and doing job work on Saturdays. Many canvass during the 
summer and a few continue to represent the firms during the 
college year among the students. [Information furnished by 
the dean.] 

Cornell College: Many students work sufficiently to pay a 
portion or all of their expenses, some as janitors, some arc 
stenographers, more are stewards of clubs ; some take care of 
furnaces, work in printing offices, barber shops, many wait on 
tables, some secure agencies for laundries, and some mend, 
clean, and press suits. Young women work in private famili* s 
for board and room. The college handles the text-books anu 
they are sold to students at wholesale rates. [Information 
furnished by the vice president.] 

The expense at Methodist institutions is low compared until 
that at other denominational colleges ; in no rase doCfl tl ic 

1901.] Self-help and Cost at Methodist Colleges. 777 

charge for tuition exceed $100, while scholarships covering 
I ic whole or part of this amount are awarded to "needy and 
worthy students" in many of them. At Wesleyan, for ex- 
unplc, about $14,000 is set aside annually by the board of 
trustees for this purpose. Applicants, however, must be total 
ibetainers from intoxicants, and scholarships may be taken 
tway from those who are negligent in their studies or expen- 
se in their habits. At Boston more than one hundred such 
tcholarships have been founded, each yielding an income 
equal to the whole charge for instruction. The largest number 
of scholarships and the best opportunities for self-help are often 
found where the cost is highest. A large number of students 
in all the colleges have been enabled to complete the course by 
the aid of a small loan from the Educational Society. 

In the following table of some of the colleges a low estimate 
does not mean the amount which the young man spends who 
«K:nics himself the necessities of life, nor does a liberal estimate 
express what a man with expensive habits may squander : 

College. Low. Moderate. Liberal. 

Albion $150 $225 $350 

Allegheny s 150 200 275 

Baker 90 135 200 

Boston 274 33G 405 

Cornell 140 200 2G0 

De Pauw 150 200 250 

Dickinson 192 227 320 

Hamliue 96 130 200 

Illinois Wesleyan 200 250 300 

Iowa Wesleyan 1G6 200 260 

Kansas Wesleyan 88 122 176 

Lawrence 100 160 225 

Mount Union 140 215 250 

Northwestern 219 319 401 

Nebraska Wesievan 125 150 175 

Ohio Wesleyan 116 246 326 

Rust 84 106 254 

Simpson 150 200 250 

Syracuse 230 350 435 

Taylor 108 146 204 

Vmvcrsitv of Denver 125 170 230 

Wesleyan. 200 300 500 



Methodist Review. 




Am observant periodical is of opinion that " the process of re- 
ligious decay, when it exists, is partly due to the increasingly 
commercial character of the Church organization." It is possible 
that Protestants as well as papists may profitably ponder the 
words of Cardinal Gibbons : " The Church is a bureau of admin- 
istration; it ought to become a group of apostles again." 

Ik these days of excessive optionalism and education in the 
line of least resistance, there is something tonic and sagacious 
in such a prescription for self-discipline as this: " Be systemat- 
ically ascetic or heroic in little unnecessary points ; do every 
day or two something for no other reason than that you would 
rather not do it ; so that, when the hour of dire need draws 
nigh, it may find you nerved, and trained, and hardened to 
stand the test. Then you will stand like a tower when every- 
thing rocks around you and when your softer fellow-mortals are 
scattered like chaff." 

An experienced and wise professor of systematic theology, 
who holds that nobody ought to attempt to dislodge, repel, or 
discredit one view without at the same time putting a better in 
its place, writes: " In these nervous days, no theologian should 
say one word merely to criticise a thing. I used to do that. 
He must make sure that he is helping men. I often let a half- 
truth go its way, simply because, in a given situation, it may be 
oettcr for men, certain men, than nothing at all, or even than a 
full truth for which they are not ready." 

The meeting of the General Conference of the United 
Brethren in Christ at Frederick, Md., last May, celebrated tk (> 
one hundredth anniversary of the Founding of the denomination, 
the choosing of its first bishops, Otterbein and Boehm, I I 


Motes and Discussions. 

...ii fortunate adoption of its official title, by the conference 
which met at the home of Peter Kemp, at Rocky Springs, 
M<1., io September, 1800. That a body so worthy, respected, 
and beloved should be burdened with such an awkward and 
unmanageable name can scarcely be regarded as anything less 
than a misfortune. This was illustrated not long ago by a 
minister of that body who wrote a magazine article in which 
be felt obliged to set grammar and sense at defiance by enti- 
tling it "Why I am a United Brethren." When a woman of 
ifaat Church announces her denominational attachment by say- 
ing, " I am a United Brethren," the confusion becomes so sin- 
gularly and plurally and exquisitely involved as to border on 
the convulsively ludicrous. The best wish we can make for 
this honored communion, next to a progressive continuance of 
its historic spirituality and goodly usefulness, is an early relief 
from its embarrassing title. We say this, fully understanding 
how difficult it often is to get rid of an unsuitable and uncom- 
fortable name. 

Mb. J. P. Logax, in the May number of TJte Atlantic 
Monthly > closes an article on " American Prose Style," with a 
reference to the prose of Lincoln: 

The American mood or temper was wholly different from the English mood in 
the eighteenth century, on the one hand, and from the English and the French 
mood in the nineteenth century, on the other hand. The difference in spirit 
ihowed itself everywhere, but conspicuously in literature. The age of Addison and 
Swift, as Miss Scudder has so excellently brought out in her Social Ideals in 
English Letters, was an age of respectability, of conventionality, of finality ; it 
aimed primarily at sanity, and repressed all idealism and enthusiasm. And 
further, as Miss Scudder again has pointed out, we may only understand Swift's 
w *ial satire if we realize that his bitterness and sarcasm spring out of a con- 
Kiousncss that he writes in an age of acquiescence and self-satisfied optimism on 
> o part of the English people in general, but for himself, as it appears, an age 
w despair. Social and political criticism, therefore, appeared abundantly in the 
'•''Eland of the eighteenth century; but it was criticism either acquiescent, self- 
" tnplacent, jr cynical, despairing, inhuman. Social and political criticism appeared 
*'*o in the America of the eighteenth century ; but, based as it was on sane, self 
'vliant, and responsible idealism, it was always practical, courageous, cheerful 
Uxxigh serious, and thoroughly kindly and human. The England and France of 
• " nineteenth century, on the other hand, were, to be sure, idealistic in the 
'itreme; in England idealism appeared as but poetic frenzy, while in France it 
l A^tod into a real madness in life. Bui American idealism remained as it was 
1 '"», 11 clear-headed and well-ordered aspiration." The passion in American life 
AH » passion for deeds; the thought and aspiration of the American people 


Methodist Review. 


centered in realizing concrete possibilities of being and opportunity. This passion 
for deeds on the part of the intelligent, self-reliant, and cheerful commonaltv in 
America, expressing itself in literature, turned to prose primarily as an instru- 
ment for promoting high and noble deeds. For prose, indeed, rather than poe- 
try, is the most available and powerful literary instrument in furthering sane, 
responsible social democracy. 

It is, then, first of all, because this ideal of human equality of being and oppor- 
tunity was in some form or other always controlling and assisting American life 
and thought, that prose itself — the pedestrian, but free, flexible, and ready instru- 
ment of the common man in expressing effectively his ideas on matters of com- 
mon welfare— was adopted by the American citizen as his characteristic mode of 
utterance. It is, too, in the second place, because this same ideal expressed itself 
in literature sanely, responsibly, effectively, that the distinctly American prose 
style is clear, sane, vigorous, but temperate; that its mood is always strenuous; 
that its temper is always manly. The ideal of political, social, and spiritual 
citizenship, vividly realized, and in splendid cheer sought after, inevitably created 
in America a prose literature somewhat unoosthetic in charm, but still, by way of 
its real substance and generous spirit, powerful over the heart and imagination of 
w the plain people." And if I were asked, In the style of which of the distinctly 
American prose writers does the quality of " manliness in art " most appear ? I 
should answer, In the prose of the one American who is most typical of clear- 
headed, sane, and effective aspiration — in the prose of Lincoln. As was the man 
himself, plain, responsible, human, so he spoke aud wrote. His Gettysburg 
Address, for example, to my mind, must remain the American ideal of prose 
style — simple thought thoroughly socialized by decent plainness and manlv 


The problem of caring for worn-out preachers and their 
dependents has been in all Protestant Churches shamefully 
neglected, utterly unsolved, or at least inadequately met. Our 
own communion, though not so negligent and heedless as some, 
has felt increasingly the painful necessity for some better 
provision. Various plans have been suggested, but nothing 
sufficient has been done. The proposition to organize a special 
Board with a secretary or agent to raise and manage a denomi- 
national fund has been disapproved because of difficulties, and 
particularly because of the undesirability of creating additional 
boards or societies unless absolutely necessary. 

An important contribution toward the bettering of conditions 
for Conference claimants is now made by the Trustees of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, who are to he commended for 
seriously considering this urgent Bubject and moving in the 
matter. They are a cautiously constituted, responsible, and 
Capable body, whose duties are not so onerous as to preclud' 


Notes mid Discussions. 


careful attention to the new business which they propose, within 
lite limits of their authority, to assume. The need for some 
advanced action for the relief of our suffering veterans has long 
tn'cn desperate. We gladly help to spread and emphasize the 
announcement made by the Trustees, which ought to be at once 
explained from every pulpit and made known throughout every 7 
pastoral charge in our Church. 

At a meeting held in their office in the Western Book Con- 
cern, July 16, 1901, the Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church took the following action, hoping to contribute to the 
success of the movement to provide "a comfortable support" 
for the superannuated preachers and other Conference claimants 
of the Church. The subject having been brought repeatedly 
to the attention of the Trustees, was finally referred to a com- 
mittee consisting of James H. Gamble, Robert T. Miller, and 
William F. Boyd, who at a subsequent meeting presented a 
report, which, after careful consideration, was unanimously 
adopted as follows : 

Whereat, Frequent inquiries have been made, seeking to ascertain whether, 
under the provisions of the charter of this corporation and the regulations of the 
Discipline, the " Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church " are authorized to 
accept in trust gifts of money, or other property, and administer the same accord- 
ing to the direction of persons making them, for the benefit of Conference claim- 
ants, with the condition that the donor may be the beneficiary thereof during 
life; with the further condition and provision that on the death of the donor 
"Conference claimants" of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as defiued in its 
I'i-cipline, shall thereafter become the beneficiary of said gifts; and, whereas, 
*fter diligent examination of the provisions of the charter of said Trustees and of 
the Discipliue of said Church, we find no reason why gifts or trusts, tendered for 
the purposes and ou the basis above named, or tendered for these purposes on 
other acceptable conditions, should be declined by this corporation ; therefore, 

Resolved, !. That the Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church will hereafter 
»ccept, in trust, and administer (subject to the provisions of the Discipline of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church and the regulations of this corporation) gifts of 
money, or other property, for the benefit of the Conference claimants of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, with the condition that the donor thereof shall hi 
tHtitted .o receive, during life, the. net income annual!)/ derived from his gift by the 
trustees; with the further condition that, after the death of said donor, the net 
Income derived therefrom shall be anuually paid to the Annual Conference or 
Conferences named by the donor, or, in the absence of such direction, to all the 
Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, for distribution to the 
^oufereucc claimants according to the Discipline of said Church. 

2. That the Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Chinch will hereafter accept, 

trust, And administer (subject to the provisions of the Discipline and the reguhv 
• <>f this corporation) gifts of money, or other property, with thr condition thmt 


Methodist IZevievj. 


the net income derived therefrom shall be annually paid to the Annual Conference 
or Conference* named by the doiior, or, in the absence of such direction, to all the 
Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, for distribution to the 
Conference claimants according to the Discipline of said Church. 

Correspondence relating to this matter should be addressed 
to George B. Johnson, Treasurer of Trustees of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, 220 West Fourth Street, Cincinnati, O. 

The full list of Trustees is as follows : Bishop John M. 
Walden, President; James N. Gamble, Vice President; John 
Pearson, Secretary; George B. Johnson, Treasurer; W. F. 
Boyd, Counsel; Lewis Curts, Robert T. Miller, Jesse R. Clark, 
Frank G. Mitchell, Edward B. Rawls, Xorman W. Harris, 
Stanley O. Royal. 

In very many of our congregations there must be persons, 
women or elderly or feeble persons, who are kindly disposed to- 
ward superannuate ministers, and who for one reason or another 
would gladly be relieved of the burden of caring for their pos- 
sessions if they could just as well receive regularly from the 
Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church the income there- 
from without any care or exertion on their own part, and also 
escape the payment of taxes which in some instances nearly con- 
sume the earnings of their money: the condition being that 
after the decease of the donor the income from the property 
shall be paid annually to such Annual Conference or Conferences 
as said donor may designate for the benefit of the Conference 
claimants in those Conferences. 

This announcement made by the Trustees of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church furnishes a good text for the pastor's talk 
from the pulpit when he urges the needs of Conference claim- 
ants at the time of taking the annual collection, and a good 
topic for instructive conversation in his round of pastoral calls. 

As to human nature, there are two extremes of view, one 
taken by positivism, which invites us to worship the great be- 
ing, "Humanity," even offering us a formulated ritual for suck 
adorations. This absurd proposition we may safely leave t'> 
the tender mercies of Mr. Spencer's article on "Retrogressive 
Piety." The other extreme is that of sour and cynical misan- 
thropy which speaks contemptuously of mankind, disbelieving 
In human virtue and nobleness. The true point of view lit" 


Notes and Discussions. 


midway ; we are neither to worship nor despise, adore nor Late 
humanity, but enjoy, profit by, love, cherish, and assist it. We 
are to reverence human nature, whether in ourselves or others ; 
not to crucify, but to purify, educate, and glorify it. 

Victims enough there have been to the notion that to fit him- 
self for God a man must put his own nature on the rack ; that 
for example, he must crucify his natural craving for relation- 
ship with his fellow-men. This spirit was not confined to 
monkish days. Here and there in later times has been seen a 
mistaken saintliness which seems to esteem it a duty to de- 
humanize one self out of all natural feeling into a sublime in- 
sensateness. We are told how a man once got up in a love feast 
and told how he had lost his w T ife and all his children and had 
felt as calm and serene through it as if nothing had happened, not 
feeling a pang, shielded as he believed by divine grace. "When 
he ended the sensible preacher said: "Brother ! go right home, 
and down on your knees and never get up till you are a differ- 
ent man. You have the stoniest heart I ever saw. Instead of 
being 1 a saint you are hardly good enough to be a decent sinner. 
If you had a human heart such trouble ought to melt it as in the 
fire. Don't ever tell such a story again." God is not dis- 
pleased with us for loving those whom he gives us. lie com- 
mands us to love them. It is false that he is so jealous as to 
take them away if we love them much. Religion makes a 
loving heart toward men as well as toward God. Human affec- 
tion is a necessity to us. We cannot do without men. They 
are worth loving against every discouragement. God thinks 
80 and we must, too. Their love is worth having. God seeks 
it, so should we. Once, when Julia Ward Howe invited 
Charles Sumner to meet a distinguished guest at her house, he 
replied: " I do not know that I wish to meet your friend. I 
have outlived the interest in individuals." Recording in her 
diary that night the senator's surly remark, Mrs. Howe wrote 
J'fter it, " God Almighty, by latest accounts, has not got so far 
as this." Nobler and wiser was Emerson when he wrote: "I 
tind myielf, manger all my philosophy, a devout student and 
admirer of persons. I cannot get used to thorn ; they daunt 
R nd dazzle me still. Blessed be the eternal Power for those 
Whom fancy even cannot strip of beauty, and who never for a 
moment seem to me profane.*' A minister, sitting in a full 
street oar, scanned his fellow-passengers and said, u ] am bowj 


Methodist Review. 


I 6ee 60 little to attract or interest me in the face of the aver- 
age human being." He might well be sorry, and ought to 
practice some self-examination to find the cause of his indiffer- 
ence; for nothing below the Beatific Vision is better worth look- 
ing at than what one has dared to call " the human face divine." 
We make journeys to see great works of art, monuments, archi- 
tecture, sculpture, paintings; we go to pains and expense to 
reach some wonder of nature; we call on each other to admire 
some landscape or some splendor of cloud and light and color 
in sunset skies; but a human countenance is far more wonder- 
ful than any of these. It is not in them, but in the face, that 
the supreme powers of the world and the superlative meanings 
of life are beheld. There is more of marvel, of mystery, and 
of God, in the face of the meanest beggar's child than in all 
the stars that sprinkle the midnight. When Kant was at the 
age of eighty he said, " I have not yet lost my feeling for hu- 
manity." The rough Admiral Nelson, dying, said to his friend, 
"Kiss me, Hardy." When Father Taylor, of the Sailors' 
Bethel, was tossing in pain, somebody tried to comfort him by 
saying, "You'll soon be with the angels." He answered petu- 
lantly, "I don't want angels, I want folks." The same crav- 
ing asserts itself when we look across the mysterious boundary 
line into the hereafter. So Whittier, moving into the deepen- 
ing shadows beyond life's sundown, says: 

As from the lighted hearths behind me 

I pass with slow reluctant feet, 
"What waits me in that land of strangeuess ? 

What face shall smile, what voice shall greet? 

What space shall awe, what splendor blind me? 

What thunder-roll of music stun ? 
What vast processions sweep before me 

Of shapes unknown beneath the sun ? 

I shrink from unaccustomed glory, 

1 dread the myriad-voiced strain ; 
Give mc the unforgolten faces, 

And hi lost ones speak again. 

If we are to be drawn to God it must be by the cords of man; 
we are accessible in no other way. Human knowledge begins 
with man; God is an afterthought, a later discovery. We »re 
not to blame for finding humanity first, it finda us first. The 
finds its mother's bosom before it finds God. The human 1 ' 


Notes and Discussions. 


us in its arms at the beginning, and we should never find God 
except by getting out through the human up to the Divine. 
It is not strange that we cling to the human till forced from it, 
or led by it, or drawn by omnipotent power beyond it, to find 
and touch God. We would be inhuman if we ceased to delight 
in the human; it must ever be dear with its fellowships, friend- 
ships, sympathies. In health its companionship girds our loins 
for work; in sickness its soft ministry steals away our pain; 
living, we find in it our cheer; dying, it will be the one earthly 
thing we will be loath to leave and lose. Because we are human 
we will always find light in the eyes and comfort in the voices 
of the children of men. Xever so long as we can remember a 
mother's, a sister's, a brother's caress, will a gentle touch fail 
to seem a blessing. All this is no disloyalty to God. Hearts 
that loved and trusted him have yet cried, " O for the touch of 
a vanquished hand and the sound of a voice that is still." As 
for me the first I knew of God was by knowing men who men- 
tioned his name. They put into my hands a Book that told me 
of him. A woman in whose arms and on whose knees I found 
myself, read to me out of God's book and told me who he is. 
Then later on men made me think of him by living and bein^ 
and acting so that their goodness suggested and implied God. 
When I wondered what made them live as they did, I was told 
they were serving God. 
v It is not too much to say that the prime interest, practically 
the only interest of the world, is human. It was made for human- 
ity. The final cause and purpose of its creation was in man- 
kind. The drama for whose enacting the globe was framed, 
began when man arrived; all before was but preparatory. Hie 
Creator swung this planet out in space as the cradle in which he 
meant to rock His coming man-child. 

In His image God shaped MB, 

And breathed into his nostrils breath of life; 

Wherein, as nowhere else, shone God ; 

The godlike cased in flesh, the man-soul breathing soft 

And strong, not merely thro' the lips and eyes 

But in each flawless limb and graceful curve, 

Each muscle molded on the moving form. 

Until man came the world and all it held 

Was dumb as Memnon ere he felt the sun: 

When man stepped forth, mind, spirit sprang to light, — 

Earth found her voice, and Heaven with music thrilled. 


Methodist Review. [September, 

The beauty and chief ornaments of the world are human: no 
flower is as lovely as a sweet child; no sunrise as splendid as 
the golden morning of a young manhood or womanhood; no 
crystal as beautiful as the firm purity of a clarified character; no 
mountain so imposing and sublime as a lofty life; no harvest 
or fields or fruitage on branches so fair as the goodly product s 
of a useful and noble career. 

The music of the world is human. ]SJo birdsong so wonder- 
ful as the human voice; no babble of a brook so musical as the 
ripple of innocent laughter in a happy home; no solemn chant 
of winds so grand as the psalm rolled into the sky by worshiping 
assemblies. To stand by the ocean and hear the beat of its 
stupendous pulse, is to take the sound of a shallower deep and a 
narrower sea than when you lay your ear against the throbbing 
of a human heart. 

The joy of life and wealth of the world are in humanity. He 
was a wise man who said, " A man's wealth is measured by the 
number he loves and is loved by." This is not exactly what the 
books on Political Economy say, but it is as true as anything in 
them. Get the millionaires together, estimate their riches bytlii- 
true measure, and for some of them you will need to build a 
new kind of almshouse. The value of this world to God is not in 
silver and gold and real estate. Its preciousness is human, and 
a nameless foundling child, rolled in a shawl by hasty hands of 
shame and abandoned at midnight in an open lot by one who 
fled away into the dark, is to the Eye that watches from 
above a jewel richer than Brazilian or African diamond field ever 
bore. Humboldt traveled the globe over, saw everything and 
wrote, "The finest fruit earth holds up to its Maker is a man.' 
In Mrs. Browning's " Drama of Exile," Christ speaking of the 
superiority of humanity over the world bids the earth behold v\ 
Man its master: 

This regent and sublime Humanity, 

Tho' fallen, exceeds you ! This shall film your sun, 

Shall hunt your lightning to its lair of cloud, 

Turn back your rivers, footpath all your seas, 

Lay flat your forests, master with a look 

Your lion at his fasting, and fetch down 

Your eagle flying. 

Yes, the vivid interests of this world are human. The fasci* 
nation of history, the spell of romance, the charm of poetrj 
what are they made of ? Made mostly of human passions, hui 


JVotes and Discussions. 


actions, and the human lot — these are the stuff of which the 
itory must be woven that can gain and hold an audience. The 
thought and study of the world chielly labor upon and regard 
humanity. "The proper study of mankind is man." By that 
maxim the curricula of schools are made up, including all histo- 
ries, grammars, languages, political economy, moral and other 
philosophies, physiology, psychology, literature, logic, rhetoric. 
Humanity is what interests the angels: they hover over the Vir- 
gin's newborn boy; they come and minister to the soul in the 
wilderness, hungry and tempted of the devil forty days; they 
drop down into Gethsemane where souls are begging "Let this 
<-uj> pass," with cups of cordial in their hands to take the bitter 
uste out of the mouth which has said submissively, " Thy will 
be done;" they sit at the doors of sepulchers to say to mourners 
who come seeking the departed, " He is not here, he is risen." 
They watch for feet that are in danger of dashing against the 
."tones; they make jubilee over sinners that repent." 

When the Almighty set out to recapture a truant race 
He did it by incarnating himself. God himself couldn't 
j-.'ach us except through the feelings and tissues of the human. 
He must put on a soul and a body before He could come 
to as. The Son of God enters into the race and becomes 
a second Adam. Yes, on feet like ours, the Saviour had to 
come to men. Along veins like ours flowed the blood whose 
shedding made man's peace. Out of eyes like ours, sub- 
let to tears and dimness, looked the merciful light which was 
M the dawn of day to the earth. He who made worlds, had to 
take hands that could be spiked to the cruel wood before he 
could lay hold on us. The} 7, were arms of flesh and blood like 
ours which stretched wide upon the cross, and which when taken 
down and folded over the lifeless bosom, invisibly folded a 
*aved world in their embrace. In the stately words of Macaulay, 
u U was before the Deity embodied in a human form, walking 
Among men, partaking of their infirmities, leaning on their bo- 
urns, weeping over their graves, slumbering in the manger, 
Weeding on the cross, that the prejudices of the Synagogue, and 
l "e doubts of the Academy, and the pride of the Portico, and 
fasces of the lictor, and the swords of thirty legions, M en 1 
Ambled in the dust," 

Hie Eternal Father comes as near as possible in Christ, who 
to&Kes a revelation of God's love and a visible appeal for our 


Methodist lieview. 


love. God does not win us by revealing his mighty name 
and nature, bursting upon us with the unbearable glory of 
His unveiled Being. Hearts unskilled in spiritual things like 
ours might hesitate in fear or dazed bewilderment. He gives 
Himself in such a form that the humanest portion of our affec- 
tions may be met, our love of friendship, our craving for lip 
speaking to lip, hand grasping hand, in such forms as make Him 
seem to crave and need our love. Men have been made to ap- 
preciate with their bodily senses the sweetness, lovableness, and 
perfection of Him whom we are invited to love. It is in Christ' 
that God shows Himself as altogether lovely, as entreating, 
craving, yearning for the love of us poor, simple creatures of 
the earth. 

It may be that sermons have failed to represent Christ 
enough on his human side. We need to present Him in near- 
ness, not as the Unitarians do, but as the Gospels do. Mankind 
crossing the rough isthmus of time from one mysterious sea to 
another, and groping for the path, want not theory, but a hand 
to hold, not a map of the way, but a guide who himself ha< 
trodden it. Culture and education do us poor service if they 
incline us to substitute philosophy, logic, and scientific discus- 
sion in place of the simple pointing of men to Him who was 
born in a stable and died on a cross. Church history, roots of 
Hebrew verbs, and doctrines have their necessary place, but 
they are not what the mass of men hunger for, and need to 
have laid upon their souls. It gives them more comfort to 
reach out the hand of faith across eighteen centuries to the 
actual divine Man who walked by the Sea of Galilee, who 
healed the sick and raised the dead. They want to know if In- 
still lives for the help of poor souls and bodies that are toiling 
and struggling on this troubled earth. Apostolic succession, 
papal dogmas, councils of Nice, mysteries of the Trinity, evo- 
lution, higher criticism, the human multitude care little about 
such things. They are pressed by questions more urgent. 
They are driven by life's toil and care. They are weary with 
yesterday's toil, bowed down with to-day's sorrow, troubled 
with to-morrow's problems. They will all be dead before « <* 
can get all those lofty, high flown questions explained, argued, 
and settled. But that there was once on earth a wondroufl 
man, Jesus, who died for them and holds still his love toward 
them, to whom a man can call as to an elder brother when 


Notes and Discussions. 


little child is ill or his wife laid out of sight forever, or when he 
f,<<>l.s his own body failing, and who can comfort him with sym- 
pathy and the assured hope of a better life for his dear ones 
ind himself — Ah! this is what he wants the preacher to tell 
him about and make real to him. O ! let us think of the Man 
who was familiar with the carpenter's shop; who, when he was 
tired and thirsty, sat down by the well and asked a woman for 
3 drink, while he wiped away the dust and sweat of his jour- 
ney; and who bore the brunt of this mortal life, rubbed along 
with its hardships, and put up with the differences and jealous- 
ies and petty meannesses and irritabilities and obstinacies and 
hot-tempered hatefulness of human nature, and took the bitter 
with the sweet, mostly bitter ; who lived just our life, and 
drank our cup, and found a way to overcome and to bear up 
.Hiid be victorious in it all; and who lets us see how he did it, 
making us his comrades ; takes us along with him into his 
great temptation, that we may see how he deals with the temp- 
ter, how he answers and defeats him ; takes us along into Geth- 
eemane to let us see how he gets through that struggle ; takes 
us with him into Pilate's court, that we may see how he bears 
false accusings, rage, and mockings ; and at last takes us by 
the hand as he walks along by Simon the Cyrenian, who is car- 
rying the cross for him, and says faintly, Come up on the hill 
yonder and see me die. He dies forgiving his enemies, and 
remembering his mother. So he shows us how to live and how 
to die. That is the kind of Saviour we have, and the Bible is 
of little use to us unless we find this out. Before he went 
away he taught us how to pray, made it glad and easy work 
!(, r us to pray. Indeed, the only real praying on earth is by 
those that have the Gospel in their hearts and look up to heaven, 
Here Christ has gone to plead for all his saints ; and we arc 
commanded to believe that it is none other than the King, etor- 
r, al, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, our Saviour, who 
*'*its to receive into everlasting habitations those who accept 
salvation and go forward on His path. William Blake truly 
* : 'Vs that men pray to Mercy, Pity, Peace, and Love because 
in Christ, 

Mercy has a human heart ; 
Pity, a human face ; 
And Love, the human form divine; 
And Peace, the human die ■ 


Methodist Review. 


The instinct is not wrong which leads us in trouble to reach 
out for our kind and makes us value those who come to us in our 
distress. Thomas a Kempis said, "Our dependence on God 
ought to be so entire and absolute that we should never think 
it necessary in any kind of sorrow to have recourse to human 
consolation." But who was a Kempis, and how has his system 
of living worked ? If it be not right to seek sympathy, can it 
be right to give it and so lead, men to look for it and lean on it? 
Would it not be fair to them, perhaps duty to them, to say, 
" No, you must look to God alone " ? What an Arctic hell that 
plan of living would make of this world ! 

The great opportunities of life will come to us by, and in con- 
nection with, man. The only way to serve God is by blessing 
and helping men. Say you, " O, yes, one can glorify God by self- 
cultivation, by trying to perfect the nature he has given." No ! 
A man cannot develop himself in any noble and God glorifying 
way, except by developing outwardly upon his fellows, by play- 
ing off his faculties in sympathy and association with them. 
There is no way to be a follower of Jesus except by doing 
good, no way of serving Christ but by blessing men. "Doing 
good to the little and weak and needy is doing it to me," he 
says. But how can one do men good without love? He will 
not desire to bless them unless he loves them. He cannot 
bless them in the highest way except by gaining their hearts. 
Those who have toiled hardest for this world have been 
great man lovers, and most of them greatly beloved. It is 
useless for a man to pretend to love God if he is hateful 
and hard, or indifferent to his fellows. A cross and surly 
saint is a contradiction. The only way for us to show our 
love for God is by being good to his other children. We may 
pray, read our Bibles, profess and count beads, and do penance 
without end, and it will go for nothing if we care nothing for our 
fellow-mortals, their needs and miseries ; our fellow-immortals, 
their state and prospects, fears and hopes. Glorifying God by 
living to bless men, we may find the highest satisfaction possi- 
ble to us on earth or in heaven. Sweeter than all other BUCtt 
and richer than a crown, will it be to hear from some human 
being's lips, " I am a better man, a better woman by knowiug 
you," and if we are capable of* extorting such words we will not 
be pulled up by them, but humbled at the very feet of God. 


Tlie Arena, 




Four years since our "Western Book Concern published a large vol- 
ume on practically the same region as that which is covered by Profes- 
sor Rogers's work recently issued by the Eastern house. Asshur and the 
Land of Nimrod, by Rassam (Hormuzd), and Professor Rogers's work 
are good companion volumes though they are altogether unlike. Pro- 
fessor Rogers is an eminent scholar and a specialist in matters concern- 
iug the ancient peoples of the valley of the Tigris and the Euphrates. 
He is an American and has the natural enthusiasm of a comparatively 
young American scholar. Rassam is a native of the East and his book 
reads like a compilation of narratives that might be rehearsed by 
an intelligent traveler and a keen observer of men and things. He 
makes no pretense of scholarship but simply tells what he has seen and 
heard and done. He is perfectly at home among Arabs and Kurds, 
Christians and Mohammedans. One would like to sit down with him 
on long winter nights in a cozy study and listen to his interesting and 
practical conversation. Our Book Concern deserves great credit for 
bringing out these three exceedingly valuable volumes. The head 
waters of the Euphrates and Tigris are interlaced amid the hills and 
mountains of Kurdistan and Armenia, whence they follow a south- 
easterly direction almost uniting in the vicinity of Bagdad, then slightly 
diverging they finally unite about one hundred miles above the head of 
the Persian Gulf. Babylonia and Assyria are both in the valley formed 
by these two rivers. The two countries, though somewhat different, 
have many points of resemblance, being contiguous, and their bounda- 
ries not being very clearly defined; hence it is somewhat difficult to sep- 
arate in thought or historical description the two countries and their 
people. It is a very remarkable fact that, so far as human history is 
able to give us definite information, there have been but very few domi- 
nant races and metropolitan cities. Egypt is probably the earliest illus- 
tration of the development of a dominant race and a metropolis. The 
environment— the climate, soil, and productions, as well as the relative 
situation of the country— will sufficiently account for this. From the 
very first a comparatively large and dense population could be sup- 
ported in Egypt with less labor and less risk of famine, war, or pesti- 
lence than in almost any other equal portion of the globe. Not far to the 
east across the barren wastes of Arabia was another valley, that of the 
Tigris and Euphrates, which furnished the habitat of another dominant 
race and the site of auothcr metropolis. However we may distinguish 
Babylonia from Assyria yet the fact remains that with one or the other 
of them was centered from time to time the controlling force of the 


Methodist lievuvj. 


valley of the Tigris and Euphrates. The dominant race at the opening 
of the twentieth century is the Anglo-Saxon, and the metropolitan city 
is London. Egypt has never been hidden from human view, but Baby 
Ion and Nineveh for many centuries were as completely lost as the 
doomed cities of Italy buried beneath the ashes of Vesuvius. It is 
within a comparatively brief period that explorations and excavations 
have restored to the civilized nations a knowledge of these long-lost 
cities, cities famous in the secular annals of Greece and Rome and the 
sacred annals of the Jewish Scriptures. Many nationalities of Christen- 
dom have taken an interest in these explorations; among them the 
English, German, and French have been the most prominent. Lately, 
however, our own country has joined with these just named in this 
most important and interesting work. 

While many distinguished men have written more or less extensively 
upon the methods and results of the exhumation of these ancient cities, 
no history of Babylonia and Assyria has been written in the English 
language since the greatest and most recent discoveries, and based upon 
original sources except this work of Professor Rogers. Really his work 
rests exclusively on the original Babylonian and AssyTian documents, 
and is not made up from secondary sources. Scores of thousands o( 
tablets, cylinders, and monumental inscriptions have been exhumed, 
and many of them deciphered, furnishing a wealth of information on au 
almost endless variety of subjects. Professor Rogers has availed him- 
self of this wealth of information in the preparation of his work. 

Then it should be noticed that there is no other author who gives us 
in the English language so full and intelligible an account of the suc- 
cessive steps which have been taken in the process of the decipherment 
of the vast collection of cuneiform inscriptions. It seems almost miracu- 
lous that after the lapse of so many centuries these treasures of ancient 
literature should be discovered, and quite as miraculous that human 
ingenuity could find a way to restore in a good degree a language thrice 
dead and utterly forgotten for centuries. It was a most remarkable 
achievement to solve the riddle of the Egyptian hieroglyphics by the 
aid of the famous Rosetta stone, but it required vastly more skill, 
patience, and ingenuity to recover the languages of Babylonia and 
Assyria. Homracl, Kanlen, and others have told us something about 
these interesting matters, but our own Professor Rogers has far BUrpas* a 
them both in extent and thoroughness of investigation and description. 

It is of vital importance, and of the greatest interest to Bible Btudentl 
to know that Professor Rogers has treated exhaustively, nearly if not all 
the ascertained points of contact between Israel, and Babylonia, ami A- 
syria, so that it is possible to gain a very fair estimate of the Babylonian 
and Assyrian view of these episodes, which to candid minds show th< hi • 
of God. The careful reader will notice in the foot notes abundant refer* 
enccs to the passages in the prophets, especially in Isaiah and Jeremiah* 
in which these events are discussed. Thus ran be Btudied the coni 

ml.] The Arena. 793 

porary history of the Old Testament, in so far as it relates to Babylonia 
ami Assyria. 

The opening chapters of these volumes command the attention as 
tmpletely as the most thrilling' romance. The brilliant sketches of the 
■teeoverers and the discoveries of the eighty years last past challenges the 
admiration of the reader. Indeed, this may be said of several other 
pu t ions of the work, especially of the first chapter of Book II in 
Volume I. 

There are a few points that many intelligent readers will be sure to 
notice and possibly hesitate to accept. There is a tendency on the part 
of many explorers and archaeologists to push back the dates of events to 
the unrecorded if not unnumbered milleniums of the past. Inasmuch 
M the best authorities among Egyptologists differ in regard to the date 
when Menes the first king of the first dynasty commenced his reign, it 
would seem that all who attempt to fix dates ought to do so with very 
trrcat modesty. In this respect Professor Rogers is worthy of commen- 
dation. On this point we are told by one authority that Menes com- 
menced his reign about 5700 B. C, while another gives the date at 
ubout 2300 B. C. Take as another illustration the reign of Usertsen, 
who is supposed to be the king who erected the obelisk which now 
stands in solitary grandeur, at the site of the city of On, as though it 
might be the memorial and headstone of an obliterated city and a per- 
ished people. Usertsen was one of the kings of the twelfth dynasty. 
Wilkinson, by no means an inferior authority, assigns him to 1740 B. C, 
Mariette to 30G4 B. C, and Brugscli to 2433 B. C, so that in an event 
that is comparatively recent we have Mariette giving almost twice as 
many years as Wilkinson. Still another case illustrates the variation of 
dates in an event of special importance. It is generally conceded that 
the great pyramid at Gizeh, the greatest in Egypt, is the tomb of Khufu, 
* king of the fourth dynasty. Wilkinson gives the date of the acces- 
sion of this dynasty as 2123 B. C, Brugsch 3733 B. C, and Mariette 
§225 B. C, which is almost double the estimate of Wilkinson. With 
practically the same data upon which to base their estimates other men 
I eminent as these are as wide apart in their estimates as the figures 
already given would show. Thus after nearly a hundred years of inves- 
tigation, and by men of pronounced ability, we have no real know ledge 
fc»n which to decide as to the exact dates of events in Egypt prior to 
P8 B. C. From that time down we have solid foundations; before that 
tune there is a world of conjecture, wild guessing, and visionary mathe- 
matics. Coincident with Professor Hilprecht's return home from Nippur 
PS newspapers announce that he has made discoveries which carry us 
l '»ck to at least 7000 B. C. It is perfectly safe to say that Professor 
'hlprecht has made no such discoveries, and that it is utterly impossible 
! ° verify this assumed date. Then again there is some danger of being 
piled in regard to the extent of the territorial possessions of Babylonia 
Assyria. Many a youth in reading the Bible accounts of aU the 


Methodist Review. 


kings that Joshua found in Palestine does not reflect that Palestine was 
on!)- the size of New Hampshire, and a dozen kings in so small a spaa 
would be very small kings of very small kingdoms. So the ships of the 
Sea of Galilee were small boats, while the sea was less than twenty mil 
long. So we do well to remember that the entire territory included in; 
the dominions of Babylonia and Assyria, excepting temporary con q ,; 
in Egypt and elsewhere, did not exceed more than a space seven hundrt i 
miles square, while practically the real territory was not more than h ;!f 
that size, say about one third the State of Texas, or about as large as New 
York and Pennsylvania. It would scarcely be proper to call this an 
empire, or the people a world power, in the sense in which we use those 
terms in modern times. Doubtless Nineveh and Babylon were in a sense 
metropolitan, and the people who dwelt in them belonged to the then 
dominant race, but the extent and sphere of their domination was ex- 
tremely limited. 

Then again archaeologists fall into the habit of making imaginary and 
inferential statements. It would be difficult to find one free from this 
habit. Professor Sayce is a striking example of this. A scrap of a cyl- 
inder is deciphered, a part of a clay tablet is read, a broken slab has a 
part of a very important inscription, and just where words are rnost im- 
portant there is a lacuna here and another there. Then comes in play 
the imagination and the inferential power of the human mind and tl 
lacunae are supplied. But this is guessing. It is not in any sense sciei ■ 
tific. Nothing must be imagined, inferred, guessed. The thing to do 
is to make a note of what has been deciphered, work on, search out 
more carefully, and with infinite painstakiug seek to discover the lack- 
ing material. It may come in due time. After what has been achieved 
what may we not expect? Already much has been brought, to light that 
tends to confirm the biblical history, to illustrate many of the customs of 
the Hebrew and other peoples referred to in the Bible. Possibly some 
enthusiastic persons have overestimated the importance of archseologi 
researches and discoveries in relation to the genuineness and authenticity 
of the several books of the Bible. The lovers of the Bible have, how- 
ever, nothing to fear from established and duly certified facts, and resl 
discoveries. The discoverers and archaeologists must come to some defi- 
nite agreement among themselves before they can expect any sensible 
person to accept their discrcpaut conclusions. In thus pointing out ^ 
few — three only — of the characteristics which are very prominent an 
many archaeologists, and explorers of buried cities, and chronologic I : 
ancient times, it is with the greatest satisfaction that one can honestly 
commend the work of Professor Rogers for its candor, moderation, snd 
reasonableness. His thorough research, his hesitation to accept im- 
proved hypotheses, his avoidance of nil profcssoinal and scholarly dog- 
matism, his ability to suspend judgment on any case no matter DO* 
important the question or how great the temptation to be the Irst 11 
reaching a conclusion, arc qualities which always distingui. h bfoad Si • 


The Arena. 


clear-minded scholars and safe leaders in new paths of scientific dis- 

Professor Rogers has rendered an exceedingly valuable service to the 
cause of truth, and to all intelligent people who wish to keep abreast of 
the age in which they live. He has brought back to us by a sort of 
resurrection from the dead peoples of comparatively vast power and 
influence, whose names and deeds were almost as perfectly lost as the 
cities and inhabitants of the submerged Atlantis. 

Aubumdale, Mass. W. F. Mallalieu. 


The discussion that has recently sprung up in the Methodist Review 
respecting children is every way fortunate and opportune. This is a 
subject that will not "down!" Many strong and true things have 
been said in this discussion, but nobody goes far enough and presses it 
to a logical conclusion. Let us group the teachings of the Methodist 
Church and the Bible respecting the spiritual condition of children, and 
see where we come out, what conclusions are forced upon us, and 
whether the practice of the Church comports with its precepts. 

The first statement that can be made with emphasis is that the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church believes and teaches that infant children are in 
a saved state. Our fathers waged great warfare on this question, and 
stood in fierce array on the affirmative side. Our Church has taken at 
.their face value the words of Christ: "Of such is the kingdom of God. 
Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of 
God as a little child, he shall not enter therein." "Except ye be con- 
verted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the king- 
dom of heaven. "Whosoever therefore shall humble himself as this little 
child, the same is greatest in the kingdom of heaveu." These words 
have brought comfort to thousands of sorrowing hearts as Methodist 
preachers have repeated them at the open graves of infant children. 

These words seem clearly to teach two things. First, that infant 
children are members of the spiritual kingdom of God, members of the 
invisible Church, Christians; in a word, that they are saved; Secondly, 
that infant children arc the highest types of Christians — the ideal Chris- 
tians — that child piety is the highest form of piety, and that adults must 
conform themselves to children in order to enter the kingdom of God and 
reach the highest attainments in the Christian life. Our Church has be- 
lieved and taught this. The standards of our Church, and the writiugs 
of the leaders of Methodism contain these teachings. Furthermore, the 
statement can be made with equal emphasis that our Church believes iu 
and practices infant baptism and thereby sets her seal upon the doc- 
trine that infant children are saved. One of our articles of religion 
reads: "The baptism of young children is to be rctaiucd in the 


Methodist Review. 


It will be necessary to consider what interpretation the Methodist 
Episcopal Church has put upon the two doctrines — the salvation and the 
baptism of young children. 

One of our articles of religion reads: " Baptism is not only a sign of 
profession and mark of difference whereby Christians are distinguished 
from others that are not baptized ; but it is also a sign of regeneration 01 
the new birth." We define a sacrament to be " an outward and visible 
sign of an inward and spiritual grace." Baptism, then, is a sign that 
the grace of God saves the person baptized. We baptize those only 
whom we believe to be saved. Infant children are baptized because we 
believe that they are in a saved state. Baptism distinguishes Christian- 
from others, therefore we believe children to be Christians. Baptism is 
a sign of regeneration or the new birth. Children may be baptized, 
therefore we believe they have been regenerated and have experienced a 
new birth. It is asked in the catechism: " What is the inward grace 
signified by baptism?" and the answer is: "A death unto sin, and a 
new birth unto righteousness." It is not necessary to multiply words. 
We baptize children because we believe they are saved. 

It may be well to quote a few Methodist authorities on this subject. 
In 1873, when he was at the head of the Methodist Quarterly Review, the 
great editor, Dr. Whedon, conducted a discussion on this question to 
which attention may be called. lie quotes Mr. Fletcher as follow?: 
"Those who start at every expression they are not used to will ask if 
our Church admits the justification of infants. I answer imdoultedly , 
since her clergy, by her direction, say over myriads of infants, ' We 
yield thee hearty thanks, most merciful Father, that it hath pleased thee 
to regenerate this infant."' This last phrase is found in the ritual of 
the Established Church of England. It is not in the ritual of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, but the same thought, as we have already 
shown, abounds in all parts of our ritual service. Dr. Whedon achl>. 
"Then he [Mr. Fletcher] proceeds to prove that this regeneration is an- 
tecedent to baptism, and universal, . . . that infants arc truly born of 
the Spirit as ground of their being born of water; that they are lo 
receive the outward sign because they have received the inward grace." 
Dr. Whedon likewise quotes Mr. Wesley as teaching that iufants are 
literally and in their infaucy members of the kingdom of God, and y ' 
that none but regenerate persons can be members of that kingdom. He 
also quotes Dr. Fiskas follows: 

"Although all moral depravity, derived or contracted, is damning 
its nature, still by virtue of the atonement the destructive effects 1 I 
derived depravity are counteracted, and guilt is not imputed until bj :i 
voluntary rejection of the Gospel remedy man makes the depravity 
his nature the object, of his choice. Hence, although abstractedly I 
sidered, this depravity is destructive to the possessors, yet through U»* 
grace of the Gospel all are horn, free from condemnation" 

These authorities clearly teaeh, in harmony with Christ's words, U ■' 


The Arena. 


infant children are saved, and if they became anything else they must, 
as Mr. Fletcher expresses it, "sin away the justification of infants." 
The argument is this: Baptism is a sign that the person baptized 
is saved; infants are saved, therefore infants are proper subjects of 

There has been much confusion and contradiction among Meth- 
odist writers respecting the spiritual condition of infant children, but 
this has largely grown out of the effort to apply to children theological 
terms which are intended for adults. However much disagreement 
there may be respecting the meaning of " regeneration" and "justifica- 
tion " when applied to infants, there has been almost entire agreement 
in our Church that the good old Bible word "salvation" applies to 
infants without modification. In general terms, the child is "saved," 
and that is sufficient. The Methodist Episcopal Church has believed 
this and fought for this. It has looked with abhorrence on the doctrine 
of "infant damnation." 

But there is another question .of great importance involved in all this 
which is almost entirely lost sight of. Our Church has held that infant 
children are in a saved state, and may be baptized as a sign of this salva- 
tion, that they are members of the kingdom of God, members of the invisi- 
ble Church, and as such their names are entered on the records of heaven. 
But the fact seems to have been lost sight of that Methodism has taught all 
these years, and logically too, that baptized children are members of the 
visible Church, members of the Church on earth, which keeps records of the 
names of its members. Richard Watson considers baptism, as an initia- 
tory rite into the Christian Church. He says, "To the infant child it is a 
visible reception into the same covenant and Church, a pledge of ac- 
ceptance through Christ, the bestowment of a title to all the grace of 
the covenant as circumstances may require, and as the mind of the 
child may be capable, or made capable of receiviug it." 

And Pope iu his Christian Theology says: 

"It [baptism] is the sacrament of union with Christ, of pardon and 
renewal through his Gospel, and of membership in his Church. . . . 
Children have their privileges in the Christian covenant sealed to them 
in their baptism. Accordingly they arc addressed as members of the 
Church in every epistle." These are our theological teachers, but we do 
not depend on them entirely. In our Catechism the question is asked, 
"What advantages are secured to baptized persons?" The answer is: 
" The// are admitted to the visible Church of Christ, their relation to 
him as the Mediator of the new covenant, and their title to the spiritual 
blessings thereto belonging, arc solemnly confirmed. 11 

In order to prove that they are actually taken into the Church at 
their baptism it is only necessary to cite the ritual service used for that 
purpose. In the opening of the service for infant baptism the minister 
says to the congregation, " 1 beseech you to call upon God the Father, 
through our Lord Jesus Christ, that having, of )\U bouuteous mercy, 


Methodist Review. 


redeemed this child by the blood of his Son, he will grant that he, bein<* 
baptized with water, may also be baptized with the Holy Ghost, be 
received into Christ's holy Church, and become a lively member of the 
same." In the first prayer are the words, " We beseech thee, that of thine 
infinite mercy thou wilt look upon this child: wash him and sanctify 
him; that he, being saved by thy grace, may be received into Christ's 
holy Church." And in another prayer are the following words, " So that, 
when he has glorified thee in his generation, and has served the Church 
on earth, he maybe received into thine eternal kingdom, through Jesu r 
Christ our Lord." This whole service clearly indicates that the child, 
who is already a member of the kingdom of God, is being baptized and 
received into the visible Church, as a recognition of the salvation which 
has been unconditionally granted under the atonement of Christ. 

Such are the teachings of our Church, and yet we never enter the 
names of baptized children as members of the Church. Our highest aim 
in adjusting the affairs of the earthly Church is to make its roll of mem- 
bership correspond with the roll that is kept in heaven; and yet wo 
leave off our earthly roll the only names that we are absolutely sure arc- 
on the records of heaven. The ideal members, the highest type of mem- 
bers are left off our rolls, whereas we put on a great many names that 
we are not so sure about. "Whenever we put the name of an adult, on 
our church records we never quite know whether the name is on th^ 
heavenly record, but w r e have no such misgivings about the children. 

Our Church teaches that children are proper subjects of baptism, and 
it baptizes them, and admits them into the Church. It does not enter 
their names on the roll of membership, however, but waits several years 
till they are old enough to sin, to be converted, to serve on probation 
for six months, after which it will enter their names on the church, 
records. If they are saved, why should they not be enrolled as members I 
If they are on God's records, why should they not be on ours ? The 
common answer is a fear that they will not hold out. Our ministers 
have taken many adults into the Church when they had grave fears that 
they would not hold out. They received them and entered their nami 
on the rolls because they were saved at the time they were received ', onlj 
to find at the last that they made shipwreck of faith. Let the child: 1 n 
have as fair treatment, and there are many reasons for thinking that d< 
so many of them will backslide as now backslide from an equal number 
of adults who are taken into the Church. This statement cannot b 
proved, of course, for the children have never been enrolled and tn 
as members. 

This article has been written to tempt some wise man of Methodise 
to give a good and sufficient reason why the names of baptized I 
drcn, who arc recognized by the Church as saved persons, should : N '• 
be entered on the roll of Church membership; for no such good an<i 
sufficient reason is on record in the literature of our Church, 

Albany \ N. Y. IIknuy OrAHAU 


Tlie Arena. 



Methodism must have her own schools in the Philippines. Every argu- 
ment which compels establishment and maintenance of our own institu- 
tions of learning in the United States is of equal force here. In fact, 
owing to the inbred Romish conceptions of true piety, the argument for 
schools other than those established by public funds and carried on 
without religious instruction has greater weight. I see no way to wash 
these misconceptions out of the fiber of the Filipino mind except by 
rubbing them continuously on our own educational washboard. 

Government has projected and is carrying out here a most commend- 
able scheme for the free education of the masses. It stands out alone in 
the history of such efforts. Money and brain and executive ability of 
the highest order is being given without stint to the establishment of 
schools for the poorest in the islands. The Government scheme includes 
college and university all in good time. But just as all similar provi- 
sions in America do not satisfy Christian parents and Christian leaders 
of the various Churches, so here the system of the Government, be it ever 
so good, will never give us the women and the men who will lead our 
forces to victory. 

We should have in Manila, and at one or two other central cities in 
this island of Luzon, good schools, where correct views of Scripture will 
be taught, and where it will be practically impossible for young people 
to get an education without finding Christ as a personal Saviour. Some 
Steward of the Lord, who wants to do for the Philippines what Mr. 
Roberts did for regions tributary to Constantinople, can find an opening 
by writing to the presiding elder of the Methodist Episcopal Mission, 

Until recently the great ingathering of souls in the Philippines was 
confined to Manila. Now the work is spreading in many parts of the 
provinces. Four weeks ago I made my first visit to Dagupan, at the 
northern terminus of our one and only railway in these islands. Our Mr. 
M;irtin there had been pounding away more than a year getting Spanish, 
and making a beginning at Pangasinan, and had just begun to feel at home 
i» speaking. I took up a couple of men who can talk the vernacular. One 
of them had been awakened and led to accept Christ in the Presbyterian 
»ervices here in Manila. These men told us of an opening at a city 
called Camiling, in the province of Tarlac. Brother Martin went with 
h'W to look the city over, and so well was he received that he has 
already organized a circuit with three appointments, of which Camiling 
" °ne, and M on cad a and Gerona the other two points. At the two latter 
places he is most enthusiastically received. More than a dozen heads 
°i families have given him their names, at each of the last named places, 
a * candidates for membership in our church, and he confidently SXpootfl 
ft truly great work at Camiling. It is all new ground. Protestantism 
Acver lifted up its voice on that soil until within the past foul Weeks, 

'1 already many have believed unto the saving of their BOUls, I shall 


Methodist Itevievj. 


revisit the work there soon, and hope to see a great work begin. I ani 
told on good authority that there are fifty thousand men in that prov- 
ince who are accessible to Protestant influences now ! Certain it is that 
no building will contain all who crowd upon our men to hear the strange 
new doctrine that Christ saves sinners without the intervention of priest, 
or sacraments, or penance. 

In the province of Bulacan, immediately north of Manila, the Presby- 
terians had made a beginning; but when the Evangelical Union was 
formed in May, and Methodism accepted responsibility for the evangel- 
ization of that portion of the island of Luzon north of Manila as far as 
Dagupan, and from sea to sea, it fell to us to take up and carry forward 
their work. They had a little band of thirty believers in church fellow- 
ship with them at a place called Hagonoy, in Bulacan Province. Sine- 
then the work there has gone forward rapidly and hopefully. The 
members raised all the money needed, and purchased a house for a place 
of worship. They now have a pastor, and our Brother Goodell and 
Brother Nicholas Zamora visit them at least once a month. The work- 
is spreading into all the regions about Hagonoy in a mo-t natural, 
healthful, and hopeful way. 

Last week I was visited by a delegation from the populous province of 
Bataan, across the Bay, and urged to send preachers to four cities lying 
near together. They promise entertainment, free carriages, and crowds 
to hear the Word. We shall send a couple of our best volunteer preach- 
ers over there, in a week or two, and soon we hope to see that province 
turning to God. 

The crying need is literature/ The people have absolutely nothing to 
read. We are putting a number of good tracts through the press, but 
we must have periodical literature. Help at this point will be far reach- 
ing in its effect upon the work. We trust that the Church at home will 
not cease to pray for her workers at this distant outpost of the Church. 

Manila, Philippine Islands, July 2, 1901. Homer C. BTOKTZ. 


The Trinity has been a perplexity to many persons because they could 
not see how three separate persons could combine iuto one Being. I do 
not recall an effort where an illustration was used to show the possibility 
of such a Trinity. I do not set myself up as a wiseacre, but as G 
gives me light my duty is to "let it shine." To illustrate the Tril 
take a hard boiled egg : the shell is perfectly one; the white, or albu« 
men, is perfectly one; the yolk is perfectly one: and (he three me I 

Van Wert, 0. Jason Yorv. 

•It need hardly he said that the above was written soberly and with entire ttrt\ 
ence. It Is printed as a sample of tin- elucidation of an abstruse subject by aw 
a concrete illustration.— En. 

The Itinerants' Club. 




First, excgetical study gives vigor and depth to the thought of the 
preacher. The Bible connects itself with all learning. One cannot study 
it without in some measure coming in contact with all the best thought 
of the world. A chapter in the book often opens up the study of the 
whole realm of knowledge. Take, for example, the study of the first 
chapter of Genesis. This book opens into the broad realm of the phys- 
ical sciences. It at once takes the reader into Geology, Astronomy, 
botany, Meteorology. It treats of the world above and the world below. 
If one will stand at this portal of truth, he will find himself opening the 
door to grander truths than he ever dreamed of reaching. A similar 
view of great and fundamental truths will be found in the study of the 
Kpi-stle to the Romans, as a whole. This wonderful letter of Paul is 
• igliteen hundred years old, and yet it is as fresh and as well adapted to 
our times as if it were written yesterday. Paul's argument is an answer 
to modern thought, as well as an exposition of the Gospel as related to 
the thought of his own time. One cannot but feel after he has read this 
Kpistle a few times that when he enters upon it he is standing in the 
midst of the temple of truth, and that in mastering it he is mastering the 
great problems of all times. "We are thus helped to the most vigorous 
thoughts. In no way can we get mental grasp more effectually thau by 
keeping to the study of the thoughts of the word. "Why are the old 
writers Charnock, Milton, Butler, Owen, Tillottson, so vigorous and 
fresh to us to-day ? They were saturated, filed with the word of God. 
This condition of closed exegetical study of God's word is gone, and we 
we studying too much the mere letter. "We are busy with the fringes of 
truth. "We, too often, stop at the door and do not enter in. The text 
triticisin, the exact location of Eden and of the pool of Bethesda, all 
tins is well, but the most important matter is to be inspired with the 
*ntiments of these writers and to know the great doctrines they pro- 
claimed. The external criticism of the sacred text is in my opinion being 
overdone. Professor Alexander makes a distinction in one of his works 
^'tween the words biblical and scriptural. lie says we should say bibli- 
c *Ueaming and scriptural knowledge. Biblical refers to the knowledge 
" f the externals of the Bible, the history of the texts, geography, arch- 
eology, etc., whereas scriptural knowledge has to do with a knowledge 
f, f the doctrines, principles, and obligations announced in the srtcn id vol- 
ume. "\Yo must have on the part of our preachers a profounder insight 
tato the very fatness and marrow of the Scriptures. Our know U dgfl of 
l W books of the Bible and of their critical history is but the means to au 
n "l| and its results are only secured when wc can get to tlx vtiv 


Methodist Iievitw. 


roots of the thought which they contain and which were intend*, i 
for the world. The vigor and tone of the preacher will be very much 
increased by a close study of the great subjects of the sacred writers. 
They treat of those topics which have ever been powerful in awak- 
ening the intellectual and moral powers of men. They treat of God. 
and man, Christ and redemption, holiness and heaven. What is 
said of John the Evangelist by Canon Liddon may in a modified sense 
be spoken of the thorough student of the Bible. He says: "We mar 
perhaps have wondered how a Galilean fisherman could have been th«- 
author of a subtle and sublime theosopby, how the son of Zebedee could 
have appropriated the language of Athens and of Alexandria to the Cru- 
cified. The answer is that St. John knew from experience that blessed and 
tremendous truth that his Lord and friend was a divine person. Apart 
from the guidance of the blessed Spirit, St. John's mental strength ami 
refinement may be traced to the force of his keen interest in this single 
fact. Just as a desperate moral or material struggle brings to light force- 
and resources unused before, so an intense religious conviction fertilizes 
intellect and develops speculative talent, not unfrequently in the most 
unlearned. Every form of thought, which comes even into direct con- 
tact with the truth to which the soul clings adoringly is scanned by it 
with deep and anxious interest whether it be the interest of hope or the 
interest of apprehension. St. John certainly is a theosophic philosopher, 
but lie is only a philosopher because he is a theologian ; he is such a mas- 
ter of abstract thought because he is so devoted to the incarnate God. 
The fisherman of Galilee could never have written the prologue of the 
fourth gospel or have guided the religious thought of Ephesus uulc— .. 
had clung to this sustaining truth, which makes him so profound, for 
St. John is spiritually simple as he is intellectually majestic." * 

Second, exegetical shirty provides a kind of training very necessary I 
the attainment of a high' order of pulpit address. The style of a 
preacher has much to do with his usefulness. The mode of presenting 
truth has much to do with its ultimate success. A close, concise, ener- 
getic style is the best for the pulpit orator. The flowing rhetoric of th< 
schoolboy will not do as a perma7ient thing. It will meet approval in 
the flush of youth, but it will not stand when maturity is expected of 
the preacher. Very young preachers who are flattered by applaud:: 
congregations will do well to remember that the things for which thcif 
people approve them now will be the things for which they w ill a Dfl 
them when they are older. A close study of the Scriptures promote ! 
dignity of address. Coleridge says, "The study of the Holy Scrip; 
will keep any man from being vulgar in point of style." Abraham Lin© • 
derived his choice and idiomatic English largely from the study of tl 1 
Bible. What a study for the culture of a graphic style is the prophecy 
of Isaiah in its beautiful English dress. 

• Million's Jhnni'ton Lrcturrs, IMS, l>. ?T>. 


The Itinerants' Club. 


Third, exegetical study provides material of a richer quality than is to 
bo secured in any other branch of instruction. One of the greatest dan- 
gers to the preacher as a scholar lies in his too entire reliance upon 
guides to the study of books rather than upon the study of the books 
themselves. In one of the works of Kant there is found a catalogue 
of a library of writers whose study will facilitate the comprehension of 
the Kantian philosophy. It is said by Kant that his philosophy must 
}>i> studied without notes. While there is a danger of laying too 
much stress on independent study, I nevertheless believe that the 
richest materials will be found by the persistent investigation of the 
word itself. There is gold and a multitude of rubies in the word of 
God, but they must be dug for, and he who digs deepest will find the 
richest ore. There are many truths of the Gospel that become diluted 
niter they have passed through the hands of the commentators. Fresh- 
iicss of thought is closely connected with freshness of finding. The use 
of a sermon becomes dull to the hearers on its subsequent repetition. 
The thought is right, but the flavor is gone. Freshness of study is 
necessary to richness of thought. No commentary is complete enough 
to answer all the wants of a preacher. But one or two valuable 
guides to the thought and language will open fields for personal 
itudy such as cannot fail to enrich us with the best thoughts of 
Holy Scripture, Exegetical study is promotive of originality in 
preaching. The nearer one gets to the sources of knowledge in every 
<lepartinent, the more original one's own thinking becomes. The geo- 
logical student never becomes an originator until he breaks the rocks 
and inquires for himself. Yfhen Agassiz founded his school in New 
Kugland he told his pupils to select a pebble or a stone and then come 
aud report what each one could see in it. At first they only saw that it 
was a stone or a shell, but after repeated efforts it was found that their 
eyes became more clear, and each student became a discoverer. So as we 
study the word itself, views of beauty and of force as to its meaning 
will burst upon the mind, and the student of Scripture will then begin 
to produce new views with force and power and bearing the impress of 
his own mind and heart. 

Fourth, exegetical study oho promotes variety iu preaching. One of the 
most imperative demands of a people is for something new. In the 
making of a sermon, pastors are anxious to find topics of discussion 
alike scriptural and fresh. I know nothing more capable of enlargement 
"»an the subjects of preaching providing the word of God be profoundly 
n n<l contextually studied. Subjects new, both in substauce aud appli- 
cation, will thus appear. The current topics soon exhaust themselves. 
*fen cannot always find freshness in the last fire or the latest disaster on 
sea, or the social events of their community. People soon become 
^eury f Ruch subjects ; but to the exegetical student, subjects fall 
from Ids ordinary studies as chips from the granite which the ICUlptOC 
M Carving, The chips in this case are the materials to be used. Mai 


Methodist Review. 


Midler's Chips are the outgrowth of his studies, so the preacher's 
topics are largely the outgrowth of his severer studies. A warm heart 
to appreciate the spiritual forms of truth, and a keen sense of the causes 
and relations of things, will provide a multitude of topics of great 
practical value. "What abundance of material for distinct subjects is 
found in the parables and miracles of our Lord! Every one of these 
has its peculiar aspect, which presents itself in new and varied forms 
to each individual mind. How wonderful the propositions in the writ- 
ings of* Paul, giving room for argumentative discourses! What shades 
of meaning are brought out of deepest interest to the hearers in the 
minute study of particular forms of expression. In the first year of 
my ministry a young brother of my own age in the ministry asked me to 
exchange pulpits with him, giving as a reason that his topics were ex- 
hausted, as he had preached the Bible through! You will readily 
see that his study of the Book must have been very cursory when he hnd 
exhausted it in less than one year's preaching. 

TURES. — Rom. iv, 1. 

The fourth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans is very interestii 
because of the variations in the text, and the different meanings as- 
signed to the passage growing out of them. The version of King 
James reads, "What shall we say then that Abraham our father, as 
pertaining to the flesh, hath found ?" The late version renders it thus, 
" What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather according to the 
flesh, hath found ?" A further reading in the margin of the late revi- 
sion would be, "What then shall we say of Abraham, our forefather 
according to the flesh ? " There is another rendering also possible, 
namely, What shall we say that Abraham our father hath obtained 
according to the flesh ? It is not important that we discuss the argu- 
ments for or against each one of these varied renderings growing out of 
the text. For our present purposes we simply compare these which aw 
found in our ordinary version and in the Revised Version and it- 
margin. After the discussion of the previous chapters, in which the 
apostle has shown the impossibility of obtaining salvation by works 01 
law, and further, that salvation by faith does not make void the law 
but establishes it, it was natural that the question of the position of 
Abraham should arise in Paul's mind aud also in the mind of liis readi n* 
Abraham was the founder of their race, and in his posterity tin y i rpocted 
the promised Messiah ; hence the question indicated in this verse. 

The ordinary rendering of this passage connects the phrase " accord- 
ing to the flesh" with "Abraham our father." This lias been regarded 
by some as tautological, but it serves to show more specifically the rels 
tiou of the Jews of that time to their ancestor Abraham, The quest! • 
then, which is asked, is, 14 What shall we say then, that Abraham, our 


The Itinerants Club. 


father as pertaining to the flesh, hath found ? " that is, has obtained, not 
only for himself, but for his posterity. The implied answer is, that he 
obtained no advantage whatever, because his justification did not arise 
from his works, but from his faith, for "Abraham believed God, and it 
was accounted to him for righteousness." Had he obtained salvation 
hy works, he would have had a ground to boast; but as such ground of 
boasting is not possible with God it could not be affirmed that he obtained 
his justification by works. He must, therefore, have obtained it in some 
other way, and that was by faith. There are others who claim that the 
phrase "according to the flesh" should be connected with "hath 
found," and the question then would be, "What advantage hath Abra- 
ham our father obtained according to the flesh ? " that is, did he get 
justification in the exercise of his natural powers, without the grace of 
God, or did he secure it through the expression of divine favor? That 
is, when he was justified, did he receive a reward for works, or was it 
a pure act of grace ? And he immediately cites passages to show that it 
was not works, but grace, that constituted the element in his justifica- 
tion, for he mentions the fact that David says, " Blessed are they whose 
iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered;" so that, if Abra- 
ham had been justified by works, his justification would not have been 
in harmony with the statement of David. A further interpretation 
grows out of the fact that some manuscripts omit "hath found" alto- 
gether. This rendering is set forth in the margin of our late Revision, 
"What shall we say then, of Abraham our forefather according to 
the flesh . . . ?" that is, how does the case of Abraham adjust itself 
to this Gospel of salvation by grace and not by works of law ? And 
tlicn he proceeds to show that this case is a clear illustration of the 
Gospel method of justification. In this verse Abraham is represented 
also as "our father;" and this may have a twofold reference. If the 
word "our "be referred to the Jews, then it would mean simply that 
they were descendants of the historic Abraham whose righteousness 
was considered by the Jew as imputed to — thrown rouud and envelop- 
ing— all his descendants. The question is, What advantage have they 
teceived from that descent ? Ou the other hand, if the " our" includes 
l '>e Gentile as well as the Jewish believers, then the question would be, 
^liat shall we, who have entered into the realm of the descendants of 
Abraham through faith, obtain? In this case, the answer would be, 
We have obtained justification by our faith, and not by works of law. 
'he same remark would apply to the renderings of our late revision, 
c *cept the fact that for "father" is used the word " forefather." 
The question then under discussion in this passage is, assuming that 
righteousness of faith as distinguished from works Is the righteous- 
which God requires, What advantage comes to US from the ext< rtJ 
BUch B8 Abraham practiced, in the. matter of justification t The 
Gumption of the apostle is thai the legal system, of which Abraham 
tm ' representative so far as his obedience to law was concerned, lias 


Methodist Review. 


proved of no advantage whatever. This does not deny the value of the 
law as a training and preparation for the Gospel, but it doe3 deny its 
efficiency in securing personal salvation. When, therefore, we come to 
discuss the question of justification by faith, Abraham must be quoted 
for it, because it was not his works that constituted his justification be- 
fore God, but his faith, as it is said by this same apostle, u Abraham 
believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness. " 

For homiletical purposes, then, this passage involves the following 
points of discussion: i 

1. The position of Abraham as a typical representative of the mode 
of human salvation. Is he the forefather of the Church merely in his 
relation as ancestor of the Jews, or does he represent in the faith which 
he exercised that point in which Jews and Gentiles were to be brought 
together and all recognized as children of God by faith in Christ Jesus : 
The case as stated indicates that Abraham did not obtain his justifica- 
tion before God because of his obedience to the lav,- or to his greet 
achievements, but rather because of his relation to God by faith. 

2. What is the relation of law to the justification of the believer ? Is 
it merely an expression of God's attitude in human affairs, or is it also 
part of an educational system by which the world was to be trained 
accept salvation through faith in Christ ? For homiletical purposes, it 
is both. The law is an expression of the will of God in relation to 
men at any given time. It is also that which reveals to man his own 
condition by showing his failure to keep its requirements. 

3. The importance of typical illustrations, such as Abraham, in bring* 
ing out clearly the great ideas of the Scriptures. The frequeut reference 
to persons as illustrative of the principles involved is, indeed, one of the 
striking characteristics of the Scriptures. They are a living book, be- 
cause they are the records of the lives of men in their relation to God. 

4. For critical purposes, this passage is exceedingly interesting M 
showing the variances in the text which occur within the space of a 
few words, variances which have not, however, seriously modified i:^ 
meaning. The essential point, salvation by faith only, is distinctly 
affirmed. The various textual readings which are found in the New T> »- 
tanient have not affected the doctrines of the Church to any serious ex- 
tent. Indeed it is said that no fundamental doctrine of the Chris'. ' 
faith has been put in peril through the researches of textual criticism. 

5. The distinction between legal and evangelical justification ifl iho« " 
in this passage and the succeeding context. It is the gracious t;< fl • ; 
God in pardoning the sinner because of his union with Jesus Chrl 
faith which the apostle enforces. Blessed is "the man onto wl ( 
imputcth righteousness without works." Beel, on Rom, i. B, WB 
"If from works done in obedience to law Abraham had obtained 
favor and covenant of God, God would be to him, not the free SOUltt ' 
every good, but only a master, who pays for work done; ami A.briD 
confidence would be measured by his own morality." 

1901.] Archaeology and Biblical Research. SOT 



Rome, in tlie very nature of things, has been for many centuries one 
of the most interesting fields for archaeologists. The number of treas- 
ures recovered from its imposing ruius have been very numerous, and 
of great value to the student of history. When we stop to consider 
ihut archaeology has made its greatest discoveries during the past fifty 
;>ars, and that its greatest harvests have been reaped in Bible, rather 
than in classical, lands; on the banks of the Euphrates and the Nile, 
rsihcr than on the yellow Tiber or Adriatic coasts, we are not to be 
nirprised if discoveries in Rome and other classic cities have not been 
as plentiful or satisfactory as in some other fields. This is especially 
true of the. Roman Forum, though not quite as much so to-day, as it 
*»9 some years ago, when Augustus J. C. Hare could write, " The recent 
excavations have been chiefly remarkable for the discovery of nothing 
which was expected, and of everything which was not expected." The 
ume writer very truly says, "The study of the Roman Forum is com- 
plicated by the succession of public edifices by which it has been occupied, 
• ich period of Roman history having a different set of buildiugs, and 
I kch in a great measure supplanting that which went before." 

Strange as it may sound, it may be said that thorough and systematic 
txcavations were not made in the Forum and the immediate vicinity till 
fcbout three years ago, when methods pursued byPetrieand Bliss in Egypt 
»nd Palestine, and by Hilprecht and others in Babylonia were introduced 
Into Home and adopted in the Forum. The learned world may congratu- 
late itself that Professor Baccelli, the Minister of Public Instruction, 
baa manifested the keenest interest in the excavations commenced in 1808. 
Indeed, the Italian government was fortunate in finding a pcrsou like 
Architect Boni to superintend the new enterprise, for a man possessing 
«»€ nrchfflological instinct, as well as a scientific training, to such a de- 
P*e as Signor Boni, cannot fail to reap a rich harvest in so fertile a 
: ' :, 1 as the spot on which the Forum Romanum once stood. 

There are few spots on earth around which there clusters so much 
is fraught with historical interest, as this limited space reclaimed 
1 the marshes of the Vclabrum, "surrounded on two sides by the 
perpendicular cliffs of the Palatine and of the Capitol." The 
though used at first exclusively as a public market, in the course 

• centuries became the most celebrated and most classical spot of 
•Cient Rome, "where the Senate had its assemblies, and where the greatest 

' " of history determined the destinies of the world." There BJ 0, and there 
ween, public squares around which more imposing buildings hare been 

••ted. Roman history contains many a reference to customs and pUcei 


Methodist Review. 


iuaiid around this venerable area, of which we would gladly know more. 
This is why the discoveries of archaeologists like Boni and Lanciani 
are so welcome to those who would possess a more correct and com- 
prehensive knowledge of ancient Rome. 

The modem archaeologist, in all recent excavations, advances on a 
purely scientific plan; for that reason, greater results follow everywhere. 
He is no longer satisfied with a superficial investigation, but, to use a 
common phrase, he proposes to go to the bottom of things, and, when- 
ever possible, to dig to the lowest level, never resting till virgin soil is 
reached. Heretofore it was all too common to regard any kind of a 
pavement or the lowest layer of a foundation as the lowest level, not 
dreaming that one building or city had been built upon the ruins of 
another, or that important objects had been buried for centuries under 
these foundations. To illustrate our meaning, we can do no better than 
cite the recent discovery of objects found some two yards below the 
Lapis Niger or the well-known Black Stones. 

The Lapis Niger of classic fame was unearthed in front of the 
Curia?, or Senate houses. This was a pavement of black marble, 
streaked with white, and bordered on three sides with upright slabs. 
The exact nature and purpose of the space inclosed by these stones can 
be only a matter of conjecture. It may have been an altar or, as some 
think,' the veritable tomb of Romulus, or, indeed, at successive ages, like 
the cromlechs of Celtic countries, may have served both purposes. One 
thing, however, is very evident, namely, that it must have been a place 
of no little importance, for it is claimed by those who have a right to 
speak upon such matters that this pavement is the only monument 
in Rome, or, indeed, in Italy, where this kind of marble has been 
found. So much for the Lapis Niger. 

Now, under this pavement was uncovered a piece of stone masonry, 
solidly built ou three sides, with a huge block of stone in the cent 
The construction and general plan suggest an altar. Many fragments 
of wine vases, ointment vials, as well as those of commoner wares, were 
found among the debris. There were also broken pieces of bones oi 
various animals: cows, sheep, pigs, dogs, and domestic birds. Cloa 
to one side, is a conical pedestal and a large stele or slab, bearing M 
inscription in very archaic Latin characters. The fragmentary I 
of the inscription renders decipherment impossible; accordingly I verj 
large number of renderings have been proposed. From the few wow 
which can be made out, it is certain that the* inscription is of a religion* 
character. Mr. Mason D. Gray, to whom we are Indebted for l 
facts, in an interesting paper in the Biblical World submits the followii - 
translation, which he candidly admits to be little better than gtU Ml* '■ ' 

"When the priest through the herald or attendant has admitted W 

with ritual of song, let him prayerfully take the anspioea and dedfa 
their offerings, 

4i And likewise let him perform these duties on the BOHef belt. 

Archeology and Biblical Research. 


u Whoever by the auspices is shown unworthy and sinful, let him be 
accursed. Whoever by (the failure to fulfill) his vow, let him be accursed 
of Jove." 

The discovery of other inscriptions in or near the spot may afford 
further light; and such discoveries are not impossible, since the unex- 
pected constantly happens in the work of the explorer. 

The fragments of earthen pottery as well as the animal remains would 
also indicate that the conical block below the Lapis Niger was in some 
way connected with sacrificial offerings. Comparing the broken vases 
and vials with those found elsewhere, it is fair to assume that they 
belong to the fourth century before our era. The inscription, however, 
may have been two or three hundred years earlier. 

Of the most important edifices restored or unearthed by recent exca- 
vators, and in regard to which many additional facts have been discov- 
ered, we may name the round temple of Vesta, the Regia, the official 
residence of the Pontifex Maximus, in close proximity to the temple of 
Vesta; the house in which the Vestal Virgins resided, covering, ac- 
cording to Lanciani, an area of 58,995 square feet, has been thoroughly 
explored, and the use to which many of the rooms and apartments 
were put satisfactorily explained. Lanciani, in speaking of the house 
of the Vestals, says, "We find in the plan of the building itself the 
prototype of all the convents and nunneries of the world, the character- 
istics of which are a large courtyard, surrounded with porticoes, both 
necessary to give air, light, and the possibility of a little exercise to 
women condemned for life to almost solitary confinement." The Senate 
buildings have likewise been brought to light. As might be expected, 
buildings which had served the people for nearly a thousand years must 
have undergone many and extensive repairs during that long period. 

The exact site of the Curiae, or Senate buildings, was a matter of con- 
jecture for many centuries; it is now, however, believed that there can 
be no reasonable doubt as to the very spot on which they were located. 
These edifices, commenced no later than 700 B. C, as already said, un- 
derwent many changes. We know that the Curia was once destroyed 
lj y fire, which it caught from the funeral pyre of Clodius, about 700 
*• U. C., and that the adjoining courthouse, then called the Basilica 
'''>rcia, was likewise destroyed at the same time. Nevertheless, though 
huilding was partially destroyed, and additions were made from 
'•"ie to time, yet it is reasonably certain that the site of the Senate build- 
was identical. The temple of Vesta was one of the most impor- 
**0t places in Rome. The Vestal Virgins played a very prominent pari 
the story of the Eternal City. The saeredness of their persons as well 
k% the veil of mystery in which their life was shrouded, need more 
'htin a niere mention. The temple of Vesta and the residence of the 
tol Virgins were quite close to the Forum. It is therefore but 

**' that many things connected with their services should to Ulus- 

"d by recent excavations. The temple of Vesta, the famous deposi- 


Methodist JReview, 


tory of the sacred fire, and the Palladium taken from Troy, has been 
explored; and also the vaults under the same, in which were kept the 
most sacred objects connected with the temple worship. 

Very near the temple of Vesta was the Regia, or Atrium Vestcc, the 
official residence of the high priests, jjontifices maximi. Boni, in speak- 
ing of the Regia, very aptly says, "It may be looked upon as an archi- 
tectural palimpsest of fifteen centuries — a monument which served to reg- 
ister and hand down to posterity the record of the most salient facts in the 
history of Royal, Republican, and Imperial Rome." Two of the dis- 
coveries in or near the Regia deserve mention; one being that of a 
tholos, that is, a store pit, nearly fifteen feet deep, and, at the bottom, 
ten feet in diameter, but tapering toward the top. This pit was filled 
with debris, the upper half containing fragments of mediceval vases, 
and bones of animals, the lower half imperial pottery, including sev- 
eral amphora?, one of them being about two feet high, and in a good 
state of preservation. There were also two smaller ones, with inscrip- 
tions u})on them. At the very bottom were three lamps and sever;. 1 
ointment vases, and, near by, nearly fourscore stills of all shapes and 
kinds of workmanship; also a thin, open tablet, twelve by four inches. 
Many of the objects were marked Regia. 

Signor Boni is inclined to the belief that he has discovered the sacra- 
rium of the Hastin Martim. This structure was circular, surrounded 
with massive stone walls. It is yet too early to speak authoritatively on 
this point. It is, however, known that the sacred spears, which, ac- 
cording to tradition, were used by Romulus, the mythical founder of 
Rome, and which mysteriously served by their oscillations to foretell 
calamities and forewarn the Romans of impending disasters, were 
kept in the Regia. These spears were made of wood, and pointed with 
some kind of metal. Here we must mention that two bronze objects, 
conical in shape, which may have served as points for lances, were 
not long ago discovered in the Forum. May not these be a part of 
the very spears which are spoken of so often in the classical authors ? 

Not far from the site of the Forum, on the north side, is the Basili< » 
^Emilia, built or enlarged no less than four times; first, under the name 
Basilica Fulvia, in 179 B. C, by the two censors, iEmilius, Lipidus, and 
Fulvius Nobilior. A century later it was enlarged and beautified 
another descendant of this noble family. AVe are told that no less than 
twenty-five years were devoted to the second building. Addition* w< ' 
also made, in 34 B. C, and still others in 14 B. C. This wornl 
edifice, but partially explored, lias yet been so far restored as to affoi I 
us a correct view of the plan and elevation. It has a remarkable N 
blance to some of the ecclesiastical buildings or churches of mcdi 
Rome, the prototype of the modern cathedral. The Basilica JSmiHa i 
tained three parts, 11 A central hall, divided into nave and aislca by ■ 
double line of columns, two rows of cells or tabcrna? on either lW 
the central hall opening on the outside porticoes." 


Missionary Review. 




It is not easy to make reliable estimates on the comparative extension 
of the Christian religion with that of others. But in what we recognize 
as a very carefully edited periodical in Scotland there are some figures 
worthy of consideration and calculated to afford encouragement in at- 
tempts to evangelize the world. When one recognizes that the souls really 
lidded to the kingdom of God must be " hand-picked," as a missionary 
lady iu Africa recently expressed it, to reach a thousand million non-Chris- 
tians throughout the world in anything short of a geological period 
vrould seem to be impossible. On the other hand, when we remember that 
ercn the hand-to-hand way of working may be geometrically productive, 
it seems less discouraging. If each one reaches several other ones the 
ratio may be such as to kindle the brightest cheer. The Gospel plan is 
not wholly geological, though it does include great upheavals and over- 
turnings, but it is distinctly the philosophy of geometrical progression 
under which units soon swell to millions. 

It is almost pathetic to see a lone missionary teaching an individual 
child the alphabet and a few Scripture truths in some hitherto unevan- 
^ r clized heathen nation ; or, farther back yet, building a boat to get to 
the child, or patiently training his own ear to catch the sounds that fall 
from the lips of a barbarian, hoping after awhile to be able to construct 
'ui alphabet for him. To entertain a hope of ultimately building up out 
< i this half brute an intelligent and powerful Christian community 
*ould appear to savor of lunacy. This has been done repeatedly, how- 
ever, and is being done to-day in Uganda, in the South Sea Islands, 
•a Formosa, in interior Asia, and in many other localities. Such com- 
imiuities, gathered from the lowest races, and capable of propagating 
'''id maintaining themselves exist in Africa. Native Christian churches 
*re now sending out considerable sums of money together with preach- 
es and teachers from among their own members to evangelize their 
heathen neighbors. In India, a half century ago, Christian Protestant 
inverts numbered less than a hundred thousand, where now they count 
-carer half a million. Christian communities which a century ago num- 
bered two hundred millions now count five hundred millions. In 
hidia, China, and Malaysia a hundred million Moslems are free to 
L ' ( ' I»t the Christian faith without dread of oflicial government decapita- 
tion by the scimeter of the Sultan, Caliph, Shah, or Khedive. For every 
"juare mile of the earth's surface which is under non-Christian govcrn- 
•"'»ts, the authority referred to at the Commencement of this Wlitio 
. there arc four square miles ruled by Christian nations, and the 


Methodist Review. 


author adds, "The problems of the new century are serious and difficult, 
but we need not face them in any other spirit than that of thankfulness 
for the presence of God in Christian work in past generations, and the 
assured hope that he will bless the work of the coining time." 


There are constantly changing phases of Hebrew action and thought 
which ought to challenge much greater attention than they receive, and 
probably would receive, but that the Hebrew is himself a sphinx which 
puzzles Gentiles. No attempts to adjust him to modern society hate 
proven to be satisfactory. This is perhaps attributable to a race indi- 
viduality which he preserves with the same tenacity to-day as obtained 
in any period of his past. While ages of oppression have sharpened his 
wits for successful competition in his social and religious exclusiveness, 
they have put into his blood and brain a number of qualities which tend 
to obstruct his adjustment to Christian civilization. 

The Jew is an important factor in every civilized community, Spain 
alone excepted. In Russia he is contributing far more than his proportion 
to every important interest. For example, Jewish subjects furnish oue 
hundred and six more men to every ten thousand drawn by lot for the 
Russian army than are furnished by non-Jewish subjects. The attempt 
to colonize Hebrews in Palestine is not yet a demonstrated success, aud 
every other attempt to segregate the " Wandering Jew" geographically 
has proven a failure. 

Through all this scattering of the ''tribes of the weary foot," they 
yet maintain a solidarity which seems capable of resisting all efforts to 
dissipate it. There is one remarkable agency contributing to their uni- 
fication, that of language. Reference is not meant to Hebrew, for that is 
influential to this end only so far as the Hebrew alphabet goes. It i- to 
the Yiddish) which is spoken perhaps by not less than six millions of 
people, has an extensive literature, and in whicli no less than twenty- 
three newspapers are published. Very few, if any, writers are clear as 
to its origin. It seems certain that the Jews carried it with them into 
Poland on their migration to that country three or four hundred years 
ago, yet it is not based on any Eastern language, but so far as it has 
been traced appears to have been "made in Germany." Its grammar i" 
erratic, and its vocabulary contains some Polish and Hebrew words which 
have a peculiar pronunciation. What is specially remarkable about its 
use is that it is the lingua franca of the widely separated communities 
of Jews the world over — the international tongue — the Volapuk— of th< 
Hebrews of this generation. It is written in Hebrew characters, n"' 1 
none but Jews read it or speak it; a Teuton or German can make W 
little of it as if it had originated in the mountains of the moon instead 
of in Germany. 

That missionary work can be successfully carried on among Jews, 


J 001.] 

Missionary Review. 


especially that the Bible in Hebrew can be used with good results among 
shorn, seems credibly established. Evidences multiply of a growing dis- 
jx^ition among them to again consult "the law and the testimony,'' and 
in this we discover a prophecy of good. The tendency among quasi- 
orthodox Jews to rationalism indicates a religious loosening which may 
phow that the pendulum has swung to an extreme, and that the return 
iwcep, certain in all such cases to come, may render them susceptible to 

But another and more hopeful tendency, and a marvel in itself, is 
found in the disposition in large Hebrew communities to adopt Jesus 
Christ as the true Hebrew prophet foretold in the Hebrew Scriptures. 
This has been evidenced in many directions in recent years, specially 
in Hebrew current literature. Perhaps nothing will enable the reader to 
apprehend this better than the following excerpt from an article by 
Ribbi Salee, a Hebrew of Hebrews, which recently appeared in Jewish 
Voice : 

u The oldest and the newest traditions of Israel look with favor upon 
the Man of Galilee, who as the prophets of old, was willing to give his 
foul unto death, that his ideals might live after him. His noble and 
(•salted aims have not been fulfilled. What ideals ever were ? But we 
who are Jews to-day certainly have no cause to regret his coming into 
the world, and have every reason to look forward to the time when the 
message of this hour will find an echo in the heart and life of mankind. 
The Gospel of Jesus was the glad tidings of Israel's own universal truth. 
The Teacher of Nazareth was our own kith and kin, both in the flesh and 
in the spirit. We revere his memory, claim him as our own, and gladly 
accord him that high rank which he deserves as one of the greatest 
henefactors of the human family. How absurd and silly it is to expect 
OS, in this age of enlightenment and growing religious fellowship, to 
mourn on this day, to shut our eyes to the light like willful, wanton 
children, and see only the shadows of our past. If we, who are chil- 
dren of the house to whom the prophets belong, and whose mission is to 
proclaim peace to them that are far and near, strew the seed of discord 
and resentment among our own, wherein are we better than those who 
prosecuted our ancestors for wrongs which they had not committed ? 
Shall we hold him whom the millions of our fellow-men commemorate 
to- day f and through whom, according to the unanimous opinion of our 
test and profoundest scholars in ancient and modern times, Israel's 
divine truths were carried out to the nations; shall wc hold him respon- 
sible for the crimes that were perpetrated in his name? Nay, we 
«0 not mourn, but we rejoice that Jesus was born, and through him, 
despite the shortcomings, despite the manifold prejudices that still 
darken human hearts, this world at large is infinitely better and brighter 
man it would have been without him. Wc would not conjure the id 
•pCCters of the past; we thank God that we live in the promt, with its 
*Her liberty, its nobler humanity. 1 ' 


Methodist Review. 


It has been manifest for a long time that there was a desire, for closer 
union of the various Methodist Missions operating in Japan. The propo- 
sition now under consideration is to organize a u Japan Methodist 
Church," founded on the "historical doctrines of Methodism." The 
basis of membership is to be the " General Rules" and acceptance of 
the Apostles' Creed; class meetings and love feasts are to be recognized 
and a suitable ritual drafted for all such occasions as are provided for in 
the present order of Church ceremony. It proposes a delegated General 
Conference, lay and clerical, with full power to make rules and regula- 
tions, except in doctrinal standards, to guard the right of trial and the 
itinerant episcopacy. The Annual Conference is to be ministerial, with 
one lay member from each self-supporting charge. The District and 
Quarterly Conferences are to remain unchanged. The general superin- 
tendent is to be elected for eight years, without a possible reelection. 
He is not to be appointed to a charge; he, with the presiding elders, 
must make the appointments of all ministers, any presiding elder having 
the right to appeal against any proposed appointment, which appeal, to 
be effective, must be sustained by a three-fourths vote of the presiding 

It is not essential to pursue the propositions further in detail here. 
It is sufficient that this movement be noted in its initial stage. It is to 
be submitted to the several Missions for suggestions, and to a commit- 
tee appointed by them for revised drafting, before presentation to the 
home General Conferences of the respective Churches. The Churches 
considered in this scheme are the Methodist Episcopal Church, the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, the Methodist Church of Canada, 
the Evangelical Association, the Methodist Protestant Church, and the 
United Brethren in Christ. It is perhaps well to recognize the need 
which has been felt for closer union of the Methodism of Japan. 
As early as 1877 the several Methodist bodies in Japan appointed a 
joint committee to translate the Ritual, General Rules, and Articles 
of Religion for their common use. In 1SS2 a movement, which proved 
unsuccessful, was made to unite the three M'cthodisms then in the 
field in a theological training school. In 18S5 an effort was made 
to organize a Central Methodist Conference, which also failed of 
acceptance. In 1886 the Canada Methodist and the Methodist Epis- 
copal Churches (North and South) agreed upon a basis of union in 
theological school work. In 1889 a joint committee of the thro- 
Missions drafted a basis of organic union, which was agreed upon 
at Nagoya and presented to their General Conferences in America fof 
approval. This failed of consummation, but the purpose to BeCUW 
organic union of Japanese Methodists has never been abandoned. Io 
1804, at an informal meeting of representatives of the five Methodism* 
then in the field, the mailer was discussed again, but HO RCtion I 


Foreign Outlook. 




Ernst Petran. The subject of religious experience engages the atten- 
tion of theologians in continental Europe more and more. It is doubtful 
whether there is any one theme which is made the subject of more vol- 
umes. This is owing to the recognition that religious experience is a 
fact and to the desire to test it scientifically and to subject it to the 
bounds of reason. And this is a worthy purpose; for there is nothing 
more disagreeable, and there is nothing which tends to bring real 
piety into disrepute more than the fanatical exaggerations which are 
often palmed off as genuine and divinely wrought. Petran's studies in 
this field have been given to the world in a book entitled Be itrdge zur 
Verstandigung uber Bcgriff und Wesen der sittlich-religiosen Erfahrung 
(Contributions to Harmony in the Understanding of the Idea and Nature 
of Ethical-religious Experiences), Giitersloh, C. Bertelsmann, 1898. One 
of the interesting features of his development of the subject is the com- 
parison of religious with other experience, especially sense experiences 
and the experimental knowledge of the mental life of others. The 
principal fact of religious experience, even from the Christian standpoint, 
from which Petran views the whole subject, is, that the individual finds 
hinnelf in contact with God, under the influence of God in volition and 
feeling, in thought and act. This is the result of the objective operation 
of God upon human beings, but also involves an endowment in men 
which is capable of being the subject of such operations. These are 
felt by the adherents of the heathen religions by means of nature, but 
more especially through the mental lives of others. While all this 
W available for those who live in Christian lands they have the special 
advantage of the history of God's dealing with his people as recorded 
in the Jewish and Christian Scriptures. He seems to us here to fail in 
uia attempt to trace the origin of the feeling that God is at work upon 
<M. All that he here does is to show that we recognize that God is at 
work in nature and upon other minds and hearts, but not that he is at 
work upon us. Our knowledge that God is and that he works in cer- 
tain ways comes, at least in part, as Petran has described; but our feel- 
tag that God and our soul are in contact is more immediate than that. 
He succeeds better when he undertakes to shov that the ethical-religious 
"fa of a Christian is nothing but the development of the inner and in- 
herent, God-given capacity for religion, which is in every human being, 
"'is capacity he finds largely in the conscience. The weakness of this 

ok lies in the fact that it does not clearly bring out the actuality of 
l«o connection between the feelings of the Christian and the supposed 
'"fluence of God in producing them. Until it is demonstrated that God 


Methodist jReview. 


is the direct author of those feelings the doubter may admit the exist- 
ence of all these inner feelings without admitting that historical Chris- 
tianity as taught by Christ has any supernatural sanction. This point is 
often overlooked by the individual Christian who employs his religious 
experiences as proof of a divine power as their producer. 

Franz Erhardt. He is a consistent and able representative of the 
idealistic philosophy. Some time ago he published a work on the mu- 
tual interaction between soul and body in which he effectively combated 
the realistic conception of the psychophysical parallelism. Recently, 
however, he has published a small work entitled Psychophyxischer 
Parallelismus und erlcmntnisstheoretisclier Idealismus (Psychophysical 
Parallelism and the Idealistic Theory of Knowledge), Leipzig, C. E. 
Pfeffzr, in which he goes farther and opposes the alleged parallelism 
even as it is conceived by such idealists as Heymans, in Utrecht, and Paul- 
sen, in Berlin. He acknowledges a real objective world, although the same 
may not be considered in connection with objective space. Thus he is 
able to admit such a relation of soul and body to each other as makes 
the soul causal in relation to the body. But with this all justification 
of the hypothesis of parallelism is excluded. For the representatives of 
this hypothesis regard the psychical activities as the inner side of the 
same objective movement whose external side manifests itself in the 
correlated physical phenomena, but which denies the two any mutual 
interaction. Well does Erhardt claim that either the parallelism is a 
fact, and then all changes in bodies are to be explained by forces other 
than psychical ; or else the operation of psychical functions is to be cred- 
with some degree of real influence upon bodies, in which case we 
have no longer a parallelism but a casual relation. But the represen- 
tatives of the idealistic parallelism are making the effort to combine 
two scientific standpoints which, in the nature of the case, are mutually 
exclusive. On the one side they strive to keep on good terms with 
modern natural science which for several decades past has, for the most 
part, been based on the physical-chemical explanation of nature; and on 
the other side they are unwilling to give up the idealistic theory accord- 
ing to which the bodily world is purely phenomenal, having only the 
psychical as the real. Hence these idealists, who attempt to insist on 
the alleged parallelism, vacillate between the realistic and the idealistic 
conception of the world of bodies. By adopting certain dogmas of a 
scientific tendency that is still regnant in thought they forget their ideal- 
ism and deal with matter as a real somewhat capable of producing 
effects. When they come to the philosophical conception and Inter* 
pretation of these things, they forget their science and assert the reality 
of the spiritual alone. This crit icism of such men as Paulsen show s how 
inconsequent all alleged idealism is which attempts to stand on a pan- 
theistic foundation. Erhardt is to be commended for Bh owing bo ton iblj 
the essential inconsistency of idealistic pantheism or monism. 

1901.] Foreign Outlook. 817 


Das spatere Judenthum als Vorstufe des Christenthums (Later Juda- 
ism us the Beginning of Christianity). By W. Baldensperger. Gies- 
t-on J. Kicker, 1900. Those -who have read the author's Self-conscious- 
mm of Jesus and his Prologue of the Fourth Gospel know with what 
ingenuity he argues for positions which are untenable. There is no 
other German writer whom we now recall who has such a gift for mak- 
ing falsehood appear truth. For this reason he is a most dangerous au- 
thor except with the most discriminating readers, or when read with 
the distinct understanding that his main contentions must be rejected. 
Yet, strangely enough, being a somewhat prolific writer, he is very fre- 
quently quoted with approval by those who ought to detect the fallacies 
in his reasoning. Here he undertakes to show that Christianity as 
taught by Christ was not based on the presuppositions of the religion 
of the Old Testament but upon those of the Judaism of his time. In 
this Baldensperger stands by no means alone. lie regards the principal 
characteristics of the Judaism of the time of Christ as Nomism, or zeal 
for the law, and Messianism, or burning desire for the coming of the 
Messiah; though he regards the latter as the overwhelmingly stronger 
clement. The Messianism of the time was transcendental. It had its 
ideals in heaven, in that which is above the earth, in the supersensuous. 
But with strongly religious nat ures recourse to the supersensuous inevita- 
bly leads to recourse to the inner life. Hence the elevation of the Messi- 
anic ideals, of the eschatology of the period, into the transcendental, was 
a stage on the way to spirituality, and thus the beginning point of Chris- 
tianity. Even the rejection of the Law was a consequence of the Messi- 
anism. True, there was no tendency on the part of the Jewish Messian- 
ists to break through the legal form of life in which they were bound. 
Nevertheless, the historian can see that in later Judaism we have to do 
with points of view which unconsciously to their holders diverged widely. 
Although Law and Messianic hope are well adapted to each other, still 
Ibcy are diverse, and this diversity must become more appareut as each 
develops into clearness. So Baldensperger. But this whole train of rea- 
soning rests upon an overestimate of the religious worth of this late Ju- 
ristic Messianism. This Messianism was transcendental, but it was not 
♦piritual ( rather it was course and sensuous. The Messiah then expected 
*A* not a redeemer from sin, but a deliverer from civil bondage. In fact, 
the " devout " referred to in the New Testament were apparently not 
touch influenced by late Judaism, but by the prophctism of the Old Tcs- 
**mcnt, Jesus distinctly rejected the popular Messianic ideal. His preach- 
la g shows no traces of the Messianic hopes of the masses, but was diamet- 
rically opposed thereto. All of Baldensperger's works are characti riaed 
certain acuteness and, often, of insight, which ran but lend inter* 
Mt to their perusal; but neither this or any other of his books can be 
Commended for sobriety. 


Methodist Review. 


AUgeineine Einleitung in den Hexateuch (General Introduction to the 
Hexateuch). By Carl Steuernagel. Gottengen, Vandenliocck, and 
Ruprecht, 1900. This work is intended to accompany the commentarv 
on the Old Testament edited by Professor D. W. Nowack, and does not 
enter into the details of introduction, since these are supposed to be 
found in connection with the individual books. The work is therefore 
brief. Still, for its purpose it is excellent. The matter is arranged in 
seven sections, the first of which is intended to put the reader into 
possession of the necessary standpoint with reference to the importance, 
content, and divisions of the Hexateuch. The second section pertains 
to the tradition concerning the authorship of the Pentateuch. Since, 
the seventh century B. C. there are traces of the view that parts of the 
Pentateuch were written by Moses. Steuernagel considers this tradition 
a fair theme for criticism from the Protestant standpoint, and his dis- 
cussion leads to the conclusion that at least, so far is the literary 
authorship is concerned, the tradition not only cannot be supported, but 
must be rejected. Section three gives the grounds upon which the 
critics assume the participation of several authors in the composition of 
the Pentateuch — namely, the doublets and contradictions the Pentateuch 
contains. In section four Steuernagel passes a valuable estimate upon 
the various attempts which have been made to account for the phe- 
nomena presented by the Pentateuch. Section five discusses the foun- 
dations of the critical theory; section six the individual component 
elements of the Hexateuch (D, P, JE, J, E) ; and section seven treats 
of the union of these so-called sources, or the editing of the Hexateuch 
by which they were united. It is plain from this outline that the treat- 
ment is orderly and progressive. One only interesting feature can be 
mentioned more fully here. It has to do with the completion of the 
Pentateuch, which must have taken place before it was adopted by the 
Samaritans, since the Samaritan and Jewish texts agree too well on the 
whole to admit of serious changes subsequently. Now, according to 
Nch. xiii, 28, the Samaritan community was founded in about 432 B. C. 
According to Josephus, however, it was established in the time of 
Alexander the Great, or about 330 B. C. This raises a somewhat scrion> 
question; for, according to the critical theory, P was published about 
445 B. C, which is but thirteen years before the Samaritans came into 
the possession of the Pentateuch containing P, if Nch. xiii, 2S giw s 
us the true date. Since it is difficult to believe that thirteen years would 
suffice to unite P with JED, and to secure the new work the necc^ary 
recognition, Steuernagel inclines to reject the authority of Nchcmiah OS 
to the date of the founding of the Samaritan community (432), fend 1 1 ' 
accept that of Josephus (330), thereby giving the period of one hundred 
and fifteen years instead of thirteen for accomplishing the fcbove-UU D 
tinned results. Verily the way of the critic, like that of the transgressor, 
though for a different reason, is hard, 

1901.1 Foreign Outlook. 8J9 


European Opinion Concerning the Excommunication of Tolstoi. The 
very touching letter of the Countess Tolstoi to the ecclesiastical au- 
thorities who pronounced the excommunication against her husband 
called their attention to the fact that by placing him without the pale 
of the Church they had agreed to deny him Christian burial, and that 
this could not affect him, for they denied this only to his dead body; 
but that it would affect her should she outlive her husband, by depriv- 
ing her, a faithful member of the Church, of the comforts which it is 
the function of the Church to bestow upon all her members. Antoni, 
metropolitan of St. Petersburg, has written a reply which as published 
does not meet the exigencies of the case, but simply places the blame 
upon the count himself. This correspondence has attracted widespread 
attention in Europe. An authority on Russian affairs is responsible for 
the declaration that the sentence passed upon Tolstoi, while severe, is 
relatively mild, since his offense would naturally have called forth the 
severest kind of penalty. The reason the writer gives for the mildness 
of the punishment is, that Tolstoi is so intrenched in the affections of 
the people, both high and low, that the usual penalty could not be safely 
inflicted. He predicts that the precedent thus established will result in 
such a degree of tolerance in Russia that the sects will grow with more 
than their customary rapidity, since large numbers are held to the Rus- 
sian Church by force alone. To us it scarcely seems possible that the 
Holy Synod should have set such a trap for its own feet. 

A Sign of the Times in Home. The following well-authenticated in- 
cident illustrates the superstition which still exists among devoted Ro- 
manists: A certain monk relates that he recently lost his breviary. 
Thereupon he called upon St. Anthony to restore it, but in vain. Iu his 
despair it occurred to him to punish the saint for his refusal to answer. 
Accordingly he turned a small image of the saint, which he had on the 
table, toward the wall. The monk thought at least that the fear of losing 
his reputation as a restorer of lost objects would move the saint, but in 
this also he was deceived. On the twenty-seventh of December the 
monk threatened the saint with entire withdrawal of confidence in him 
if he did not restore the breviary by January 1. For a time it appeared 
as though even this threat was to go unheeded, but on the evening of 
•January 1 a friend of the monk happened to hear of the loss of the brt v- 
iftry, which he immediately said could be found in a designated place, 
The search was rewarded by the recovery of the lost article. Upon tbia 
Hie monk restored the saint to Lis former place of honor. The story i> 
•0 Childish as to be almost incredible. Yet it is vouched for by the 


Methodist lleview. 


ChristlicJie Welt, and after all it is no more ridiculous than the whole 
scheme of the apparition of the Virgin Mary and other saints. Rome 
certainly needs Protestantism. 

The Death of Professor Beyschlag. Recent discussions of the theo- 
logical situation in Germany have attempted to make it appear that the 
great Halle professor was an evangelical theologian. It may be well to 
mention that he was not so regarded even in Germany, where the standard 
is far lower than in America. And no wonder : for he denied the preexi=t- 
ence, the supernatural conception, and the true deity of Christ. To him 
Jesus Christ was a man and nothing more, though sinless and the re- 
vealer of the Father. It is a striking fact also that the alleged appoint- 
ment of orthodox professors in Germany of late is denied by those who 
wish to see Beyschlag's chair filled by a positive theologian. It is 
declared by the Deutsche Evangelische Zeitung that of five professors 
recently appointed only one is a positive. On the other hand only one is 
even a mediating theologian, while three are Ritschlians. This makes it 
clear that in those instances in which orthodox men are appointed the 
causes are not to be found in the fact that orthodoxy in our American 
sense is gaining ground among German scholars, but in the fact that the 
authorities feel that the orthodox party must occasionally, at least, be 
recognized. We take no delight in awakening the readers of the Ilevieu: 
from this dream, that orthodoxy is growing in Germany; but as a re- 
corder of the outlook in Europe we must state the facts. 

Moral Statistics in Roman Catholic and Protestant Switzerland. 
From recently published tables it appears that the number of divorces 
in Switzerland is about two per cent of the marriages. Of these the 
majority are Protestants, as might be expected from the laws of the 
Roman Catholic Church on the subject of divorce. When we come 
to the matter of illegitimate births, however, which is a truer test of 
the actual morality of the people, it appears that even the confession^ 
does not serve to prevent them from being as numerous among Roman- 
ists as among those who rank themselves Protestants. So also in the 
matter of suicide?*, which for many years past have been about twenty* 
two in every one hundred thousand, the Protestants and Romanists ar-- 
about equal. It may be a surprise to many to learn thai the Protestants 
of Switzerland have no advantage over the Romanists in point of moral 
But this appears only on the surface. In all the refinements of lif»' 
Protestants in Switzerland, as elsewhere, are superior to their Rouianisl 
neighbors, as they are also in point of education and business eni< rprise. 
But it is a cause for real gratitude that Romanism is so effective in 
checking the lower instincts of its adherents, 

1901.] Summary of tlie Revievis and Magazines. 821 


From: contents of unusual interest in The Presbyterian and, Reformed 
Redicio (Philadelphia) for July, we select for mention a "wise and lucid 
article by Edward H. Griffin, of Johns Hopkins University, on " Facts, 
Doctrine, and Ideals," which compares the three fundamental philosoph- 
ical methods corresponding to three fundamental realities with which our 
experience has to deal. 1. Observation through the senses, the method of 
the skeptical empiricism of Hume ; 2. Speculative and deductive rea- 
soning, the method of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibnitz, assuming postu- 
lates and reasoning from them abstractly; 3. The intuitions of man's 
ethical nature, in which Socrates sought new foundations of belief and of 
conduct, and to which the Kantian philosophy makes its appeal, the car- 
dinal assertion of Kant's Critique of Practical Reason, being the primacy 
of the moral powers, and the criterion and organon of truth being found 
in the domain of ethics rather than in sense impressions or in rationalis- 
tic deductions. Dr. Griffin's article contends that these three methods 
must be combined if philosophy is to achieve valid results, and one must 
not be emphasized at the expense of the others. Illustrating the insuffi- 
ciency of any one method, unguarded by the others, he speaks of the 
danger of excessive dependence on introspection and the subjective 
method as follows: 1 'The faith 'to which Kant is constrained, by the 
solemn imperatives of the moral law does not admit of theoretical con- 
firmation, nor does it find support in historical proofs. This is the trou- 
ble with mysticism. Mysticism is true and strong in its recognition of 
God as present and operative in men, in its recognition of the instinc- 
tive, the intuitive, the affectional elements of our nature as proper 
and natural media of knowledge, in the power and fervor and intimacy 
of its hold upon truth ; but it is apt to rest satisfied with beliefs not sub- 
jected to legitimate criteria, not brought into harmony with other beliefs, 
irreconcilable, perhaps, with commonly accepted standards of opinion 
and conduct. The contributions of mysticism to the higher life of 
the world are far rarer and finer in quality than those of the merely 
reasoning intelligence. Emerson contrasts the two types of mind thus: 
4 The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary — between poets 
like Herbert and poets like Pope ; between philosophers like Kant and 
Coleridge and philosophers like Locke, Paley, Mackintosh, and Stewart; 
between men of the world who are reckoned accomplished talkers, and 
the fervent mystic, prophesying, half insane under the infinitude of his 
thought — is, that one class speak from within, or from experience of the 
f,l ct; and the other class, from icithout, as spectators merely. It is 
of no use to preach to me from without ... If a man do not. speak 
"Oin within the veil, where the word is one with th it it tells of. let 

mm lowly confess it.' But admirable as the mystic tempei a1 Its 


Methodist Review. 


is, its excessive subjectivity makes it prolific of error and dangerous m 
practical tendency. If the ideal and the spiritual elements are over em- 
phasized, a lack of reality ensues; defined criteria of fact and of truth 
are ignored. The appeal to Christian consciousness, the conception of 
Christianity as a life, is sometimes so incautiously and extra vagantlv 
stated as to substitute sentiment for reason, and to discredit alike all for- 
mulas of belief and all records of events. No one can read the powerful 
and pathetic presentation of this point of view in the Lay Sermons of the 
late T. II. Green without admiration for their sympathetic tenderness 
their high and serious earnestness, and without perceiving, at the same 
time, the inconsistency between this sublimated and etherealized idealism 
and the authority of an objective Revelation. Ideals which sever themselves 
from fact and from valid doctrine are illusory; they need to be brought 
into practical accord with reality." The gist of Dr. Griffin's essay is that 
there are three interests which the philosopher and the theologian need 
to safeguard: 1. The world of empirical reality, the world mediated 
through the senses, the world of nature, of society, of history, the world 
which is the subject of science; and this world demands candid recog- 
nition. 2. The world of abstract truth, to which we have access through 
the processes of thinking, the world of judgment and inference, of logi- 
cal consistency and reasoned truth ; and from this world we may not hold 
aloof. 3. The world of ideal values, which reveals itself in the im- 
peratives of conscience, in the pure and lofty visions of the spiritual im- 
agination, in the unsatisfied longings 'of the heart; and to this world we 
must ever hold ourselves open. In particular, must tlie Christian toicler 
take account of these three elements and spheres. But the most intensely 
attractive article recently seen in The Presbyterian and Reformed Review 
is "Calvin's Literary Work," by Ferdinand Brunetiere, editor of the 
Revue des Deux Mondes, translated from the October, 1900, number of that 
journal. Brunetiere, the foremost living French literary critic, assi 
to Calvin, the Frenchman, a high place in French literature, while Brun- 
etiere, the Catholic, is severe in his judgment of Calvin, the Reformer's, 
personal qualities and place in the history of religious thought 
progress. The French critic says that Calvin, unlike Luther, who 
seemed always to be calling the universe and posterity to wit- 
what happened within him, left no confessions or Tahle Talk which 
make clear the secret reasons of his conversion from popery. Brun< 
thinks those reasons were not philosophical, but rather historical, "since 
it seems that what was to him least acceptable in Catholicism was the 
chapter of tradition. After that will it be cnlumuiating him to say that, 
in the development of his Protestantism it was part of his ambition to 
receive the law only from himself ? If ever there Mas a man who 
thought that no one opposed to him could be in the right, or that he 
himself could never be in the wrong, that man was assuredly John Cal- 
vin. M "AVhoever does not think concerning 1 justification by faith 1 Oi 
'predestination' as Calvin does, and as he decrees thai others lliusl 

1901.1 Summary of the Reviews and Magazines. 


think is, in the eyes of Calvin, but a blockhead, a donkey, a dog, a 
cleanser of sewers. . . . What he least respects in his adversaries is ex- 
actly that liberty of thought which he claims for himself. . . . Not even 
v. hen death approached did his pride leave him, nor his self-confidence,, 
nor, above all, his animosities. . . . During the entire month that his 
igony lasted not one doubt (of his infallibility) softened his hard and 
jtitiless heart, not one regret or remorseful thought. All that he had 
done was well done. And he died peacefully, aged fifty-five, May 27, 
1504, at eight o'clock in the evening, so that, as Theodore Beza says, 'at 
the same instant on that day the sun set and the greatest light that was 
in the world to lead the Church of God withdrew to heaven.' " What 
Calvin wrote in French comprises a rather small number of works, chief 
among them being the Institutes of the Christian Religion, which, in 
Brunetiere's opinion, "isone of the great books of French prose, and the 
< arliest in which the proportions, the arrangement, and the construction 
ere monumental. Calvin is the first in all Europe in whom Protestant 
dogmatics, disconnected until then and scattered in the sermons of 
Luther and in the treatises of Zwingli, or of Melanchthon, took doc- 
trinal consistency and the external form of a system concatenated in all 
its parts." What is deemed most remarkable in Calvin's style is the de- 
'. Mou and consequent lucidity of the thought : he always knows what 
he wants to say and always says it; his style is that of a man of action 
more than that of an author. Brunetiere thinks that Calvin's Insti- 
htUi was, in point of time, the first of French books which can be called 
classic; classic by reason of the dignity of its plan and the deter- 
mination of details by the conception of the whole, by reason of that 
purpose to convince which moves its internal progress and gives 
rhetorical grace, by reason of the sustained gravity of style, and by 
reason of its conformity to the French genius. Brunetiere, the Catho- 
lic, says without hesitation: " Since the world had lost the idea of the 
original misery of man, and of the obstacles which are met with in the 
exercise of liberty ; since it had returned to the philosophy of nature, and 
«i highest aspiration seemed to be to become pagan once more; and since 
Uic change in morals was leading it, in the end, to the abyss — no one 
Bclpcd more than Calvin to stop it on its downward path; and for this 
•■ ason we can say that the harm he has done was not without some coin- 
r nation. If it is necessary that there should be heresies, that of Cal- 
*«n was not entirely useless; and in the domain of literature, Pascal and 
Itossuct could not have been what they were without Calvin." Brunetiere 
France was afraid of Calvin, and could not be made Protestant by 
to because her facile genius, the genius of Clement Marot, could not 
t -' t "'mnodate itself to his discipline; her social genius, that of Marguerite 
» Valoia, could not resign itself to his insupportable tyranny of mnn- 
5 -'rsaud of consciences; and her literary genius, which w;is incarnate in 
Rabelais, could not take part in the anathema hurled by Calvin's 
' * tf K Xicoclcmites against letters and art. 

824 Methodist Review. [September, 

Not often does any review offer a flying survey of a long subject more 
satisfactory in its way than the article of forty-eight pages by Richard 
M. Meyer, of Berlin, on "German Criticism," which that high-grade 
periodical. The International Monthly (Burlington, Vt.), divided between 
its May aud its June issues. In the article German thoroughness shines 
through a French lucidity of style. It begins by saying that the criti- 
cal instinct is native to man, who may be called "the critical being." 
At the very beginning of human history the Bible show^s the critical 
faculty of mankind at work in the effort to distinguish good from evil, 
and in classifying and labeling the creatures around him. On that 
critical spirit all modern science is based. What was germinant in 
Adam shot up in Galileo into full development. Criticism is a matter 
of course wherever mind is at work. The listening savage criticizes the 
tale you tell him ; the churchgoer passes judgment on the sermon, the 
singing, the new window or reredos; the child selects for reasons his 
favorite among his playmates; and the dying man chooses from many 
hymns the one he wishes used at his funeral ; and all this is criticism, 
comparison, the instinct for order, putting a thing where it belongs 
The most richly-endowed race known to history was the Greeks, amoDg 
whom Plato first framed a new and great conception— science, and 
Aristotle undertook the task of carrying out Plato's new program, cre- 
ating a system of separate sciences, a classification of human knowledge. 
And since the days of those two men we have the cosmos of the sciences, 
the full rounded whole of the disciplines which mutually aid and check 
one another. While the critical faculty existed in Adam, and the critical 
spirit is manifest always and everywhere, Mr. Meyer says that the critical 
method was born in the sixteenth century. That method was used by 
Galileo in natural science, and produced the three master critics of the 
humanities, Cervantes, the Spaniard; Montaigne, the Frenchman; an.l 
Shakespeare, the Englishman. In the greatest of novels Cervantes drew 
with a firm hand eternal types, presenting in Don Quixote and his 
squire Sancho Panza, for the first time since mankind had begun to 
speak and write, a personality in its full circumference with an attention 
to minute traits such as Shakespeare, greatest of all delineators of char- 
acter, could not compass in the narrow' field of a drama. Montaigne, 
though permitted in childhood to speak no language but Greek, and 
though he believed absolutely in the incomparable glory of classic art. 
yet is called the first modern author, being made modern by hi* inex- 
haustible delight iu every manifestation of life; he aimed at understand- 
ing, not in order to be able to explain, but in order the better to enjoi ; 
and this made him "the first writer of universal significance since the 
days of the apostles." Next came Shakespeare, the crowning summit ol 
a new art, of an art born of new r principles — a man so strong, so mighty 
that he was able at last to shake the long autocracy of classic tra ; : 
Descartes, the father of French philosophy, made the critical in 
the central point of his work, seeking a more certain knowledge 1 

1901.1 Summary of the Reviews and Magazines. 825 

nature and all her phenomena. He taught that we must begin with 
absolute doubt, that nothing is to be assumed as certain ; but that we 
must find somewhere a fixed point for thousjht and knowledge and from tlvere 
c.dcfinc£. By that process, later, Niebuhr's criticism advanced beyond 
Voltaire's skepticism, and Johannes Miiller's scientific investigation of 
nature beyond Schelliug's natural philosophy. After Descartes came 
Locke, the philosopher of realism, and Richard Bentley, the first great 
virtuoso of the critical method who carried it to certain results in the 
discipline of philology — who proved the alleged letters of Phalaris, the 
tyrant of Acragas, to be late forgeries, as Laurentius Yalla had shown 
Constantine's deed of gift of the estates of the Church to the pope to be 
ft forgery. Bare mention is made of Hume, who applied the critical 
method to a severe investigation of the concept of causation ; and then 
the article reaches its announced subject, " German Criticism." This 
begins with Winckelmann, the founder of the German conception of 
history, which is that the comprehension of any object must be a his- 
torical one, and that the way to understand is not to make the finished 
object, but its growth, the main subject of investigation. Then came 
Lessing, the last and greatest flower produced by Humanism in Ger- 
many or in the world ; near akin in his thought to the men of the 
literary Renaissance, and yet thoroughly comprehensible to us moderns. 
Lessing was the discoverer and revealer, even to England, of Shakes- 
peare's greatness. He was a student of the development of the capaci- 
ties of the human race and of the great question as to the path and the 
goal of human history. Opposing the attempts both of the orthodox 
faithful and of the radical Rationalists to reduce the whole evolution of 
mankind to a single straight line, he wrote: "Go thine imperceptible 
pace, Eternal Providence! Let us not doubt of thee, even though thy 
steps seem to us to turn backward. It is not true that the straight line 
fa always the shortest. Thou hast so much to carry with thee on thine 
eternal road, so many steps aside to take!" Next is Herder, a man of 
pussionate nature, of whom the essay says: " An insatiable longing for 
Kreat emotions and great thoughts was native to him even as a dreamy 
l>oy, and on his deathbed the old man demanded of the bystanders a 
great thought to which he could cling. Knowledge of detail could not 
appease this Titanic spirit. He wanted the whole; lie wanted to clasp 
•fl animate creation with intellectual arms. He must keep before him 
the totality of life. Giordano Bruno had been the first to proclaim 
boldly the plurality of worlds; Fontenelle had played with the thought ; 

Herder it became the foundation of his conceptions." licrder was 
Ine ancestor of Romanticism, and a pioneer of modern criticism as far 
J,s history and ajstheticisra are concerned. Later in the development of 
German criticism came Goethe, and Schiller, and Willielm von ITum- 
l '"ldt, and the Schlegel brothers, and Schleicrmachcr, and Nicbuhr, and 
* I°ng list of others in the various departments of knowledge. To-day, 
i«c Berlin essayist claims, German philologiana and historians, as well afl 


Methodist Review, 


German physicists, chemists, anatomists, and botanists, take the lead in 
the use of critical methods in the program of the new effort to under- 
stand. In most things the schools of North Germany are famous, 
while in theology South Germany has set the standard. The admir- 
able article closes with Ulrich von Hutten's saying, "Men's minds arc 
awaking, science flourishes, it is a pleasure to live." 

In the North American Review for July, 1901, Alfred Austin, Peel 
Laureate of England, furnishes a prosy mythologic poem entitled 
"Polyphemus; " the late Sir Walter Besaut writes of "The Burden of. 
the Twentieth Century; 1 ' Dr. James M. Buckley strikes, with his u^ual 
deadly precision and demolishing force, at "The Absurd Paradox of 
Christian Science;" and Cardinal Gibbons, in the series on "Great 
Religions of the World," writing from the Roman standpoint, states in 
noble fashion some great facts in which all Christendom rejoice?: 
" One of the most ancient images of the Christian Church is that of a 
ship tossed about on the waves, yet never sinking. This image was 
painted more than once on the walls of the Roman catacombs, precisely 
when it seemed as if Christianity could not possibly hold out much longer 
against the impact of social and juridical forces that had sworn its ex- 
termination. Nevertheless, the Fisherman of Galilee, with his brethren, 
survived this first great hurricane of opposition, and planted the victo- 
rious symbol of the new religion on the Capitol and the Palatine — over 
the shrine of Roman religion, and amid the councils of the Roman state. 
On the morrow of this first great reckoning of the new spirit in mankind 
with the old established forms of belief and government, a tremor of 
astonishment seized on the priests and philosophers of the pagan world, 
that an obscure Syrian sect should have at last lifted a triumphant head. 
It seemed as though all the criteria of mankind — common sense, logic, 
reason, history, analogy — were at once and hopelessly shattered, and a 
wonder-world set up in place of the familiar realities of society. It is 
an old story how the few remaining pagans hoped against hope, until 
they saw the fall of the whole fabric of Western civilization, and the 
figure of a Universal Church interposed between organized society and 
the elemental forces of barbarism that threatened it from the North and 
East. In those all-embracing arms the world of Greece and Rome, that 
thought to perish doubly, was firmly seized and made to live again. 
Since that day Christianity lias dominated all modern history. It* 
morality, based on the loving-kindness of an Eternal Father and th< 1 
mystic brotherhood with the God-Man, has renovated the face of the 
earth. It has set firmly the corner stone for all future civilization, the 
conviction of a common humanity that has been deeply rooted in us DJI 
no stoicism, but by the story of Jesus Christ and by the lives and dc 
of countless Christian men and women. It has clarified at ODCC 
sense of sin and the reasons for hope. It has touched the deopost Bpril 

1001.] Summary of ike Reviews and Magazines. 827 

of efficient conviction ; preached successfully, in season and out of season, 
,.f mercy and justice and peace; affected intimately every function of 
domestic life; thrown a sheltering veil of sanctity about maid and 
mother and home; stood out against the fierce ambitions and illicit 
loves of rulers, and the low passions of the multitude. It has healed 
and cleansed whole legislations, and ' filled out with a vivifying spirit 1 
the noble but inorganic letter of great maxims that a Seneca or au 
Epietetus might utter, but could not cause to live. It has distinctly K 
raised the social and civil life of all civilized humankind. It bears 
within itself the antidote of a certain divine presence, whereby it over- 
comes forever those germs of decay and change that cause the death of 
ill other societies. Its earliest writers and exponents had a subtle sense 
of its true character when they took over from paganism, and applied 
to the work of Jesus, the symbolic myth of the phcenix, emblem of a 
Dative, organic, and indestructible vitality. The life and teaching of 
Jesus Christ himself have nothing but victories to chronicle since his 
hjtpcarance among men. Every century is a new campaign from which 
he returns to the heavenly Father crowned w r ith innumerable laurels, 
and leading captive innumerable multitudes of human souls. The 
records of history are full of the most astonishing conquests by him of 
individual souls, voluntary submissions to the irresistible charm of the 
Son of man. There is no altitude of intellect so towering that it has 
not bent before him, no seat of power so high that it has not done 
homage to him. Philosophy and Criticism, History and the Natural 
Sciences have sent over to him, without ceasing, their noblest worthies 
is pledges of victory. To go no farther back than the century just 
elapsed, we may say that every page of its annals is bright with the 
illustrious names of great men who have been proud to confess the 
divinity of Jesus. Some of them never knew a wavering of allegiance; 
others came back to him by a kind of postliminary process, having 
learned by hard experience the truth of the apostolic cry of Saint Peter, 
'Lord, to whom shall we go? Thou hast the words of eternal life.' 
From this point of view T there is never any diminution of the work of 
Jesus Christ. His benign and gracious figure dominates forever all life 
*n<l society. Scarcely, indeed, was he known to the world when we 
»re told that he won the admiration of great Eoman emperors. Sweet 
^gends of the veneration of an Augustus and an Abgar cling forever to 
person — symbols of that self-surrender which has gone on since then, 
&, >d will never cease. "What is the secret of this constant and cosmo- 
politan devotion to Jesus? From what deep springs of history and 
kuman nature do the forces flow that keep it forever alive, iu spite of 
™8 multitudinous accidents of time and space and change. Secun/s 
: u <licat orbis tcrrarum. It cau be no slight bond that holds forever such 
r ' l »sivc forces as the minds and hearts of men, in varying epochs and 
1*0(18, periods, forms, and degrees of culture." 


Methodist Review. 




The ' Jewish Encyclopedia :■; A Descriptive Record of the History. Religion, Literature, 
and Customs of the Jewish People from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. 
Volume I, Aach- Apocalyptic Literature. 8vo, pp. xxviii, 685, xxxvii. New York 
and London: Funk & Wag-nails Company. Price, cloth, |7. 

This is the initial volume of a work of twelve volumes, which will 
offer a comprehensive account of the life and thought of the Jewish 
race from its beginnings until now. The managing editor of the whole 
work is Dr. Isidore Singer, and associated with him is an Editorial Board, 
whose names form a large guarantee of the scientific character of the 
undertaking. In the list of Consulting Editors, also, are to be found the 
names of Christian scholars such as McCurdy, Moore, Price, and Strack, 
besides the names of the most eminent Jewish scholars of this continent 
and Europe. Among those contributing articles to the first volume are: 
Cyrus Adler, A. Harkavy, A. H. Newman, C. C. Torrey, C. F. Kent, G. 
Deutzsch, D. G. Lyon, E. G. Hirsch, E. Schiirer, F. Buhl, F. C. Cony- 
beare, R. Gottheil, I. Abrahams, I. M. Price, M. Jastrow, Jr., J. F. 
McCurdy, K. Budde, L. Stein, M. Lidsbarsky, TL W. Rogers, C. H. Toy. 
W. Bacher, W. Max Miiller, not to further extend the list. Such a list 
will compare favorably with the list of contributor's shown by the most 
rigidly scientific enterprises of a similar kind. The aim of the work is. 
however, declared not to be exclusively scientific — 'a work intended 
much for the general public as for scholarly use' (Preface xx). Not- 
withstanding this announcement, after examining the present volume, 
one must doubt whether many of the leading articles will really prove 
acceptable to the unscientific reader. A demand exists for an encyclo- 
pedia of Judaism. As the editors say in the Preface: u The need of such 
a work is sufficiently obvious. Jewish history is unique and therefor * 
peculiarly liable to be misunderstood. The Jews are closely attached 1 1 
their national traditions, and yet, in their dispersion, are cosmopolitan, 
both as to their Conceptions of world-duty and their participation in tin- 
general advancement of mankind." "Throughout all the divergent 
produced by different social environment and intellectual influences, tin 
Jews have in every generation conserved the twofold character referrw 
to above: as representatives of a nation, they have kept alive then 
Hebrew traditions; and as cosmopolitans, they have taken part i" M ' 
social and intellectual life of almost all cultured nation-." We mil 
look to this work now auspiciously inaugurated to supply the l< 
standing deficiency of a thoroughly accurate and complete hiitOTJ 
world-wide Judaism. Graeta'a History qf iht Jewt Is not regarded M 
fully satisfactory or comprehensive, bu1 If the promise of thli Si I N 
is fulfilled in those yet to come, we may look to h ive in a few yoai> • ' 


Book Notices. 


account of all the Jewish communities, past and present, in whatever por- 
tion of the globe they may have been or are at present situated. It is 
doubtful whether more than a few specialists have been able to acquire 
my huge knowledge of the work of the Jewish race in literature, the- 
ology, philosophy, and science. The volume under review is packed 
with information relating to the work of the Jews in the fields named. 
Students of Christianity expect to find explanation and illustration of 
features of their system in Judaism, and will rejoice at any means which 
makes accessible to them the intellectual and religious life of the Jews. 
The book in hand is printed in clear impression on heavy paper; the 
headings and side headings are in a heavy, striking type which greatly 
lids the eye in reference; the cuts, maps, and plates occur plentifully, 
arc well executed, and aptly illustrate the related text. In the biblical 
subjects a concession has been made in the form of the articles to the 
traditional view of the Bible, while, at the same time, the critical 
method and its results have been recognized. In each article there is 
given first the biblical data in the order of the Masoretic text, then 
A]>ocryphal and Rabbinical material, and, after these, the Critical View. 
At best this method is a compromise. It may be commended for its 
motive, but the result of its adoption will probably be an impression of 
weakness left on the minds of scholarly readers and a good deal of con- 
fusion in the popular mind. As far as we know, the feature is a novelty 
in scientific literature on the Bible. The bibliography which generally 
tppears at the end of any important article is marked by knowledge of 
the literature of the subject and good judgment in selecting authori- 
tative writers. It is, however, a disappointing fault to find some dis- 
cussions which ought to have had a bibliography lacking at that point. 
Within a few pages we find the following articles without the feature 
alluded to: Acceptance, Accessories, Accident — in Law, Accusatory aud 
Inquisitorial Procedure, Acquittal in Talmudic Law, Acre, Acrostics. 
As we read the treatment of such themes as: Abba, Adoration, Adul- 
tery, Agnates, Agape, Old Age, Agriculture, Allegorical Interpretation, 
Alms, Altar, Ablution, the great value of a kuowledge of post-biblical 
Judaism for the exposition of Scripture and for the historical study of 
Ihe beginnings of Christianity becomes apparent. The article " Abba," 
"J Kohler, lends interesting light, not upon the New Testament use of 
«wt term alone, but as well upon the Christian employment of the term 
"rather" as applied to God. Ginzberg's article on Forms of Adora- 
tion refers to the dispute between Shammaites and Hillelites in the 
tune of Jesus as to whether the Shema should be said standing or in 
K, me other attitude. Gin/berg finds a reminiscence of this dispute in 
take xviii, 11, " The Pharisee stood and prayed;" and Matt vi, 5, " They 
" V(J to stand and pray." Amrarn's discussion of Adultery would have 
more satisfactory, as would the discussions on many other Impor- 

J 'Mt | g a j subjects, had there been a critical estimation of 
kt *rial. In this article the ordeal of the bitter waters in Num. v, 11 81 


Methodist lleview. 


is said to 11 have had in Talinudic times merely a moral meaning. It 
was simply a test under which the woman, if guilty, was likely to suc- 
cumb and confess." Was such the construction put upon the ordeal in 
the time when the circumstances in John viii, 1 seq. came to pass ? John 
viii, 7, "He that is without sin among you, let him cast the first stone at 
her" is suggestive of a passage quoted from Rabbi Akiba (d. 135 A. D.), 
1 1 Only when the man is himself free from guilt, will the waters be an 
effective test of his wife's guilt or innocence, but if he has been guilty 
of illicit intercourse, the waters will have no effect." The higher sexual 
morality of the New Testament is a symptom of the Jewish feeling of 
the age. "The Talmud as well as the gospel regards lustful desire as 
a crime." In the Ginzberg's article on Allegorical Interpretation 
there is the following interesting passage: "Paul's allegorism is typo- 
logical and betrays its Pharisaic origin. . . . His well-known allcgo- 
rization of Sarah and Hagar (Gal. iv, 21-81) is fundamentally only H 
typological presentation of the Palestinian teaching, ' Thou wilt find no 
freeman but him who is occupied in learning Torah ' (Ab. vi, 2). Paul 
is not even original in his types, for the oldest Haggadah represents the 
conflict between Ishmael, the son of the maid, and Isaac, the son of the 
mistress, as a spiritual one (Si/re, Dent. xxxi). Alexandrian influence is 
first discernible in the epistle to the Hebrews, whereas Palestinian alle- 
gorism is suggested in the interpretation of the ark of Noah as repre- 
senting the rite of baptism, in 1 Pet. iii, 20; compare Gen. R. xxxi, 9. 
Alexandrian influence is shown in Hebrews by the general tendency 
throughout rather than by individual instances. Paul never dctnirt> 
from the historical reality of the narratives he allegorizes, but the 
Hebrews became the model for Alexandrian ingenuity by which Israel's 
history and legal enactments were construed as being in reality intima- 
tions of the mysteries of faith, concealing the spirit in the letter, and 
reducing the essentials of the Old Testament to mere shadows. Thia 
tendency is clearest in the gospel of John, the author of which makes 
most use of Old Testament illustrations: the serpent upon a pole in the 
wilderness (Num. xxi, 8) becomes Jesus on the cross. Jesus is the niann:i 
in the desert, the bread of life (ibid.,\\, 31, 49.)" The force of Ginz- 
berg's illustrations from the gospel of John can hardly be alloAved, but 
we must admit the force of the whole passage in its bearing upon New 
Testament interpretation. The whole article is an able presentation, 
giving with sufficient fullness the history of allegorical Interpretation 
in the different Jewish schools and communities. In common \ 
other contributions from Jewish writers it lacks in criticism of i ; 
sources. The articles on Jewish legal usage down to our own day fur- 
nish to Christian readers valuable light on what modern Judaism la 
compared with the Judaism of the past, and suggest at times rea 
which account for such a liberal moveme nt as the reformed Judaism • 
the present age. Among the contributions by Christian scholars attenti 
may be directed to the article on Amos, by Budde. It is m:\rked l>y ' 


Book Notices. 


-writer's breadth of view and discrimination, though -we think he allows 
loo much to "later additions" in his analysis. Amraphel, by 11. W. 
Rogers, is a brief and useful summary of what is known of Hammurabi, 
v. ho is by most scholars identified with Amraphel. The modest sug- 
gestion that the name Amraphel is made up of 'am and rapaltu, which 
combination has a sense similar to that ascribed to Hammurabi, is tempt- 
ing. It is a question, however, whether we ought to expect the form 
\nn in the transfer of a Babylonian name into Hebrew. The geographi- 
cal and ethnographical articles of W. Max Muller are marked by wise 
aud independent setting forth of facts so far as known; for example, 
the article "Amorites." Mention maybe made of the good work of 
Professors Barton, Torrey, McCurdy in their contributions. Professor 
Toy's portion of the article "Abraham," the " Critical View," is in the 
judgment of the present writer too summary in its presentation cf con- 
clusions. More discussion and more extended evidence would have 
Iwjcn welcomed. "We may conclude by expressing an earnest apprecia- 
tion of the spirit which led to the undertaking of a work such as The 
Jewish Encyclopedia promises to be, and a cordial commendation of 
that part of it which is already in our hands. 

Christian Ordinances and Social Progress. The Noble Lectures at Harvard Uni- 
versity for 1'JOO. By The Very Reverend W. H. Fkemantj.e, D.D., Dean of 
Ripon. 12mo, pp.278. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Price, 
cloth, $1.50. 

The main object of these lectures is in reality twofold : (1) To present 
the relation of the external and formal to the practical and moral in 
Christianity, and (2) To discuss this relation, not from the standpoint 
of the individual, but solely from that of society as a whole. The occa- 
sion for entering upon this discussion and the general position taken by 
the author with reference to the matter are clearly stated in the preface. 
Too often the Church and even religion itself are identified with the 
forms and ordinances of our ecclesiastical systems. So far is this view 
of things from the truth, however, that it is even to be observed that 
no such system holds an absolute position, nor can it claim to be imposed 
by divine authority. "All ordinances are essentially secondary and 
mutable." Nevertheless, they have a perfectly valid, ground, and may 
be made to serve powerfully the ends of social righteousness. The 
«ix lectures which constitute the chapters of the book present the fol- 
lowing arrangement and details of discussion: The first lecture dis- 
cusses the Church system as a whole in its bearing upon social right- 
eousness. Noting the change in Church as well as in State, by which 
m the conduct of the affairs of each a social interest has been substituted 
W a purely individual one, the author proceeds to define: (1) The 
kingdom of God, which is declared to be "Wherever God as revealed 
,l » Christ, and the divine principle of love ... is acknowledged 18 
Supreme in men's conscience and conduct." Since this "acknowledge- 
1 " is taking place more and more among men, therefore the kingdom 


Methodist Review. 


of God is "being increasingly realized in human society;" (2) The 
Church, which consists of those whose acknowledgement of Christ is 
not simply actual but openly confessed, who are banded together, how- 
ever, not to hold public worship, but " to establish Christ's righteousnc a 
in the world ; " (3) The Church system of Ordinances, which is never 
essential or authoritative in any particular form, but may nevertheless 
minister to the well-being of society. The Bible in the Church is next 
considered. First, it is shown, by a review of the whole Bible-content, 
how largely it is occupied with a society. Second, in reference to the 
influence of the Bible on our own social state, how Christ does not incul- 
cate a radical socialism, nor encourage a slothful and envious pauperism ; 
nevertheless, he does lay stress V upon the dangers of wealth," and upon 
the advantage and ultimate reward of meekness. The Bible does not, 
however, furnish set rules but spirit and stimulus to righteous action, 
and, in the application of this spirit, change of time and custom must 
be regarded. Third, the Bible is suitable as a text-book of social reform 
because of its interest in and understanding of masses of men, its 
redemptive purpose for nations, its universal adaptability, and its con- 
fident hope of the future. The Sacraments, which are next discussed, 
are shown to occupy a subordinate place in the New Testament, and 
freedom in their administration is declared essential. I, In general, the 
sacraments are important socially because hurnan nature is instinctive 
and impressionable; because sacraments mean "the attestation of incor- 
poration into the body of believers;" and because they are its visible 
pledge of cooperation in loyalty to Christ. II, Baptism favors a view 
of Christianity as social regeneration, if the original institution by Christ 
is fully regarded. The larger social mission of baptism should be mani- 
fested by recognizing the social obligation imposed by this "sacrament 
of incorporation." Ill, The social side of the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper is declared to be "its chief intention," because of the vari 
names applied to it, and because of its history. Its full social importance 
may be restored by emphasizing the Church's unity, for which this sac- 
rament stands, and by extending a sense of sanctity throughout all 
social life. As to Creeds and Confessions of Faith, the author begins 
by tracing briefly the development of creed-formation in the Church and 
by maintaining the utility of creeds, since vagueness is as clearly an 
evil as dogmatism, and, withoat some authoritative standard, the dog- 
matic spirit is sure to assert itself. The legitimate place and power of 
creeds as a social factor are determined by instincts of human natui 
and in response to a social demand for one common expression of t ■ ' 
The dangers to which our use of creeds is exposed are formalism, hj | 
risy, and "the evils which beset every phase of dogmatism." Lastly, 
creeds will become a factor of constantly increasing importance S3 tl 
are made more and more the expression of Christian righteOUSW ' 
the inspiration n<>t of metaphysical disputes, bul of n moral purp 
a living faith. Common Prayer and Preaching is declared in the I 


Book Notices. 


of the New Testament to be no main function of the Church. However, 
that of which Christian worship is an outgrowth as well as its own 
original form comprehended the whole life of the people, and only as it 
was and is degraded lias it departed from this conception. As to preach- 
ing, investigation proves that it is subject to the control of the Church 
as to preacher, character of preaching, and range of subjects. What is 
lacking of the things required of preaching by the social condition of 
the day may be supplied by the discussion of a wider range of subjects, 
by conferences instead of single addresses, by the stimulus of criticism, 
and by a keener appreciation of the needs and obligations of those who 
hear. In the concluding chapter on Pastoral Work, the author main- 
tains that the pastoral office is "in some form or other a necessity," may 
justify itself only 4< on the grounds of utility and of the needs of social 
life." No Church office is divinely authorized, and the original offices 
arose naturally, and in each case in response to needs of the Christian 
body as such. Judges and other public officers now perform functions 
anticipated by primitive Church officers, and these are as truly ministers 
to humanity as are the clergy so-called. The pastor of to-day will con- 
tribute to social progress by the recognition of the fact that he is a 
social leader, and that with him are associated not only the circle of 
worshipers, but the larger circle in which every man has "his 

The Twentieth Century New Testament. A Translation into Modern English made 
from the Original Greek. Parts One and Two, lGmo, pp. x, 3S0. New York 
and Chicago: Fleming If. Revell Company. Price, cloth, 50 cents per part. 

The Authorized Version of the English Bible was the consummation 
of a century of great activity and fruitfulness. It was the seventh in the 
unique series of English Protestant translations which sprang directly 
from the determination of young William Tyndale that "If God spare 
me, I will one day make the boy that drives the plow to know more of 
the Scripture than the Pope of Rome." Each of those versions was 
marked by some singular virtue, and each contributed its part toward 
the perfection of the King James Version, and it must not be forgotten 
that the version of King James was the product of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The century just closed has shown renewed interest in the matter 
of a vernacular Bible, and it is already plain that the revision of 1881 
was but the beginning of a new series of English versions. The Twen- 
tieth Century New Testament, as its name suggests, is an effort to trans- 
late the Greek of the first century into the most modem English. It 
^cognizes the dependence of its predecessors not only upon one another 
hut upon the Vulgate, and turns anew to the Greek original or to its 
stored form in the text of Wcstcott and Hort. It endeavors, by a con- 
sistent rendering, to indicate the verbal agreement or difference between 
liie several similar narratives in the Gospels and Acts. If marks Old 
Testament quotations by special Betting and type. Measures and c oins 
rendered into their Dearest English equivalent. It setswitbin Bquare 


Methodist Reviev). 


brackets the passages classed by "Westcott and Hort as not originally a 
part of the writings in which they occur. It rearranges the order of the 
books — grouping them iu Part I as The Good News according to Mark, 
Matthew, Luke, aud John, and The Doings of the Apostles. In Part II 
we have Paul's Letters to the Churches — Group I consisting of the Let- 
ters to the Thessalonians, Group II of those to the Romans, Corinthians, 
and Galatians, and Group III of those to the Ephesians, Philippians, and 
Colossians. Part III will comprise Paul's Four Private Letters, the 
Encyclical Letters, and the Apocalypse. There is decided merit as well 
as freshness in this work. We quote from Matt, v, 13-18: "It is 
you who are the Salt of the Earth; but should salt lose its strength, what' 
will you use to restore its saltness ? It is no longer good for anything, 
but is thrown away and trampled under foot. It is you who are the 
Light of the world. It is impossible for a town that stands on a hill to 
escape notice. Nor do people light a lamp and cover it over, but they 
put it on the lamp stand, where it gives light to every one in the 
house. . . . Do not imagine that I have come to do away with the Law 
or the Prophets ; I have not come to do away with them, but to com- 
plete them. For, believe me, till the earth and the sky disappear not 
even the dot of an 1 i ' or the cross of a ' t ' will disappear from the Law — 
not until all is done." Aud this from Rom. vii, 7-12: "What infer- 
ence, then, shall we draw ? That Law and Sin are the same thing ? Cer- 
tainly not. On the contrary, I should not have learnt what Sin is, had 
it not been for Law. If the Law did not say ' Thou shalt not cotcV I 
should not know what it is to covet. But sin took advantage of the 
Commandment to arouse in me every form of covetousness. In the 
absence of Law Sin shows no sign of Life. It was so in my own case. 
Once in my ignorance of Law, I was alive, but when the Commandment 
was brought home to me, sin sprang into life while I — died ! The very 
Commandment that should have meant Life I found to result in Death ! 
Sin took advantage of the Commandment to deceive me and used it to 
bring about my Death. The conclusion, then, is that the Law is holy 
and that the Commandment is also holy and just and good." Surely 
this is conscientious work, and it is very evenly done, and the further fact 
that the learned company of a score or more English scholars are put- 
ting forth their results as merely tentative, cordially inviting criticism* 
and suggestions from their readers, makes the Twentieth Century New 
Testament worthy of its name. 


The Pageantry of Life. By CHARLES WHIBLBY. 12mo, pp. 209. New York i Har- 
per & Brothers. Trice, cloth, $1.50. 

Nine essays and an introduction, in a suave nml polished stylf l>J 
accomplished English writer, show us tbs most famooj dandies ol 
Europe, from Lord Chesterfield to the younger Disraeli, Lord Beac 


Book Notices. 


field, and constitute a handbook of dandjism. Barbey D'aurevilly, a 
Frenchman, defined dandyism as the fruit of vanity, but of vanity 
which has naught to do with the conquest of women; he esteemed it 
the exclusive product of England, and of England under the regency. 
The value of this book is in its animated and brilliant picturing of a 
fortunately vanished world, a world of sumptuous splendor, devoted 
supremely to "the arts that polish life," and ruled, with the monarch's 
permission, by dandies who were the masters of elegance and the rulers 
of clothes and manners. A glittering and nauseously offensive world it 
was. Mr. Whibley has also published A Book of Scoundrels, the charac- 
ters in which are scarcely more vulgar, mean, and degenerate in real 
essence than the strutting turkeycock dandies of this book, who were 
monstrous masterpieces of vanity and selfishness — human ganders, with 
•egotism as huge in them as the overgrown livers of the geese of Stras- 
hurg. Bvron betrayed the quality of his own nature, and also measured 
for us the imperial supremacy of dandyism, when he said he would 
rather be Brummel than Napoleon. Of Chesterfield, it is said, that he 
was an artist for whom life was an affair of external accomplishment, 
and who esteemed a grandoise manner the one and only aim of exist- 
ence. His son, Philip Stanhope, died a worthy but discouraged young 
man, knowing that his father regarded him as a failure because he never 
could learn to enter a room with grace and dignity. Chesterfield's ideal 
of a man was "a Corinthian edifice upon a Tuscan foundation," but he 
cured more for the ornate carving of elegant manners than for any strong 
foundation of virtuous character. He worshipped dignity and grace. 
He abhorred the flute because it could not be played gracefully. He 
hated country life and field sports, and condemned huuting; "eat 
game," he said, " but do not be your own butcher and kill it." AYhen 
deafness drove him from society, he settled down to solitude and the 
cultivation of his garden ; but retirement seemed like death to him, and 
he said wittily, "Tyrawley audi have been dead these two years, but 
we do uot want it known." The supreme artist among the dandies 
was George Brummel, who from his boyhood was never for a moment 
anything but a dandy; he looked upon himself as a work of art which 
he strove, with entire consecration, to embellish by polished manners, 
perfect taste, and a cunning tailor; and English society gazed with 
admiring awe upon the finished work of his sublime genius. The per- 
fect arrangement of his cravat was the envy of crowned heads; to the 
tying of it he devoted rare gifts and arduous endeavors, like those by 
^'hich other men ruled kingdoms or handled armies. He fearlessly 
devoted his days to his bodily person and his mirror. " To some tin- 
head is a receptacle of intelligence; to Brummel it was a block to sus- 
tain the perfect hat." nc was utterly selfish, and not at all concerned 
affairs of the heart. Women hated him because, it ll said, "a 
^oman cannot forgive a man for being more elegant than herself.* 1 H< 

«ftd not much of " that discursive talent called Intel 


Methodist Review. 


stood before society so exactly poised, so inarvelously appareled, that 
intellect aud power shrank abashed before his gaze ; " and the fit and 
polish of his boots were the wonder of Europe. He fell at last into the 
debtors' prison, and died as dandies mostly do, after a career of extrava- 
gance, in poverty and squalor; but even in bitter destitution he was as 
unconquerably full of gaity, vanity, and impudence as of misery. Bruni- 
mel had no rival, though the other dandies of the regency were his 
imitators; and after he was gone "elegance was a rare and furtive virtue. 
Under George IY, smartest of regents and vulgarest of raonarchs, and 
under William IV, shrewdest of sea-captains and not quite the stupidest 
of kings, graces and manners were cultivated less ardently than poli- 
tics." In the first essay of this book we are made acquainted with 
"Young Weston," a precocious favorite of the eighth Henry, at the 
court of that beastly and fickle monster, by decree of whese perfidious 
cruelty young Francis Weston finally lost his head, as did several of 
Henry's successive wives. In the second essay, "A Marshal of France," 
we are put on intimate terms with Francois de Bassompierre, who in his 
Memoirs confides to us his triumphs in winning the smiles of fair ladies 
and the favor of kings at the court of France. To that court Bassom- 
pierre came at a time opportune for his genius. France had just settled 
into the semblance of a peace. Henry IY, her king, who knew no other 
care than gaity, maintained a gorgeous procession of dances and mas- 
querades. Even the sufferings and sorrows of the Huguenots could not 
drive the gay smile from his face. A revel of gambling brought obliv- 
ion of the religious wars. Bassompierre, most brilliant of courtiers, at 
the height of his fortune wrote, " I won this year more than five hun- 
dred francs at play, though I was distracted by a thousand follies of 
youth and love." Being badly wounded in a duel with M. de Guise, he 
went for convalescence to the fashionable waters of Plombieres, where, 
despite his wound, he "enjoyed all the diversion which a young man, 
rich, debauched, and thriftless, could desire." Later, under the reign of 
Louis XIII, Richelieu imprisoned him for ten years in the bastille. 
Emerging from prison on the death of the cardinal, Bassoinpicrre found 
himself, in the colloquialism of to-day, "a back number,*' unable to regain 
his primacy in the procession of events, and realizing the truth of at least 
the latter half of D'aurevilly's saying, "In life we are strangled between 
two doors, of which one is labeled Too Soon, the other Too LaUS 1 
The essay on 11 The Heal Pepys " defends "the frankest man in history 
aud the most intimate and engaging personality in literature n from the 
charge of being a cynic or a Philistine. Pepys was anything bul I 
cynic. He bubbled over with enthusiasms; lie hurried eagerly from OUC 
joyous sensation to another. After an evening passed with cheerful fricnda 
he wrote in his incomparable journal, " I spent the night in ecstacy almost, 

the best company for musique I ever waa in, ami I wish I could live MO 
die in it." Our essayist says, 4< No man was ever bom Into England 
with so complete a disregard for those depressing virtues bequeathed 


Book Notices. 


us by the Puritans. . . . His zest for pleasure was almost too violent, 
and you wonder how he could have sustained through so many years 
this ferocious energy of enjoyment. . . . He had but two motives in 
life, pleasure and self-advancement." He was no cynic. Nor was lie a 
Philistine, though Lowell so described him. A Philistine has been de- 
fined as one insensible to the finer flavors of life, narrow-minded, prudish, 
pedantic, and hidebound ; and surely this description does not fit 
Samuel Pepys. Mr. Whibley protests that it is incorrect and unfair 
to call such an artist as Pepys " a garrulous braggart," and his Diary 
the "idle, lazy vaporings of an amiable loafer." On through five more 
essays we move in a world of courtiers, dandies, fops, profligates, in- 
triguers, diplomats, meeting a class of celebrites whose society is a nov- 
elty and a surprise, if not a shock. To an extent we appreciate the feel- 
ings of the woman who, having been reared a country Quaker, married a 
New York clubman. When he brought a company of his cronies home to 
dinner in evening dress the simple young wife gazed at them in bewil- 
derment, and thought within herself, "1 wonder who made them; I'm 
sure God never made such creatures; what kind of a world have I got 
into?" Here we meet Saint Simon and the people he knew, with his 
rare port raitu res, especially of Louis XIY and his consort Madame de 
Maintenon; and of Fenelon ; and William Beckford, the "Caliph of 
Ponthill," who formulated the doctrine of individual effort, saying, "All 
important discoveries have been the result of solitary effort. None have 
been made by masses of people;" and Barbey D'aurevilly, who despised 
democracy and its doctrines of equality, and disparaged Germans, say- 
ing, "They do not write books, they only prepare them." At last we 
come to " Disraeli the Younger," the latest of the famous dandies, who 
was also much more, even ruler of the House of Commons, and at sixty- 
two Prime Minister of England. In his early life a devotee of the 
curling tongs and the pomatum pot, he suggests the description given 
of Dandy D'Orsay, "His hat was set with a superb jauntiness over an 
army of glossy curls which rivaled the beard of an Assyrian bull, his 
ftttitude and gestures were the last expression of an arrogance wherein 
was no malice, of a pride wherein was no disdain." Clothes engrossed 
young Benjamin Disraeli's fancy, and from the outset he regarded life as 
« masquerade. He was a hero of the drawing-rooms, dressing with 
prodigious magnificence, witty, accomplished, picturesque, a fop. a 
writer of books; yet he was a born fighter to whom the interchange of 
Mows was a delight; aud he had a perfect talent for stage management, 
regarding life as a drama in which he meant to play the principal part, 
•ad knowing precisely how and when to bring off his striking effect?. 
This adroit Jew, denounced by many as a charlatan, at last governed 
**Qgland and subdued Europe. Whatever else was in his phenomenal 
Career, there was nothing mediocre or commonplace. And he was sin- 
cere in two directions, to himself and to his race. A Jew first, and an 
Englishman afterward, his whole-hearted loyalty to his race was firmly 


Methodist Review. 


established on the rock of pride. He believed that the Patriarchs had 
laid down the laws of government for all time, and he would twist the 
policy of England until it harmonized with the ideals of the Hebrew 
kings. His books, his speeches, his life were the acclamation of Jewish 
wisdom and grandeur. He pleaded the cause of his people with that 
secure variance which comes from the conscience of a just cause. He 
went so far as to ask, with an air of triumph, "Who can deny that Jesus 
of Nazareth is the eternal glory of the Jewish race ? " In truth, it was 
his favorite maxim that the complete Jew believes not only in Sinai but 
in Calvary. The only reviver of the dandy type in very recent times 
is Oscar Wilde, who clad himself in velvets, with knickerbockers and ' 
silk stockings, and a sunflower for a loutonniere, gaining notoriety as an 
aesthete and poseur. He was a degenerate, whom Du Maurier carica- 
tured in Punch y and Gilbert satirized in Patience, and who perished of 
ante-mortem moral putrefaction. Not all his perfumes could conceal 
the stench of his personality. And so, to all appearances, the breed of 
professional dandies dies out. To this age their gorgeous, inglorious 
memory is a laughing stock. Our day resembles theirs no more than 
Theodore Roosevelt resembles Beau Brummell, or Rosa Bonheur Marie 
Bashkirtserf. The sturdy and stern impulse of Democracy, meeting the 
mincing dandy on the street, is to seize him with merciless muscular 
grip, break him in two in the middle, and toss the pieces into the gutter 
to be carried down the sewer. One lesson written large across the scroll 
of history is that any family or class which devotes itself to elegance 
and the pageantry of life dies out from imbecility and sterility. The 
strenuous age of democratic and Christian utilitarianism is here, per- 
emptory in reducing things and persons to the level of their solid merit. 
Shams and shows are passing, and we believe the race of dandies is as 
extinct as the dodo is, and as earls, dukes, and monarchs will pres- 
ently be. The success and stability of the American republic will mean 
ultimately nothing less than that. For it, success will mean supremacy. 
And as to its stability, we may say, as James Russell Lowell answered 
when the historian Guizot asked how long the republic of the United 
States may be expected to endure, "It will last so long as the ideas of 
its founders continue dominant." 

Heart of Man. By Geokge Edward AVoodbekry. 12mo, pp. 320. New York: 
The Macmillan Company. Price, cloth, $1.50. 

We agree with another reviewer that a single volume of essays like 
this appears a more enduring contribution to literature thau hosts of the 
popular novels which boast an enormous sale but sink quickly into 
assured oblivion, leaving that boast floating like a bubble over the Bpol 
where they sank out of sight. Only four essays, yet they run through 
far ranges of wisdom and beauty. Beginning with an exquisite descrip- 
tion of Taonnina, a poor little fishing village in Sicily, under JStntl 
shadow — an essay rich with many charms— 'the book passes on throng I 


Booh Notices. 


wide variations of subject-matter and style, under the titles of "A New 
Defense of Poetry," "Democracy," and "The Ride," dealing with 
numerous great, immortal themes which fascinate and absorb the heart 
of man. In two of these essays the minister finds his own subjects 
approached from another side and viewed from a standpoint not his own, 
and from them a sedulous reader may appropriate, by mental suction, 
much choice and invigorating nutriment. Not often is beauty so saturated 
with wisdom, or wisdom so flushed with beauty. The last essay is a talk 
with a youug^comrade crossing a "Western prairie over spiritual things 
as Christianity presents them, and shows how everlasting is their basis 
in the experiences of man's soul; and this is done not as the average 
preacher does it, but in a way from which, perchance, if he studiously 
tries, he may learn something. With what quotations to convey a sense 
of the quality of Professor Woodbury's book perplexes us not a little. 
u It is with truth as with beauty — familiarity should endear and make 
it more precious. What is common is in danger of neglect, yet from it 
often flashes that divine surprise which most enkindles the soul. How 
often, at the master stroke of life, has some text of Holy Scripture, which 
lay in the mind from childhood almost like the debris of memory, sud- 
denly flashed out, illuminating the remorseful darkness of the mind, or 
interpreting the sweetness of God's sunshine in the happy heart ! " 
"The moral order was known long before science came to any maturity. 
And if anyone wonders why ethics came before science, let him own at 
l^ast that its priority shows that it is near and vital in life as science is 
not. We can do, it seems, without Kepler's laws, but not without the 
Decalogue. The race acquires first what is most needful for life ; and 
man's heart, with its needs, was always w T ith him, and his fate was ever 
near." "W T e are told in the Scriptures that though we be fallen men, 
yet may we lift our eyes to the Beauty of Holiness and be healed; for 
every ray of that loveliness penetrates to the heart of man, inciting us to 
leek virtue with true desire. In the personality of Christ, it is the sweet 
attractive grace and supernal beauty incarnated in the acts and words 
<^f this present life, the Divine Reality on earth, and not, as Plato saw 
R| in a world removed, that has drawn all eyes to the Judcan hill. The 
years lived under the Syrian blue were a rending of the veil of Spiritual 
Beauty which has since shone in its purity on men's gaze. It is this 
liveliness which needs only to be seen that wins mankind. The emo- 
uons arc enlisted; and however we may slight them in practice, the 
habit of emotion more than the habit of mind enters into and fixes 
>nward character. More men arc saved by the heart than by tho head; 
Ir 'orc youths are drawn to excellence by noble feelings than arc coldly 
Masoned into virtue on the ground of gain." Speaking of the Church 
"le author Bays that, marvelous as its past has been in mental force, in 
m ° ru ^ ardor, and in spiritual insight, illustrious with triumphs over evil 
1° man and in society, and shining always with a great Light, yet that 
Put Was at every era an imperfect stage of human progress. In its his- 



Methodist Review. 


toric life, much has been sloughed off at every marked advance. And, 
even in the Church of to-day, it is needful to sift truth from falsehood, 
and dead from liviug truth. Yet there is reason enough why men should 
reverence the Church, listen to its voice, and yield it their submission 
and allegiance. "The Church is a mighty organizer of thought in its 
theology, of the forms of emotion in its ritual, aud of practical action 
in its executive. Its doctrines, however conflicting in various divisions 
of the whole vast body, are the result of profound, conscientious, and 
long-continued thought among its successive synods and councils, which 
are the^custodiaus of creeds as senates are of constitutions, and whose 
affirmations and interpretations have a like weight in their own sphere- 
as these possess in the province of political thought age after age. It« 
counsels are ripe with a many-centuried knowledge of human nature. 
Its joys and consolations are the most precious inheritance of the heart 
of man. Its saints open our pathways and go before, led themselves 
by the Spirit. Its doors concentrate within their shelter the general 
faith and give it there a home. Its table is spread for all men. I do 
not speak of the Church Invisible, but mean all organizations which own 
Christ as their head. Temple, cathedral, and chapel have each their use 
to those who gather therein with Christian hearts; each is a liviug foun- 
tain to its own fold. The village spire, wherever it rises, bespeaks an 
association of families who find in the Church a spiritual companionship, 
and an outward manifestation thereof, c anctified by the use and rever- 
ence of many generations gone, and tender with the hope of generations 
to come; and this is of measureless good within such families for young 
and old alike. It bespeaks also an instrument of charity, unobtrusive, 
friendly, and searching, and growing constantly more uuconfined. It 
bespeaks a rock of public morality deep-set in the fouudations of the 
State. It is true that in uniting with the Church a man yields some- 
thing of private right, and sacrifices i,n a greater or less degree his per- 
sonality; but this is the common condition of all social cooperation ir; 
any union to a common end. The compromise, involved in any platform 
of principles, tolerates essential differences in important matters, but 
matters not important then in view of what is to be gained in the main. 
The advantages of an organized religious life are too plain to beignor<u . 
it is reasonable to go to the very verge iu order to get the benefits 
them, both for a man's self and for his efficiency in society, just as it to 
to unite with a general party in the State and serve it in local primal 
for the ends of citizenship. Such means of help and opportuniti 
accomplishment arc not to be lightly neglected. Happy is he wrh 
christened at the font, naturally accepts the duties devolved upon I : • 
and stands in his parents 1 place; and fortuuatc I. count the youth wl • 
without stress or trouble, undertakes in his turn his father's part." ' 
the ideal life, it is here written : "To bring down to earth the vi 
that floats in the soul's eyes, incorporating it in being and in dec<l. II 1 
to make it prevail so far as we have power in the world of our lh 


Book Notices. 


the task 6et before us. To lead this life is to be one -with man through 
love, one with the universe through knowledge, and one with God 
through the will; toward that life we strive, in the glory and the reward 
of it we do believe." 

Catalogue of the Greek Manuscripts on Mount Athos. By Splridox P. Lambros, 
professor of History in the University of Athens. Vol. I, pp. viii, 438; vol. II, pp. 
vii, 507. Imperial Svo, paper. Cambridge: University Press. New York: Mac- 
Htlllan Company, 1895 and 1990. Price, $6.50 net per volume. , 

The literary world has, it would seem, but just begun its real work. 
Creators t^ere have been, or poets as we call them, and the primordial 
ituff of which letters are made; but the tools have hitherto been exceed- 
ing crude, and in many fields almost entirely wanting. Even in the 
realm of biblical literary criticism our own generation has been the first 
to be furnished with the most primary facilities for forming any accurate 
judgments, and the wisest among us are yet loath to call the vaunted 
findings of this latest age in any sense final. In human history, which is 
the enthusiasm of the hour, it can hardly be claimed that the founda- 
tions are as yet solidly laid; much less in any other history. But there 
is eager pursuing and honest inquiring, and the morrow will surely bring 
us the true light. Dr. Spiridon P. Lambros, the versatile professor of 
history in the University of Athens, whose "Notes from Athens" have 
been such a welcome and readable feature of the Athenaeum, has spent 
his vacation days for several summers in cataloguing the contents of the 
libraries of Mount Athos. The two stout volumes, aggregating more 
than a thousand pages and describing more or less briefly between six 
and seven thousand maruscript codices, and printed altogether in the 
clear, chaste Greek type of the Cambridge people, is one of his contribu- 
tions toward a knowledge of the sources of early Christian literature. 
To put $13 net into the mere catalogue of these musty mediaeval volumes 
of itself creates a certain sort of respect for the volumes tabulated. But 
when one recalls what Athos has been ever since the days of John 
Chrysostom and Athanasius, and what even the present decayed state of 
its nine hundred and fifty-three churches and twenty great monasteries 
has to hand over to us, his reverence rises in true appreciation of the 
local tradition that here was none other than the Holy Mount of God. 
Ages before Macedonia sent her delegate to Troas for the help of Chris- 
tian Paul she had thrown out into the JSgean Sea a triple peninsula like 
the first three fingers of a man's hand. The most eastern, since Xerxes* 
experiment at canal digging, almost an island, ends abruptly in a coni- 
cal peak of some six thousand feet, commanding Asia Minor, Greece, 



Methodist Review. 


dren unto the end of the ages. Here are psalters, gospel lectionaries, and 
liturgies of the earliest postapostolic times. Lines of the saints and 
their prayer books, eulogies, memorials, feast books, fast books, and 
apocryphal writings. Here are parchment copies of a geography of 
Ptolemy of the tenth century, and another of Strabo almost as old, the 
Botany of Dioscorides, a medical treatise of iEtius, physician of Jus- 
tinian, and alj. full of elaborately illuminated characters and wondrously 
executed miniatures. But among the literary discoveries of recent time3 
and the peculiar triumph of the industry of Professor Lambros was the 
finding and collating of the Greek copy of the Shepherd of Hennas in 
the small and select library of the monastery of Gregory. This alone 
was well worth all the caretaking of the holy priests for nearly two mil- 
leniums of years and all the pains and toil of the rescuers of modern 
days, for here, together with the three leaves, stolen a few decades back 
by the unspeakable Simonides, was the priceless work of a Christian 
writer of the second century, almost wholly restored in its original 
form. And this is only one of seven thousand manuscripts, as already 
said, including almost endless contributions of Chrysostom and Athan- 
asius, Basil and the Byzantine school, of saints in sackcloth and sinners 
in sheepskin, even unto our own times. This Catalogue is our first real 
concordance to the writings of the Fathers of Mount Athos — which is 
the Sinai of New Testament literature. 


The Life and Literature of the Ancient ITcbreirs. By Lyman Abbott. Crown 
8vo, pp. 408. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Price, cloth, $2. 

Everything that is written by the chief editor of T?ic Outlook is 
stamped with the distinction of a most characteristic style and pre- 
sented with a manner as attractive as it is unusual. In every respect 
this new book is worthy of its predecessors from the same fertile brain 
and skillful hand. The aim of the book is perhaps stated better in 
the following words from the preface than anywhere else in the 
volume: "What will the new criticism do with the Bible? is a 
fair question to ask, and the time has come to give it at least a partial 
answer. The believer in the new criticism replies that it lias already 
brought back into the Bible some books which had almost dropped out 
of it, such as the Song of Songs, Ecclesiastcs, and Job; that it baa 
relieved from some ethical difficulties some other books, such as Joshua 
and Leviticus: that it has made credible as fiction some passages which 
had been incredible as history, such as the legend of the Fall and the 
satire of Jonah; that it has made practically applicable to our own time 
other portions of the Bible, such as the civil laws contained in Exodus 
and Deuteronomy; 'that it has given a new and deeper spiritual Bignlfi* 
cauce to still other portions, as to some of the Psalms and to the hitter 
half of the Book of Isaiah. The end is not yet ; but enough haa beet 

Book Notices, 


accomplished to satisfy the believer in the new criticism that its effect 
will be to destroy that faith in the letter which killcth, and to promote 
that faith in the spirit which maketh alive; to lead the Christian to see 
ju the Bible a means for the development of faith in the God of the 
lible, not an object which faith may accept in lieu of God's living 
presence ; to regard the Bible, not as a book of philosophy about religion, 
but as a book of religious experiences, the more inspiring to the religious 
life of man l^ecause frankly recognized as a book simply, naively, divinely 
human." The whole volume maybe regarded as a commentary, explan- 
atory and illustrative, of the thesis presented in these words. As an 
cxj>osition of the method and the results of one form of higher criticism 
the book has distinct popular value. It does not conceal the fact that 
tven the most moderate, the most conservative, of the higher critics 
advocates a view of the sacred Scriptures which differs materially from 
the view which our fathers held. It does not seek to blur or conceal 
the difficulties thus caused, but meets them openly and frankly. This 
is w ise and it is well. If the Church is to be asked to accept a new 
view of its sacred books it ought to be told just what this new view 
involves. Dr. Abbott himself is a moderate exponent of the higher 
criticism, his tendency is usually toward the conservative and not toward 
the radical view. Witness this paragraph, for example : "The Egyptian 
monuments contain many pictorial representations which serve to illus- 
trate the Old Testament account of the Ex6dus. They are not demon- 
strations of its accuracy, but they are at least indications that it is not 
inaccurate. It is not within the province of this article to attempt to 
reproduce in any detail the arguments from the monuments; it must 
Aumcc to say that I believe there never has been found in Egypt any 
figure, symbol, picture, or monument which tends to throw doubt upon 
the narrative in the Book of Exodus, or to indicate that the story, even 
in its minutest details, is inaccurate, while there are many indications 
fll the accuracy of the incidental allusions to Egyptian sites or Egyptian 
Cttatoras which the narrative contains." This is conservative indeed 
When one thinks of Cheyne and Stade and Winckler, and even of Guthe. 
I 1 is followed by a still more conservative statement concerning the 
bearing of geographical exploration upon the narrative of the Exodus — 
* remarkable paragraph which concludes thus, "Similar considerations 
to those which Professor Schliemann's explorations have furnished in 
,u Pl»ort of a historical basis for the Iliad constitute a much stronger 
ar tfumcnt for the substantial historicity of the story of the Exodus and 
^"•encampment in the wilderness." That is an exceedingly consorva- 
statement, and would satisfy perhaps the man in the street who had 
" V(, r heard of higher criticism at all. This same spirit is frequently 
■^tested in the spirited defense even of the legal portions of the Old 
"toincnt, of which the following may serve to illustrate our point: 
•jr. Hobcrt Ingcrsoll has spoken of the cruel code of Moses, under 
" ( >i hundreds of crimes were punished with death. In poiut of fact, 


MetJwdist Review. 


only twelve crimes were punished with death under this code, whereas, 
as late as A. D. 1600, two hundred and sixty-three were punished with 
death in England." It would be easy to prove this conservative tendency 
from passages almost without number, but there is no need to labor the 
point. If, however, we look closely into the book we shall find that 
though so conservative in the main, its views concerning other questions 
of the higher criticism are much more advanced. It is indeed scarcely 
^ consistent all the way through, for the advanced view is accepted in 
one matter and rejected in another, though the arguments in favor of 
them are much the same in both instances. Dr. Abbott is not a special- 
ist, in the technical sense, in the higher criticism of the Old Testament, 
and makes no pretense to that distinction. He has missed the message 
of higher criticism, as we believe, in some of the places in which he is 
so markedly conservative, and by reason of that very fact has made a 
more readable and useful book, paradoxical as the statement may seem. 
But, however inconsistent he may or may not be, in the handling of tin se 
questions of literature and history, he is, so far as we are able to judge, 
absolutely consistent in his view of, and application of, Evolution to the 
development of Israel's faith and practice. In this field he is a recog- 
nized master, and the book shows his easy control of theory and fact all 
the way through, as he expounds the development theory. Though not 
ready to accept his view of the development of Israel's religion, we are 
glad to have it thus stated in words so winning. Altogether it is r. 
delightful book. We have read every w-ord of it with admiration, eve;; 
when dissent from its views completely possessed us, and we take leave 
of it, regretting that wc have no space in which to quote some specimens 
of its characterizations of biblical passages, even of those with which wc 
do not agree. Let us give only one, with the hint to the reader thai 
there are scores of others equally as spirited and brilliant: "Did thf 
Great Unknown, looking through the centuries, get a glimpse of Cal« 
vary, of the blood-stained face and the thorn-crowned brow, or did ho 
only learn from the anguish of the past that all victory comes thr- . 
battle and all salvation through suffering? Did he only sec the grcal 
generic truth, which too many men have failed to see, even though it 
focused and centralized in the Passion of Jesus the Christ ? I do DOt 
know; only this I know: that nowhere, not even by Paul, is that truth 
more splendidly illustrated in literature than in this fifty-third chaptei 
of Isaiah, and nowhere has it such divine illustration in history Sfl w 
the suffering and death of Jesus of Nazareth." There is nothing I 
in the book than the passages relating to the prophets, on pag< 
310, and especially pages 350 and 351. 

Verbcck of Japan: A Citizen of Wo Country. A Ufa BtOTJ Ol 1 v. 

Inaugurated by Guldo Frldolln Verbeek. By William Elliot Ortffls. Nen Y«*l 
Chicago, Toronto: The Fleming H. Bevell Company. ISmo, pp 

The outline facts concerning this work are the follow ing : 1. 1' W ; 

biography of a Christian missionary who, in the yeai ' l 


Booh Notices. 


auspices of the Board of Missions of the Reformed Church in America, 
went to Japan, lived and labored there for almost forty years, aud there 
died and was buried. 2. The ground of the author's interest in this 
life record, and his special qualification to write it are made clear in the 
preface, in a succeeding chapter (chap, xi), and for that matter through- 
out the entire work. In the preface, he says: "I knew Yerbeck, of 
Japan, during four years of intimacy in the Mikado's empire. Thrice 
visiting^his birthplace, Zeist, in Holland, I learned many facts about 
bis early life and his unconscious preparation for wonderful work in the 
far East. I have had access to the file of his letters from 18G0 to 1898, 
written home to the secretaries of the Board of Missions of the Reformed 
Church in America, and to many of those sent to his own relatives, as 
well as to his own diaries, notebooks, and to other documents lent me 
by his daughter." 3. The book consists of seventeen chapters. The 
first chapter, entitled "A Glance in Perspective," serves the purpose of 
the last chapter in old-time biographies, being very largely a general 
statement of the conclusions reached by the author as the result of his 
study of Yerbeck's character and service. The succeeding chapters trace 
simply, directly, reverently the steps of this good man from the begin- 
ning to the end when, "weary with the march of life," he entered 
into rest. Guido Fridolin Yerbeck was born in Zeist, Holland, in the 
house called " The Koppel," on January 23, 1830. His parents being 
devout people, he was carefully and religiously trained. When the 
question of his life work came up it was decided that he should learn 
engineering, a new and increased demand for mechanical skill being 
indicated by the appearance of the railroad. To find larger opportunity 
in this his field, he came to America in his twenty-third year, settled 
first in Wisconsin, then briefly in Brooklyn, New York, and finally in 
Arkansas. In the last place he met with a severe illness, which became 
"a turning point in Guido Yerbeck's career," for he promised God if 
restored to health to devote his life to missionary work. He was 
restored, and soon the opportunity came to fulfill his promise, sufficient 
time being given him previously to prepare himself at Auburn Thclogical 
Seminar)', so that on May 7, 1859, he sailed from New York, landing at 
Nagasaki November 7. Primarily aud chiefly as a teacher, but also 
M a preacher, and latterly as a statesman, lecturer, and translator of 
l he Bible, Yerbeck labored in Japan unceasingly (except for occasional 
visita to America and Europe, during and subsequent to 1873) until 
nearly the close of the nineties. The date of his death is March 10, 1808. 
A closer survey of this work shows that the peculiar interest and value 
*hich attach to Yerbeck's life story are to be attributed to two facts: 
Br *t| the mission field in which he was called to labor ; second and DSpC- 
Nslly, the truly extraordinary service which he rendered. As to the 
,,rst , it is sufficient to say that nothing in the record of modern missions 
'passes (he story of the Japanese Renaissance and Christ iani/at ion of 
past half century. The very fact, therefore, that the rcvie* of Vcr- 


Meth odist He v iew. 


beck's life must in the nature of the case involve a review of this 
remarkable period of transformation will be seen at once to give im- 
portance to the book. But it is the part which Verbeck himself per- 
formed in bringing about this very transformation, it is the relation 
which he directly sustained to the religious, educational, and political 
development of Japan wherein the interest and value of his life story 
mainly lie. It is the fact that this sketch of his life helps " in solving 
-the fascinating riddle of Japan's wonderful progress," the fact that 
Verbeck was "the greatest, under God, of the makers of the new Chris- 
tian nation that is coming and even now is." The following are the 
steps taken in reaching the distinguished and unique position which he 
came to occupy. Because of his success as a teacher of the Bible in the 
case of two young men whom he met soon after reaching Japan, the 
governor of Nagasaki secured from the Shogun's government the right 
to establish a school there, with Verbeck as principal. To this school 
came among others the sons of court nobles from adjacent provinces and 
soon from all over the empire. The influence exerted and the skill 
exhibited here prepared the way for his call to Tokyo alter the revolu- 
tion of 1868 to establish the Imperial University, of which he became the 
head. Verbeck now found himself face to face with a triple task, for. 
in addition to that of the missionary and the educator, he was called 
upon to do the work of the statesman as well. He was frequently clos- 
eted with the highest officials of the newly-established empire, discuss- 
ing questions of state, and once he received in audience even the em- 
peror himself. In helping to establish Japan's relations to the other 
nations of the world on a sound basis of international law, to remove 
the ban from the Christian religion, and to lay the foundations of a great 
state, Verbeck rendered conspicuous and exceptional service. u As an 
appropriate conclusion to his long services to the government, the em- 
peror of Japan bestowed upon hiin the decoration of the third class of 
the Order of the Bisiug Sun," and at his death his majesty also for- 
warded to his daughter 500 yen to defray the funeral expenses. " It 
city government of Tokyo sent (his) family a perpetual lease to the little 
plot in which he lies buried," and the grateful people, for whom he livi 
and labored erected a monument to his memory. It scarcely Deed I 1 
said that Dr. Griffis, who is well known as a master in matters Jap ai 
and as a practical writer, has done his work in a manner worthy of hi- 
subject and of himself. 

The Illustrated History of Methodism. By Jamks W. In . D.D., Kaphtaii 
Luccock, ]).]>., andjAmss Maxx Dixon, MJL Royal sro, pp. 760. Bt I 
and New York: The Methodist Magazine Publishing Company. Prioe, eW> 


"Popular" is the fittest word to characterize thii history. I* 
written in a popular style; it is profusely, almost extravagantly, HI 11 *' 
trated, containing over one thousand portraita oi pertOOl and vifWl 
places identified with the rfM and development of llfthodlUB \ MW 


Booh Notices. 


obviously addresses and seeks to attract the people. It aims to give the 
itorj of Methodism a cosmopolitan outlook, explaining the forces which 
made John Wesley what he was, the conditions at work in eighteenth 
century Oxford, the part which the Moravians played in infusing piet- 
[<m into English devotionalism, the need of a new organization to meet 
the wants of modern commercial England, the failure of the old parish 
tuethods to supply the great American field. It is not the history of 
»oy one branch of Methodism but of all : of Methodism in England, in 
the United States, and in Canada, all of which are fully and fairly and 
interestingly presented; of Methodism also in heathen lands and in all 
the ends of the earth. The Bible Christians, the Free Methodists, the 
primitive Methodists, the Methodist New Connection, and the Protestant 
Methodists are not overlooked. The products of Methodism now found 
in other communions are also noticed. The book takes a wide sweep 
tad impresses the reader with the vastness as well as the power of that 
[ hty spiritual movement which began under the Wesleys and is still 
•preading holiness over the earth. That it should seem to all people of 
differing sections, affiliations, and points of view, to be absolutely im- 
partial in its handling of critical periods of history, would be too much 
U> expect ; but in its spirit and aim we find nothing to criticize but 
< rerything to commend. That so large a volume, surveying so great a 
field, condensing from all written records of a body so wide-branched 
Methodism, and including the environment and far-reaching effects 
thereof, should be without some mistakes as to persons, institutions, and 
rants, is hardly to be looked for in a first edition. What slight errors 
Acre are will doubtless be rectified in the next edition, which, we 
Judge, is likely to be called for by the demand. Headers will be sur- 
| rised at the wealth of illustration, and young people especially will find 
- light in its pages; most, if not all, of them will learn more about 

• great fellowship to which they belong than they ever knew before. 
"»ey will wonder at its heroic, fervent, and successful work, and rejoice 
t^at to them is given the wonderful privilege and duty of carrying 
"•*•'* v- ork forward with undiminished ardor and force into the new cen- 
: - r y. The history, with the accompanying portraits, beginning with 
origin of Methodism, follows the progress of it down to the present 

V; in our own Methodist Episcopal Church, for instance, it extends 
a i»d includes the General Conference of 1900. A great portrait gal- 

r .\ this big book is, showing the faces of the representative personnel 

* &U the Methodisms, north, south, cast, and w est, in this and in other 
•*Ms. And, considering its size and cost and the number of its pic- 
• >t is sold at a surprisingly low price, bound in various styles The 
' r <" the history and spread of Methodism arc studied the more mnrvcl- 

** and divine they appear. The members of the Epworth League, 
^t splendid army which has just poured its chosen representatives to- 
l r 'wr into the great International Convention at Sin Fiancisro, can fad 
u{ 7 of fuel to feed the fires of their enthusiasm in the glowing and 


Mctlwdist Review. 


supernatural pages of Christian history which God has designated and 
commissioned the Methodist Church to write. 


A History of tlie Textual Criticism of the New Testament. By Professor Mak- 

vin R. Vincent, D.D., of Union Theological Seminary. 8vo, pp. xii.lSo. New 
York: The Macmillan Company. Price, cloth, 75 cents. 

This book is the first which appeared in the series of New Testamt 
handbooks under the editorship of Professor Shailer Matthews, of Chi • 
cago, and designed to present briefly and intelligibly the results of the 
scientific study of the New Testament. Dr. Vincent's work is distinct- 
ively a handbook, concise, scientific, dispassionate, and up to date. It ii 
divided into two parts; the first upon the Nature and Sources of Textual 
Criticism being but introductory to the chief theme of the book which 
is the history of New Testament criticism. Under part two, a hrkf 
chapter suffices for the discussion of the textual criticism of the 
Church, and the author soon arrives at the printed texts of the sixtei oth 
century, when the real science first develops. Then follow the tl - 
periods under which he treats the subject. The first, from 161G to 
1770, revolves about the formation and influence of the Textus Receptus, 
though it culminates in a real critical spirit and a movement toward the 
so-called genealogical method, which has since become so dominant 
The second period,extending from 1770 to 1830, is called the period « I 
transition from the Textus Receptus to the Older Mu cialText, and fin Is 
its chief exponent in Griesbach and his school, who formulated much 
the real science of textual criticism. The last period, ending v ' 
the Revised English Version of 1881, has produced the great worker* 
as well as the great works on which textual criticism rests tor.; 
Lachmanu, Teschendorf, Tregelles, Scrivener, and Westcott, and Hoit, 
together with the great texts associated with their respective nai ■ 
are the acknowledged masters and masterpieces here passed in Em] 
tial review. The last chapter is devoted to the more recent dicussi< i 
relative to the text of Codex Bezac, and "Weiss, Blass, and Salmon arc hn 
in the matter. A brief bibliography and an index add greatly to * 
value of the work. 

When the Worst Comes to the Worst. By W. ROBKRTSOS NlCOLL, LL.D 
of Literary Anecdotes of the Nineteenth Century, etc. 16010, pp. M. Ke» 
Dodd, Mead & Co. Price, cloth, 50 cents. 

A well-written little volume intcuded to comfort, and help tl. 
are in despair because they feel that the worst has happened to I 
the hurts and calamities of their lives. It aims to Mflj I 
solations of religion to the broken hearts of the sorely • '" 
some of that forlorn and desolate company who think life no! worth 

ing these earnest and gentle pages may bring soothing and I 

Methodist Review. 

NOVEMBER, 1901. 

Unless we are mistaken in our interpretation of the signs 
of the times, the twentieth century, npon which we have just 
entered, is to witness a gigantic conflict of spirits. Faith and 
unbelief, says Goethe, is the deepest theme of the history of 
the world. This it has been in the centuries that lie behind 
us. This it was in that one which we have just closed and 
abandoned to the past. And this it will be above all things 
else and iu an entirely special sense in the twentieth century, 
which has just disclosed itself to us. Eor the conflict of con- 
victions and intentions has spread itself across an ever-widen- 
ing domain, and has assumed an even more radical character. 
It is well known that at present this conflict is no longer con- 
fined to one or another article of our Christian confession, to 
the authority of Scripture or tradition, to justification or elec- 
tion; and not even any longer to the Deity of Christ or the 
personality of the Holy Spirit. But in the spiritual conflict 
which is now waging in every part of the civilized world, the 
joints at issue more and more are the principles of Christian- 
ity itself, and the very fundamentals of all religion and of all 
morality. This conflict extends the whole length of the line. 
More serious and fiercer than ever before the conflict is be- 
tween the old and the new world-view. For man has under- 
token the gigantic effort of interpreting the whole world, and 
*N things that are therein, in their origin, essence, and end, 
•hat is called purely and strictly scientifically, that is, without 
^od, without any invisible, supernatural, spiritual element, 
simply and alone from the pure data of matter and force. 

•Translated from the Dutch by the Rev. J. Hendrlk de Vries, M.A., Pastor Ol the 
Preshyierian Church, Princeton, N. J., and translator of Dr. Kuyper*8 /"»- 
'■i""<iia of Sacred Theology, and several other writings. 


Methodist Review. 


Such effort, indeed, Las been tried before. But then the 
men who undertook to do it stood isolated, and wielded only 
a limited influence in their own circles. Ordinarily also they 
succeeded no further than a few crude outlines of world- 
interpretation, but failed of furnishing the data from which * 
work them out and to apply them to the divisions and sub- 
divisions of what exists. The systems which they offered did 
not agree ; lame parts were soon discovered in them ; they 
allowed too much room for accident. Even such a thinker .a- 
Spinoza was not able to establish other than a mathematical 
relation between the substance and its attributes and modes, 
and left the origin of the world altogether unexplained. But, 
it is said, all this is now entirely changed. Hegel's pantheism 
has furnished the idea of the absolute, eternal process of 
coming. The materialism of Feuerbach has applied this idea 
to the world of matter and force as the only existing one. 
And in the struggle for existence, in the natural and sexual 
choice of propagation, in the inheritance of the acquired 
properties, and in the accommodation to surroundings. Dar- 
win's theory of development has provided the necess 
means to make this process of the eternal becoming intel- 
ligible in the material world. Thus with the change of * 
century there has gradually a new world- view arisen which 
undertakes to interpret not merely the inanimate but also the 
animate creations, not merely the unconscious but also the 
conscious, and all this without exception independently i : 
God, and only and alone from an immanent self-development. 

As a matter of course the followers of this doctrine i 
velopment do not all go equally far in the application. There 
are many who shrink from the inferences, who halt at I 
given point, and who in imitation of Kant abandon a less* 
or greater domain to mystery. These are the agnosti . ' 
dualists, who say, "We do not know," and also u We 
never know," and who take it for granted that the 
which is accessible to science is surrounded by an u 
land of the impenetrable mystery of the unknowable. v < 
they limit the real, the strictly scientific knowing to the W 
of the sensually observable, and of the measurable and pond 
able things, thev seek to maintain round about till* v 


Creation or Development. 


inaccessible domain which can be peopled by each individual 
with the representations of his faith or the creations of his 
imagination. Despairing of an all-embracing and all-inclusive 
world- view they leave faith and knowledge divided and irrec- 
oneiled, and they keep two sets of books of truths. 

But it is readily perceived that this standpoint is untenable. 
All conservatism stands weak over against radicalism, with 
which it agrees in principle. He who fully accepts the theory 
of development in the sensual, observable world cannot dis- 
miss it at once and without explanation when spiritual phe- 
nomena appear. Even though provisionally a small domain is 
then set aside for faith, this domain is bound to become ever 
smaller; even as it was with the domain of the redskins in 
America, as they were forced to recede from before the invad- 
ing whites. One fortification after another must then be sacri- 
ficed, one line of defense after another be abandoned, and one 
concession after another be granted. There is no immovable 
conviction in these conservative dualists, no strength of faith, 
no enthusiastic courage. And hence they are ever bound to 
lower the flag before the radicals, who have the courage of 
their convictions, who shrink from no inferences, and who, 
beginning and continuing without God, are determined also 
to end without God. Hence these are the men of the future. 
Conservatives and liberals die out, but the radicals and social- 
ists are to be the leaders in the twentieth century. They 
have agreed to hold a total and final clearing out of whatever 
of the old Christian world-view consciously or unconsciously 
etill remains in our laws and morals, in our education and 
civilization. For they realize that in the long run man, who 
thirsts after unity, cannot live by the duality and amphibions- 
'iees of believing and knowing. They feel the urgency of the 
need of harmony between all our convictions, tendencies, and 
deeds. And therefore they exert themselves all the more 
strenuously by philosophic thought to erect upon the founda- 
tion of the materialistic natural science a well-finished and 
Wmonious world-view which will put an end to the imperfect 
knowledge as well as to the foolish faith of former day* and 
^ee all things to appear before the soul's eye in the magical 
%ht of a world-embracing system. 


Methodist Review. 


Thus presently over against the old world-view there will be 
placed the new world-view thought out to its latest instance 
and consequently applied to every department of life, namely, 
the irreligious over against the Christian, the atheistic over 
against the tbeistic, the mechanical over against the organic, 
or as it has been named, the world-view of development over 
against that of creation. It is our purpose to compare these 
two world-views at three points, as the questions are put after 
the origin, essence, and end of all things, in order that the 
comparison may establish us the more firmly in the Christian 
faith and may gird us with strength for the conflict which, in 
lesser or greater measures of fierceness, awaits us all. 


There are many, many things whose knowledge is of little 
consequence to man. ]So slightest value attaches to the 
knowledge of how many drops of water there are in the ocean, 
how many grains of sand lie on the shore of the sea, how 
many leaves there are on everv tree, or how many hairs there 
are on our heads. There are those who busy themselves witli 
these things and seek pleasure in curiosities. Even science 
is sometimes in danger in our times of losing itself in all sorts 
of detail-investigation, and by reason of the numerous trees to 
lose sight of the forest. Literature, for instance, is often bent 
upon tracing out the smallest particulars from the lives of the 
poets and especially to exhibit their clwonique scandalevsc in 
broadest folds, without adding thereby the least help to a 
better knowledge and a broader appreciation of their art 
products. But science is not aided by all this. For science 
is no knowledge of all sorts of insignificant minutiae, hut an 
insight into the essence of things, and an understanding oi 
the idea, the logic, and the universal which is to be observe 
in things. 

But even then, on scientific ground there i.^ a gfl 
difference in the value of knowledge. There is knowledge 
which is of highest importance to the school which tend* 
to the development of the head, but which is altogctli 
apart from the interests of the heart, and has therefore DO 
significance for life. The saying <>f Schopenhauer contain* 1 


Creation: or Development. 


irreat truth ; namely, You do uot cease from praising the 
reliability and accuracy of mathematics; but what does it 
avail me to know with utmost certainty the thing which does 
not concern me? Thomas Aquino has truly said that the 
least that can be known of highest interests is more desirable 
and of greater value than the completest and most accurate 
knowledge of futile and indifferent things. 

There is a knowledge which is of highest interest and 
I urgent necessity to every man, without distinction. These 
are questions of life, whose answer each man requires because 
it stands in closest connection with the temporal and eternal 
well-being. Whatever is said, all people are conscious of it 
in turn that the life of a man is no play, but an awful reality, 
whose seriousness creates concern, since nothing less than an 
eternity hangs on it. Each man is convinced of this in the 
deepest parts of his soul, and shows it by seeking, even though 
in wrong ways, after a highest, enduring, and eternal good. 
Our heart is created for God, and it does not rest until it 
finds this at his Father heart. Hence we should know whence 
we come, what the source and origin of all things is, whether 
the last ground of all existing things is matter or spirit, force 
or person, unconscious impulse, or the almighty will of God, 
the Creator of heaven and earth. 

The development theory of our times meets this question 
with the answer that in reality there is no origin and no begin- 
ning of things. All what is always was, though it be in other 
forms, and always shall be. The law of substance, that is, the 
theory the ever equal quantity, of the indestructibility of mat- 
ter and force, especially since the famous treatise by Ilelmholtz 
on Die Erhaltung der Kraft, published in 1847, is according 
to naturalists irrefutably demonstrated and established beyond 
all doubt. This is the great discovery of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Said Professor Haga at Groningcn last year, in his roc- 
toral oration on the development of natural science, "A parti- 
cle of water can be traced from the moment it falls on the tope 
of the mountains as a snowllake, and as glacier-ico requires 
years to be pushed ahead, until it melts and in the brook is 
carried along to river and sea, where once more it evaporate? 
R nd becomes fluid in the atmosphere as part o'f ■ cloud." 


Methodist jReview. 


This is taught of matter. But this same law is valid with 
reference to the power which can be moved and changed but 
never reduced or increased in quantity. The railway train, 
said the same professor, which has suddenly the brakes put 
on loses its capacity of motion, but the heat developed in 
the skid, wheels, and rails represents an equally great quantity 
of capacity of work. 

From this important law many present-day naturalists infer 
that substance is eternal. There is no origination and no 
passing away in any actual sense, no being born and no dying. 
What is was from all eternity and shall be to all eternity. 
There is change of form, of appearance, and endless trans- 
formation ; there is an eternal process, an unbegun and a 
never-ending circular movement of matter and of force. But 
the substance is indestructible ; it is the only, absolute, eternal 
being, which penetrates and fills eternal time and infinite 
space. It is, if you please, the Deity of the newer world - 
view. There is no other god. It has no other properties, no 
higher virtues and perfections, no more exalted names than 
matter and force. And it is no blessed, glorious, and all- 
sufficient beings but a restless becoming, an eternal urgency 
subject to an ever-continuing process of motion. 

From this motion, which is taken as eternally belonging to 
matter and force, the origin of all things is to be interpreted. 
Development, evolution is the eternal law, which governs and 
directs everything that exists; with its blind fate and incalcu- 
lable accident it displaces Divine Providence. The origin of 
our planetary system is explained according to this law. Our 
world in its present form was preceded by thousand others, 
which in turn came into being after this same law and have 
passed away. When the last preceding one had dissolved 
itself into a gaseous mass of mists, from which, accord in 
to a probable esteemed hypothesis of Kant and Laplace, tb€ 
present world lias appeared with its sun, moon, and star>, Mid 
also our earth, gradually by consolidation, rotation, and form 
ing of the globe. But as everywhere else, upon this- < 
also development continues itself by the ceaseless motioi 
matter and force. Along long, immeasurably long line 
regularity the higher develops itself from the lower. Va 


Creation or Development. 


torts of evolutions the earth forms itself into a fit dwelling 
j.lace for living beings. First there is the inanimate, the 
formation of seas and lands, of mountains and streams, of 
minerals and layers of earth. Then matter organizes itself 
ever along finer lines and the operations of force become ever 
more intricate, until at length under favorable circumstances 
from inorganic matter the cell originates, which is the bearer 
of life. And when it is once come, then in the course of 
centuries there develop themselves the kingdoms of plants and 
animals, in ever higher formation, richer variety, and greater 
numbers. There is no deep, broad chasm between the ani- 
mate and the inanimate, but a gradual transition. There is 
only a more intricate construction, finer organization, a higher 
iievelopment. Along the same way at length man arrives 
upon the scene. He also is not brought forth by the hand of 
the Creator, bearing his image ; but he is the higher develop- 
ment of that species of animals, whose next of kin still 
continue to live on in the orang-outang, gorilla, and chimpan- 
zee. In the fierce struggle for existence some animals, by 
acquiring and inheriting ever more excellent properties, have 
gradually developed themselves in one or other part of the 
earth into men. There has not been a first man. Xo one 
is able to indicate where the animal ceases and man begins. 
There is a slow, gradual development spreading itself across 
many centuries ; by the smallest possible changes in the 
largest possible spaces of time from the lower all the higher 
has come forth ; aud man himself is the result of a process 
covering many millions of years. 

This is the new and newest interpretation of the origin 
°f things. There is something imposing, something which 
takes hold of one mightily in this view. There is contained 
IU it unity of thought, boldness of conception, and sequence 
w principle. It is readily understood that it charms many. 
*e«, when one does not believe in revelation which furnishes 
mother interpretation of all creatures, one is bound in a similar 
to render the origin of things in some measure intelligible 
to himself. They must have come from somewhere rod Lave 
° r i,qi!iated in some way. The theory may still be incomplete 
a,, d leave many phenomena in the physical and psychical world 


Methodist Review. 


unexplained, nevertheless, according to Straus, Darwin is hailed 
as the greatest benefactor of the human race, because he lias 
opened the door through which a more fortunate posterity 
be able to cast out the miracle for good. An age which denies 
the supernatural and even shakes off all religion, cannot do 
other, all opposition notwithstanding, than expect all salvation 
from the reason, its own tlrinking, and to see the eolation 
all the riddles of the world in development. 

But however much this system may seem to be inwardly 
united and however readily we may account for its influence 
and popularity, it is not a product of science, but of the imagi- 
nation ; it is a play of conceptions on the part of the understand- 
ing which thirsts after unity. It is said to be built upon tl 
foundation of empirical physics, aided by logic i^g: hot 

it is a castle in the air, without any solid foundation, and with- 
out any severity of style, an air castle in the true sense of the 
word. "With the laying of the very first stone it abandons em- 
pirics, the reliable results of physics. It is no science in any 
serious sense, no science exacte, as it is claimed to be, but i 
world- view with which the subject plays his parts, a philos 
as uncertain as any system of the philosophers, an individual 
opinion of as much significance as that of every other man. 

That this assertion is correct is shown by the fact that thougb 
this system has been more broadly worked out in this century 
just closed and furnished with data from physics, in principle 
it has been thought out and recommended by philosophers long 
ago. Xeither in former centuries nor in this has materialis:u 
been the result of severe scientific investigation, but the fruit 
of philosophic tliought. Indeed, from the nature of the ca« 
physics can never go back of nature. It stands on the ground 
of nature, assumes its existence, and hence cannot answer the 
question after its origin. As soon as it undertakes to do UW 
it leaves its lines, ceases to be physics and becomes philosophy, 
on an equal standing with the other philosophical systems which 
as grass and the flower of the field may bloom to-day but 
wither to-morrow. Physics may have discovered in this cen- 
tury the law of the conservation of work-caparity, but With 
logical possibility ^an the inference be drawn from tfcil tl > : 
matter and force arc eternal. What exists now bai for ' 

1901.] Creation err Development. 357 

reason not existed always. And what human power is not 
able to destroy is therefore not indestructible. The word 
"eternal'' has no place in the vocabulary of physics, for it 
lias only to do with the finite and the seen tilings and is 
limited to the relative. It steps across its own boundaries 
when it speaks of eternal matter, eternal force, infinite space, 
and time without end. "Whenever it does this it plays with 
words whose meaning it does not understand and whose copu- 
lation is as contradictory as that of a wooden iron and a square 

It is more foolish still when it speaks of eternal motion. 
An eternal motion would also have been run down eternally 
and this be a standstill. For what falls in time is transitory, 
and what is eternal does not fall in time. ]\Iotion assumes a 
moving force, which gives the impetus, which produces and 
maintains it. Greek philosophers were so convinced of this, 
that from the motion of the world they concluded to a first 
mover. It may, indeed, be said that the universe moves 
itself, that it is bperpetwum mobile/ but aside from this being 
a miracle equally great as the creation, it is as little possible 
to think this of the world as a whole as of one of its parts. 
For it is always the same substance, the same matter and 
force which dwells in the whole universe and in each of its 
parts. And motion is not everything. There is no motion 
without direction. What is the force, which not only moves 
but also leads the motion in a given direction ? What is it 
owing to that motion takes such a direction, that it results in 
the formation of sun and planets, of heaven and earth, of min- 
erals and plants, of animals and man in an ascending series ? A n 
appeal to the blind force of substance by way of explanation 
is equally absurd, as when, after the example of Cicero, one 
accounts for a book such as the Iliad from an accidental enst 
of thousands of letters. 

But, apart from all this, what docs physics know of the Bub- 
Stance of things? Because it moves continually in the world 
of things that are seen it asserts that there is nothing else than 
matter and force contained therein. Always dealing with 
matter it disregards and denies spirit. Theology is aocu 
*nd justly so, of having usurped, in early times, all the 


Methodist Review. 


sciences. But no science Las ever done this more entirely 
than physical science of the present day. It claims to be the 
only science and even outstrips English and Russian imperial- 
ism in its ambition for annexation. It declares consecutively 
biology and psychology, theology and philosophy as incorpo- 
rated with itself, it forces its method upon all the sciences, and 
considers the mechanical interpretation the only one that 
is warranted to the claim of being scientific. 

And, after all, it does not know what to do with all the phe- 
nomena which constitute the object of these several sciences. 
She does not know what substance is, and when she claims that 
it is nothing but matter and force, she cannot tell what each of 
these is, nor how they are related. Such a man as Haeckel, who 
shrinks from no riddle, was bound to confess that the inner 
essence of things is unknown. And little as she is able to 
penetrate the essence of matter and force, she is still less able 
to analyze the innermost being of life. Life, all life, is a secret 
which is to be reverenced but not explained. He who analyzes 
it kills it. All tracings and investigations have not lifted a 
corner of the veil which hangs across this mystery of creation. 
By the studies, especially by those of Pasteur at Paris, it has 
been shown that even with the lowest organic beings, namely, 
the inf umrien, life does not originate of itself by mechanical 
changes of matter; there is no generatio cequivoca. Despair- 
ing of a mechanical interpretation, others, such as the English 
naturalist Thomson (Lord Kelvin), sought refuge in the sup- 
position that life-germs had fallen in meteor stones from 
other planets upon this earth and thus had imparted existence 
to organic creatures; and this, as is seen at once, merely puts 
the problem off, while, moreover, it ascribes the origin of living 
creatures in the earth to a pure accident. With Haeckel it 
was held that life needs no interpretation, since it is equally 
eternal as matter and force and motion — which is no better 
than a mere play of words and is equivalent to a confession 01 
weakness. With younger investigators, such as Lunge, Rtttd< 
fleisch, Driesch, Ostwald, Reinkc, Pictct, etc., returns were 
made to the at first disdainfully rejected life-power and along- 
side of a mechanical, an organic, energetical principle wafi 
also adopted in the world-view. OmtU Vtvum ex vivo, ah 


Creation or Development. 


the living comes forth from the living, is still the latest word 
of science. 

Tiiis new world-view involves itself still more in a net of 
contradictions when it handles the question of the origin of 
man. It is indeed stated, as the consistency of the starting 
point claims, that man descended from the animal. But it 
has not been demonstrated by a single phenomena. It 
was known in earlier times that all sorts of relationships 
exist between animal and man, it is taught in the Scriptures, 
and at most has been indicated in our age in several particu- 
lars. With the animals man was created on the sixth day. 
His body also was formed from the dust ; of the earth he is 
earthy. But all the features of relationship give no right to 
the conclusion that man and animal belong to one family and 
that they are blood relations. For greater far than the un- 
deniable points of similarity is the far-reaching difference 
between man and animal indicated by the vertical position, 
formation of hand, skull, and brains, and still more by the 
reason and self-consciousness, by thought and language, by 
religion and morality, by science and art. Moreover, no 
single sample has been produced of the transition forms which 
with a common descent must have existed in great numbers. 
Some finds of human bones and skulls have been hailed 
enthusiastically as remnants of the so ardently longed-for tran- 
sition forms. But a more accurate investigation brought ever 
again the fact to light that all these remnants were original 
with common people, men of like movements with ourselves. 
In spite of all diligent and zealous investigations there is 
nothing in advance this day of the word of Rudolf Virehow, 
that every fossial type of a lower human development is 
wanting. No one has thus far demonstrated where and when 
and how the animals have developed themselves into men. 
As far as we can go back into the past, animals have been 
animals and men men. The descendance theory of Darwin 
•nay be an indispensable link in the doctrine of development ; 
it finds no support in facts. Man always has and still dors 
form a distinct species in the world of creatures. 

For this reason there is still room in MUenee for the won* 
dronslj beautiful narrative which the opening chapters of the 



Methodist Review. 


Bible contain concerning the origin of things. We, too, 
acknowledge a unity which holds and binds together all cre- 
ated things. But we do not take this unity to lie in a cold 
dead substance, but in the living God, the Almighty, Creator 
of heaven and earth. It lies in his consciousness, in his will, 
in his counsel. In the beginning it was not chaotic matter, 
the unconscious force, the impulse devoid of reason, but the 
conscious, spoken and at the same time speaking "Word, which 
called all things into being. The creatures do not owe their 
origin to an emanation from, or to an evolution of the Abso- 
lute, that is, God. For both are contradictory to the concep- 
tion of the Absolute, which is in itself unchangeable, eternal, 
and perfect being, and admits of no emanation or development. 
Creation alone, which harmonizes with the being of God as 
well as with that of the creatures, interprets the origin of 
things. And thus the Scripture states it. In an ascending- 
series, covering a period of six days, by the word of his 
power the Almighty brings all things to appear from the 
unseen world of thought. He spake, and it was done; he 
commanded, and it stood fast. He calleth those things which 
be not as though they were. Heaven and earth, firmament 
and clouds, mountains and streams, sun, moon, and stars, grass 
and herbs, creeping and fourfooted animals. He forms them 
all by the breath of his Spirit from the chaos of being. And 
he crowns his work with the creation of man after his image 
and likeness. Hence everything is of divine descent, allied to 
the Son, animated by the breath of the Spirit; everything is 
resting upon thought and will, upon understanding and coun- 
sel ; and therefore everything mutually allied is one world, 
one cosmos, which receives its crown and glory, its lord and 
master, in Man of God's own family. 

What an insight into the origin of things ! What an ex- 
alted simplicity ! Here is poetry and truth and religion all in 
one. This is both natural science and philosophy. Experience 
and thought, head and heart are here reconciled. Here i> a 
view of the world which satisfies both conscionsno— and COD 
science and responds to all the aspirations of man. From the 
other side, it may be said, better be an ennobled ape than a 
degenerate Adam, or, better be the highest of animals than til 


Creation or Development. 


lowest of gods; but these very sayings betray the pride of 
man, who will be his own creator and in science also fails in 
the temptation of equality with God. They not only reject 
the Word of God, and are therefore devoid of wisdom, but 
they also extinguish the light of reason, saying in their heart, 
"There is no God," and are darkened in their understanding 
and vain in the thoughts of their heart. 


Equally important as the first inquiry into the origin is the 
second, which investigates the essence of things. What is 
the world ? What is humanity and the individual ? What am 
I ? An answer to these questions is also indispensable to the 
unity of our thought and the peace of our heart. 

The newer world-view is at once ready with its answer. It 
asserts, of course, that in reality all creatures are one and the 
same. There is nothing but matter and force, which constitute 
the substance of all things and only changes in endless series 
of forms. There is no God, there are no spirits, there is no 
heaven, there is no world of invisible things, no kingdom of 
eternal goods, no moral world-order. Nothing exists save 
this visible world of measurable and ponderable things, which 
is moved by purely mechanical and chemical forces. In a 
word, the world is a machine, and, as a clock, runs down. It is 
distinguished, however, from a machine made by man, in that 
the latter has been put together by a reasonable will and is 
still governed by it. But the world — wonderful saying — is a 
machine which has construed itself, which continuously holds 
itself in motion, and which, completely blind, without reason 
and purpose, eternally runs on and never down. Hence the 
world is no living, animated organic unity, but an eternal 
existence of one and the 6ame sort, a circular motion devoid 
w purpose, an endless, useless round upon round, monoto- 
nous and wearisome as the wave-beat of the ocean and the 
flying wheels of a factory. 

The organism, the living being, and man also have 
tucir place in this mechanism. For there are no creatures 
who differ from each other in being; there are no special 
which, though allied, are separated from each other in 


Meth odist Jiev lew. 


origin. All living beings are automatons, machines, even as 
inorganic creatures, only more finely construed and more 
artistically constructed. Man also forms no exception. He 
has neither a soul nor liberty, neither responsibility, inde- 
pendence, nor personality. In fact, he does not live, he is 
being lived. There are phenomena peculiar to him which we 
call psychical. But this gives us no warrant to conclude 
that these are altogether his own. For practical reasons they 
are only provisionally distinguished from physical, sensually 
observable phenomena. For in kind and nature they are 
really the same. They are but the finest products of the 
richest developed change of matter. 

Simply because rnau is more finely construed than animals, 
and again because his highest and noblest construction 
is the brain, he produces finer and nobler products than 
other creatures. Hence all the psychical phenomena which 
we find with man find their preparation and analogy with 
plants and animals. Understanding, reason, consciousness, 
will, feeling, passions, tendencies, all occur in an undeveloped 
form with the lower organisms. The difference is in degree, 
not in kind. With man all these phenomena are produced in 
the same mechanical, chemical way. What a man thinks 
and wills and does, he must think, will, and do. Even as bile 
separates itself from the liver, so thought separates itself from 
the brain. The better, the finer, the greater the brain, the 
better, the deeper, the richer the thought. Ohne Phosphor 
hein Gedanke (without phosphorus no thought). In a word, 
as a man eats, so is he. 

This same interpretation is applied to all spiritual and 
moral goods which are common to man. Language, re- 
ligion, morality, art, science, law, history, etc., at its latest 
instance, is all product of change of matter, results of cir- 
cumstances. If animals, says Darwin, were educated M 

' men, they too would be men. Fate or accident alone, which- 
ever you please to call it, lias determined it otherwise. First 
living as beasts, climbing the branches of trees, in communion 
with women, without any sense of right or law, of good ilW 

' evil, compelled by circumstances, in the manner of D088 UlO 
ants and beetles, they have gradually formed oolofltfil A" l 


Creation or Development. 


in those colonies, alongside and over against the animal and 
eelnsh inclinations which are originally common to man social 
instincts have slowly developed, which weighed up against 
the others, and held them in balance, and caused men to live 
not exclusively for themselves but to some extent for others. 
Protected and encouraged by society these social instincts 
have gradually fostered the sense of right and wrong, of good 
and evil, of true and false, and quickened the need of arts 
and sciences. Hence there i3 no moral world-order, no objec- 
tive right, no unchangeable law of morals, no absolute distinc- 
tion of good and bad. It is all the product of circumstances. 
Under other relations the moral law would be entirely differ- 
ent, good would be evil, right wrong, and truth falsehood. 
Even religion has no objective value. It is born from the 
conflict of the feeling of self and the feeling of need. De- 
pendent upon and oftentimes helpless over against nature, and 
bound to maintain himself in a physical or ethical sense, man 
reaches out after invisible powers which he takes to exist 
analogous to his own spiritual life, first in and afterward 
above nature, and by sacrifice and prayer he tries to engage 
their help in the conflict. But there is no religion in the- 
fiense of a service of God, for there is no God. At most, religion 
has a subjective value. Man alone is the standard of things. 

Such is the thought of the newer world-view concerning 
the essence of material and spiritual phenomena. One might 
almost ask, How is it possible ? And in any case, How can 
faith in such a view be claimed in the name of science? For 
it is at once clear that from this view-point there is no differ- 
ence of good and evil, of right and wrong, of truth and false- 
hood. Everything is good and beautiful and true in its time 
and place, according to the individual faith and choice. And 
)'ct the adherents of the newer world-view claim to have the 
truth — the pure, full truth, which chases away the mists, expels 
error, and opens the state of happiness. They think they 
have a world without riddle, without mystery, and with un- 
known boldness they force it upon others. Skeptical aooord- 
,J,1 £ to their principle, they are on the one side hardened 
dogmatists in practice, and oftentimes worse fanatics than the 


Methodist Review. 


adherents of a religious belief. While they do not acknowl- 
edge objective truth, they are more certain of the truth of 
their own teaching than many an orthodox believer. By 
which single fact they pay homage to the validity and the 
value of the old world- view at a radical and decisive point. 
Sin is always doomed in spite of itself to pay homage to 
virtue, and falsehood in whatever garment it hides itself is 
compelled to confess respect for the truth which it antago- 
nizes. "When in the name of science, that is, in the name of 
truth, the defenders of the new world-view demand faith in 
their system, they cannot do otherwise than acknowledge the 
objective, of human opinion, independent difference of truth 
and falsehood, and thus also of good and bad, of right and 
wrong, of the beautiful and the unsightly. 

Yea, more, when with the warmth of conviction, with elo- 
quence of speech, and force of argument they seek to make 
their truth the common good of humanity and thereby contrib- 
ute to the state of future happiness, which is the realm of the 
true, good, and beautiful, the "trinity of monism, 5 ' they mean 
a world of unseen goods which far excels the world of visible 
things and rules and dominates it. By their trying to break 
the compulsion of nature by their serious thinking and strong 
will they show that they themselves are citizens of a higher, 
reasonable, and moral world which is exalted far above the 
mechanical order of nature and differs from it in essence. 
They themselves do not rest content with the physical neces- 
sity, but they honor the independence and the liberty of human 
personality. They furnish the strongest proof that the}' are 
no machines, no animals, but men — men of God's own gener- 
ation, created after his image. 

Indeed, this image never allows itself to be entirely wiped 
out. It operates also in the most deeply sunken and moet 
widely errant man. It bears an indelible character, and 
asserts itself even in the unrest and in the accusation of the 
conscience. Mail can adhere to falsehood, but he never dor- it 
and never can do it save as lie holds it to be truth, and thereby 
pays homage to the truth. He can be the servant of Bin, but 
lie never is nor ever can be, except as he reckons evil to be 
good and so pays his respect to the good, lie can kneel down 


Creation or Development. 


to an idol, but he never does it and he never can do it except 
as he thinks that in the idol he sees the only true and living 
God and confesses awe and fear of the Eternal Being. God 
leaves himself without witness to no man. In each man's 
consciousness and conscience, reason and heart there reveals 
itself a kingdom of eternal and unseen goods, which steps not 
ont of the way of any doubt and shrinks from no bold denial. 
The materialist may gaze himself blind upon the material 
world ; spiritual, ideal goods are also goods, though they cannot 
be weighed or measured, or converted into bank notes. Sin, 
guilt, remorse, repentance, grace, love, comfort, forgiveness, 
etc., are also phenomena which must be interpreted, as well as 
the world of ponderable material and mechanical force. 

The interpretation which the newer world-view offers of 
these spiritual and moral phenomena is really not worthy of 
the name. Confess, can it be called an interpretation when 
personality is robbed of its liberty ; when the objective exist- 
ence of true and false, of good and evil, of right and wrong is 
denied; when religion and morality is dissolved in a fancy? 
We do not dispute the warrant of tracing out as far and deep 
as possible the unmistakable connection and mutual relation 
of the spiritual and material phenomena. But as little as he 
who anatomically and physiologically investigates the brains, 
interprets the thought, or he who anatomically or physio- 
logically investigates the heart, interprets love, just so little 
has he discovered the secret of religion and morality, of art 
and science, who exposes to the light their connection with 
the social conditions of any given period of time. Whoever 
thinks this mocks, indeed, at the needs of the human heart. 
They do as the unmerciful friends in Jesus's parable: when 
We ask them for bread they give us a stone ; when we ask 
them for fish they give us a scorpion, as a proof that the 
mercies of the wicked are still cruel, and he who will feed on 
this bread of science will, according to Isaiah (xxix, 8), be as a 
hungry man who dreameth, and, behold, he eatcth ; but when be 
ftwaketh his soul is empty; or as when a thirsty man dreams 
that he drinks, but when he awakes, behold, he is faint, Mid 
Wi soul hath appetite. 

The development theory, therefore, is unable to interpret 


Methodist Keview. 


the richness and variety of creation. Indeed, the word 
development is not in place at the view-poiut of the me- 
chanical world-interpretation. Evolutionists have unlaw- 
fully appropriated it and use it as a device to hide their 
poverty, and as a nag which does not cover their cargo. But 
development does not stand over against creation, but is 
only possible upon its foundation and belongs to its confes- 
sion. Development produces nothing of itself, it is not the 
mother of being or of life ; it is only a form of motion, which ' 
can only reveal what lies hidden inwardly in the germ. But 
the so-called development theory has no knowledge of germs; 
it knows nothing of disposition or capacity, of fitness and 
susceptibility. In its system there is no room for anything 
save atoms and complexes of atoms, which are altogether 
passive in themselves and are collocated only and alone in a 
mechanical or chemical manner by circumstances from with- 
out. This makes no mention of development in its real sense. 
No one thinks of development with reference to a machine 
whose parts are prepared in a factory piece by piece ami 
afterward put together. Development is given an opportu- 
nity only when by almighty creation existence is given to 
beings who by way of organic growth must become what 
in germ and principle they already are. He who speaks of de- 
velopment refers to thought, plan, law T , end ; he who names 
development names God, who laid the " cidos " in the " hyle," 
the completed organism in the germ, the future in the present, 
and who in the creation had an eye to all times and oppor- 
tunities. So little does development stand over against creation 
that there is scarcely any choice left between creation, with 
the richest development on one side and mechanical combina- 
tion by the accident of a host of similar atoms on the other. 
Development stands between origin and end; under Gods 
providence it leads from the first to the last and unfolds all 
the riches of being and of life to which in creation God gave 

When, therefore, in distinction from materialistic one- 
sidedncss we embrace not merely a few hut all phenomena 
in our world-view, how greatly dors our outlook upon the 
universe change and enlarge itself. For then tn< N v. >rld ,j ri ° 


Creation or Develoj/ment. 


monotonous monism, no mechanical process, no irrational 
machine, but an organic, living whole. It contains not only 
matter and force, but also spirit and consciousness, reason 
and will. Xo merely mechanical and chemical, but also 
spiritual and moral powers operate therein, and not only are 
there dominant in it laws for material nature, but also laws 
for plants and animals, for angels and men, for social and 
political life, for religion and morality, for science and art, 
and for all the realms of the true and good and beautiful. 
The world is a unity, but that unity reveals itself in the rich- 
est and most beautiful variety. From the beginning heaven 
and earth have been distinguished from each other ; sun, 
moon, and stars were given a task of their own : plant and 
animal and man have each their proper nature. Every tiling is 
created b} r God with a nature of its own and exists and lives 
after its own law. And although the creatures are thus dis- 
tinguished, the}' are not separated from each other. Together 
they form one whole, one organism, one art product, of which 
God himself is the artist and the master builder. In him, in 
Ids counsel, in his will all created tilings find their origin and 
maintain their existence. Everything comes forth from him 
and in him every tiling is and moves and has being. He is no 
Deus ex ?nachi?ia, no help in extreme need, whom man in- 
vokes as a last resort to assist in his conflict with the mighty 
forces of nature. But he is the source of all being, the origin 
of all life and light, and the overflowing fountain of all 
^ood, who exhibits his virtues in the world and fills it with 
liis glories. 

Again, the newer world-view has no need of God ; still less 
is its need of Christ. It has no knowledge either of sin or of 
guilt. It needs no Saviour and saves itself. It makes men- 
tion of a development and of a civilization which leaves the 
Heart unchanged and at most puts a check for a time upon the 
"wild animal" in man. But it knows nothing of a regenera- 
tion and renewal by the Holy Ghost, or of a faith that justifies 
the ungodly and that overcomes the world. It is the world- 
view of the heathen who, knowing God, does not glorify him 
^ God, and gives thanks that the truth of God changes into 
•altfcliood, and honors and serves the creature above the Cm- 


Methodist Review. 


ator, to whom be glory forever and ever. It disdains the 
salvation from above and undertakes from the depths to lift 
up self on high; it will have nothing to do with the incarna- 
tion, the becoming of man on the part of God, but replaces it 
by the reaching forth unto deity on the part of man. 

But behold, amid this world of sin and sorrow, of riddles and 
mysteries, there stands before us on the heights of Golgotha, 
the cross of Christ. And at that cross God and the world, 
angels and men, peoples and nations, yea, all creatures take 
each other by the hand and exchange the token of reconcilia- 
tion and of peace. In the cross all the riddles of being and 
of life solve themselves in principle. For thereby has God 
reconciled himself to the world, and triumphed gloriously 
over all principalities and powers. All things are of God, 
they are and remain in God and by God, and from their scat- 
tering they shall once return unto God. Is not this world- 
view more real, more beautiful and richer than that which 
views the whole universe as an accidental play of lifeless 
atoms % 


The third question about the end and aim of things is no 
less important than the other two. What is the end of the 
world? What is the issue of the world's history? Whither 
am I going ? 

At this point the insufficiency and unsatisfactory character 
of the theory of development is especially evident. In a 
word, it knows nothing of an end; it has no mention of a 
plan and of any destiny of things ; there is no room in it- 
system for any history of the world and of man. It is true 
that oftentimes life appears more potent than doctrine and 
practice frequently gains the day over theory. In the writ- 
ings of evolutionists we meet repeatedly with the mention ot 
a purpose. Ilaeckel, for instance, declares that "the con- 
struction of ear, eye, and hand answers the purpose so wonder- 
fully as to induce us to accept the errant hypothesis of • 
"creation after a preconceived plan." But the mention oi 
purpose occurs in these instances either unconsciously or with- 
out ground. The system of the development theory offera n ) 
room for a plan or a purpose. "Nothing is dominant, then, save 


Creation or Development. 


the compulsion of fate or the capriciousness of accident. 
Everything is as it is, without reason and without purpose. 
The theory of evolution furnishes no answer whatever to the 
inquiry to what purpose everything serves. On this question 
it remains silent. 

There is no purpose which the individual man serves. He 
exists, but why and to what end cannot be told. He is, 
remains here for a time, and departs. Then it is done, 
fa farce est jou-ee, death is the end of a pitiful life. Since 
there is neither soul nor spirit, immortality is folly and faith 
in it nothing but egoism, the grave, or better yet, the cremation 
oven, is man's latest dwelling place. 

There is no purpose for humanity. History is no theater of 
liberty, but is dominated just like the physical world, and 
with equal necessity, by mechanical forces and laws. The 
study of history which reckons with the will, with individuals 
and persons, and deems the course of history dependent upon 
these is entirely wrong. And homage is due to the method 
of physics, which views the only and all dominating factor of 
history in society, in the masses, in economical relations, and 
in social conditions, and from this interprets men with their 
thoughts and wishes, their religion and morality, their art 
and science. Irrational, planless, purposeless humanity goe6 
forward to meet its ruin. 

There is no purpose for the earth, the present world as a 
whole. Science teaches that a certain end awaits the whole 
planetary system of which the earth forms a part. Even as 
it once proceeded out of the mass of vapors so it shall once 
return into the same. There are a few who assert that pres- 
ent conditions will continue eternally. But physics disputes 
this point and deems it untenable. Endless duration together 
with an endless progress is inconceivable for the earth as well 
as for man. An end must come. To reckon with millions of 
years, in the past or in the present, is child's play and un- 
worthy of mature minds, and is at best of no greater value than 
the gigantic numbers of Indian mythology. All physicists teach 
that after some millions of years the earth shall come to an 
fix!. However rich in provisions, the earth 18 not Enexhanst* 
'Wo. Coal, wood, peat, minerals, etc., decrease gradually in 


Methodist Review. 


quantity as the human race increases and covers the whole earth. 
For this reason alone the development of humanity cannot be 
taken as endlessly progressing. To this is added that gradu- 
ally a violent disturbance must occur in our whole planetary 
system. The velocity in the earth's revolution is diminished 
according to computation by at least one second every six 
hundred thousand years. This may be ever so little; after 
billions of years it is bound to brins; about a change in the 
relation of day and night which renders life on earth simply 
impossible. The only point of difference among physicists 
is, which of the two will last longest, the sun or the earth. If 
the sun will be first to consume his provision of warmth, the 
earth is bound to face death by congealing. If the earth will 
be the first to be exhausted, it will land in the sun, and finds 
there its ruin. But whether by freezing or by burning, death 
is the end of the world as well as of the individual man aud of 
the entire human race. 

And when in view of this future the defenders of the 
development theory are asked to what purpose all things 
here have existed and lived, they have nothing to say and 
leave us without answer. "When once it shall have come thus 
far, says Yon Hellwald, then the eternal rest of death shall 
dominate over the earth. Robbed of its atmosphere and of its 
living creatures, in eternal moonlike ruin the earth will 
revolve about the sun, as before ; but the human race, its cul- 
ture, its struggles and efforts, its creations and ideals shall 
have been. And with the question "to what purpose" un- 
answered, he closes his history of culture. This is the escha- 
tology, the doctrine of last things in the dogmatics of the 
theory of development. It is evident that no one can live bj 
so sad an expectation. The defenders of evolution often Bay 
that in science the question is not, What brings comfort I bul 
What is true ? And they mock at the first question of the 
Hcidclberger, What is thine only comfort in life and death I 
But in the end even they cannot afford to go without comfort 
in life. And since in the far future everything appears deal 
like and dark to them, they comfort themselves with tin- 
thought that it will take millions of years still before it comea 
about. The books and writings are not actual, said Prof© 



Creation or Development 


Haga in his oration referred to above, in which the earth is 
described as missing all warmth of the sun. and the last 
human pair is pictured as dying in a cold embrace. It were 
childish, indeed, says Henne am Hhyn, to bemoan the fact that 
once everything shall have been, and that- no one shall then 
take notice of us and of our efforts and labors. For there are 
still innumerable centuries before us, and it is worth the pains 
to establish something substantial for our children and our 
children's children. 

As the latest future becomes darker and sadder, the evolu- 
tionists foster a proportionately higher expectation of the 
future near at hand. Man cannot live without hope. The 
individual may perish ; after millions of years the human race 
may burn up or be frozen ; in the near centuries a blessed and 
glorious future awaits us all. The paradise of the past was a 
piece of the imagination, according to the prophets of the 
development theory, in the near future it will be a tangible 
reality. A heaven above the earth is a pious but idle dream, 
but a heaven upon earth is near at hand. The development 
theory is made serviceable to this expectation. Behold, how 
far man has already advanced. He was an animal; he became 
a man ; why should he not also become an angel ? His domin- 
ion over the earth is extended ever more broadly. All the 
forces of nature are becoming subject to him. The riddles of 
creation disappear before his searching gaze. Life is enriched 
and glorified by his inventions and discoveries. Still a little 
while and paradise is instituted in the earth. From the mist 
the day shall break. 

"With glowing colors this future state is drawn by many 
evolutionists. When that day shall have come, says Haeckel, 
the service of the true, good, and beautiful shall be uni- 
versal, and displace the old religion. Modern man shall hare 
no more need of a church building. In free nature, wher- 
ever he looks out upon the boundless universe, he will find 
his church in nature itself. Xordau prophecies that in 
that day humanity shall no longer be an abstraction but a 
reality. Happy shall be the later born generations to whom 
It is apportioned to be bathed in the pure air and oletr 
^mshiue of this future, to live in this fraternity of humanity. 


Methodist Review. 


and to be true, wise, free, and good. And Allard Pierson 
proclaims that, in that future the man who prizes the higher 
civilization shall love woman as his sister, and the woman 
who respects herself shall love man as her brother, and the 
noblest of men shall indeed be children of one and the game 
family. The young man shall company with the young 
woman, and nothing shall divert their mind from the study 
and practice of highest interests; innocence shall have been 

Thus do the defenders of the so-called strictly scientific 
development theory dream dreams and picture pictures. 
They abandon themselves to greater illusions than the 
Chiliasts among Christians, who look for a kingdom of Christ 
in this present dispensation. For what can science know of 
the future? Who assures us that the high culture which the 
nations have attained unto shall endure and not become trod- 
den down underneath threatening revolutions ? Where is the 
culture of the Babylonians and Assyrians, of the Egyptians 
and Persians, even the Greeks and Homans 8 Has nothing 
been heard of the black, yellow, and red danger, of social 
revolutions, which threaten our whole civilization with over- 
throw and ruin ? And what can one build upon a develop- 
ment which in days like the present is made serviceable to the 
strongest, to the triumph of violence, and to the glorification 
of the "Wille zur Macht"? 

Anarchism refuses to practice patience any longer and is 
no more satisfied with the idle promises of a glorious but dis- 
tant future. The men of a faithless science have continually 
reproached the Christians for confronting the comfortless 
with the promise of a blessed life in the hereafter. Now the 
complaint comes back upon their own heads ; it is east it 
their feet by their own spiritual children. What will it benefit 
us, they say, that thousands of years from now our posterity 
will taste of peace and plenty and gladness, while in the 
meantime we and our families must perish of hunger and 
need? The orthodox take out a draft on heaven, the liberals 
on a misty future. Both are equally uncertain. Provide W 
with means this day to live, to eat, and to In- im rrv! At..! 
threats are on the increase, that unless this be wfllinglj 


Creation or Development. 


granted they will obtain the same by violence, with the aid of 
petroleum and dynamite, of revolution and slaughter. No> 
truly, the golden age, so eagerly expected by many, has not 
yet come. Its dawn is not yet seen on the horizon. "Watch- 
man, what of the night ? 

No wonder that the increase is ever larger of such as 
wean themselves of expectation of the future and in gloomy 
despair preach pessimism. It is simple illusion, they say, 
to hope for better times. Socialistic equality is folly. To 
a few only it is given, at the price of the life and happiness 
of thousands, to devote themselves to the beautiful, to live 
in wealth and luxury, and to make use of the right of the 
6trongest. They are the Uebermenschen (the overmen), the 
elect, the only blessed, the gods of the earth. But men 
have been animals and will remain such. Hence what be- 
falls one man befalls humanity. It passes through its periods 
of infancy, youth, and years of maturity. After that it be- 
comes aged, loses its strength, and desires nothing save rest 
and quiet, the rest of death, the silence of the grave, the 
eternal sorrowlessness of the nothing. 

Complete bankruptcy, moral and spiritual, is the end of the 
modern world-view. It confirms the significant word of Paul, 
that he who is without God and without Christ is also without 
hope in the world. We Christians, however, thank God, have 
another hope, and a better founded expectation. We can talk 
of more glorious things since God has revealed them unto us in 
his word. The Holy Bible is a wonderful book. It narrates 
the creation of man after the divine image, and his terrible 
fall in sin and death. But at once the description follows of 
how God in infinite grace has appointed salvation for a lost 
humanity with the Hero, born of a virgin. While it leaves 
the heathen to pursue their own ways it relates in history and 
prophecy, m psalm and proverb the deliverances which he 
wrought for his people. And finally it leads us to the manger, 
place.6 us at the foot of the cross, where the Christ dies, bear- 
ni g our sin and reconciling the world unto God, and in the end 
points us to a glorious prospect of a new heaven and earth, 
,n which God will dwell with his people and be all in all. 


Methodist Review. 


This is the development theory, and this the course of his- 
tory according to the Scriptures ; this is its expectation of the 
future ; aud this also the hope and desire of the children of 
God ; they foster this hope without any fear that science can 
deprive them of it, for what can science know of to-morrow I 
Foolish are the expectations by which science seeks to dis- 
place the hope of Christians. There is indeed no other 
choice save between the ruin of all existing things as taught 
by present-day science, and the hope of the glory of the chil- 
dren of God, as preached by the Holy Scripture. And can 
the choice be doubtful ? It is true that this future of the 
Christ will not be accomplished except by a violent crisis and 
conflict. Jesus came to the earth, not to bring peace but the 
sword, and to set a man at variance against his father, and the 
daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against 
her mother-in-law. The} 7 of a man's own household will be 
his foes. Nevertheless the future is glorious and the hope 
certain. The kingdom of heaven, founded by Jesus in the 
earth, is and abides, and shall nevermore be banished from tlie 
earth. The foundation of God stands sure, having this seal : 
the Lord knoweth them that are his. The gates of hell shall 
not prevail against his Church. The near future may be the 
portion of the world, and Satan, the later future belongs cer- 
tainly to Christ. If we had no knowledge except that of an 
immanent self -development, we would have no ground for 
this hope. The kingdom of heaven has not once come along 
the lines of gradual ascent, neither will it come along these 
lines in the future. Not from beneath but from above do v.v 
expect the righteousness and life, the blessedness and glory 
of God. But Christ who has come down to earth is he who 
lias also ascended above all heavens, that he might fulfill all 
things. And he is exalted that once every knee to him shouhl 
bow and every tongue confess that lie is Lord, to the glory of 
God the Father. 


The Preacher and His Message. 



The work of the prophet is essentially the saine in all ages, 
to call men back to God and, by announcing God's word, help 
them to cultivate an intimacy of fellowship with their Lord. 
The preacher may be versed in literature, having the skill of 
a rhetorician and an orator, expounding Scripture with elabo- 
rate proofs, attracting multitudes by the charms of speech, yet, 
if he has not the voice and tone of a moral prophet, weighted 
with a message fresh from God to the hearts of men, his place 
is not in the pulpit. In discussing the relation between the 
preacher and his message, we call attention to the general 
-character of the message, the method by which it is to be ob- 
tained, and what characteristics we should expect to find in 
the message of the preacher of to-day. 

The preacher's message will have two factors — one perma- 
nent, being essentially the same for every preacher and for 
-every age; the other variable, differing according to the indi- 
viduality of the preacher and the characteristics of the age to 
which he speaks. 

I. That permanent, essential factor arises out of the relation 
•existing between God and his people. It does not consist in 
information or a dissertation even on religious truths. There 
may be all this without that vital element of a divine message. 
It is deeper than words ; something that makes direct appeal 
to the religious sensibilities makes people feel that "this 
man lias been with Christ;" that which, in every age, puts 
the stamp of divinity on the message of the prophet, arrests 
the sinner in his tracks, makes real the presence of a living 
God. In short, it is the voice of God, speaking through his 
prophet, calling men to himself. How is this essential factor 
of the message to be obtained ? It is imparted to us directly 
through the religious consciousness, that faculty which takes 
cognizance of the personal relation between the soul ami God 
Hence, just as the mind must be enlarged and si l engthened 
by disciplinary studies in order to receive truth, so must the 
religious consciousness be strengthened and cultivated by 
persona] intercourse with the Lord in order that it may be 


Methodist Review. 


instructed in things divine. The preacher must have a living, 
growing acquaintance with the Lord, what is known as a good 
Christian experience. This is the vital thing, and everything 
else must be made absolutely subservient to it. Dogma cannot 
replace it, for this is a touchstone by which dogma itself must 
be tested. Again and again has the refined, sturdy, Christian 
consciousness revolted at the conclusions of a logical theology 
and planted itself firmly on its intuitions until logic has been 
compelled to come round to it. I hold, therefore, that not 
only must no course of conduct be pursued, no single act per- 
formed, that will in any wise interrupt this intimacy between 
the sonl and God, but also that no thought should be enter- 
tained, no results of thought, though they may appear to our 
finite understanding to be logical, dare be accepted as finally 
true, that will in the least depreciate this living sense of the 
divine presence ; for no man can be a true prophet without 
this witness to his own consciousness of the living presence and 
abiding favor of his Lord. 

II. The other factor in the preacher's message is a variable 
one, and consists in the truths, facts, or doctrines that make 
up its setting, the terms in which it is interpreted to men. 
These will vary in every age, and, to some extent, with the 
individuality of the preacher. True prophets cannot differ in 
the essential part of their message — the call of God to men — 
but they will inevitably differ in their selection of the terms 
by which that message is to be interpreted or expressed, and 
in the truths or facts that are chosen as the vehicle for con- 
veying that message to its destination. Now this distinction 
between the essential and the variable elements in the preach- 
er's message should be kept in mind, for the great end of the 
preacher's work is not merely to teach truth, but to bring 
about in liis hearers a right condition of soul, an attitude of 
harmony toward God, or, to put it scripturally, to save souls. 
Truth is a means to this end. That which is recognised afl 
true in the age in which he lives and to which he ministers 
must be the basis on which he works to reach the hearts of 
the people. I say, the truth that is recognized as such in his 
day, for that which w T as recognized as truth in a former a{ B 
and which served its purpose at that time will not answer foi 


The Preacher and His Message. 

to-day. Knowledge changes. We know very li£tle about 
ultimate truth, though we are striving after it. It must, 
therefore, be in the very nature of things that "knowledge 
vanisheth away" and giveth place to higher, and yet higher, 
knowledge. That which abides is the faith that makes knowl- 
edge possible. 

The particular truths through which the preacher is to make 
his message known and effective with his hearers are to be 
sought in every field — history, Scripture, science, philosophy, 
human life, everywhere. The underlying principle by which 
a preacher should be guided in his search for truth is that of 
a true liberalism of thought, which goes upon the assumption 
of continuity, or development, in thought. The present lias 
grown out of the past and must in turn be prepared to give 
way to the larger thought of the future. On this principle a 
man must be just as true to the sacred heritage of the past as 
he is hopeful of the larger results to come. Failure to recog- 
nize this very important principle will account for much of 
the superficiality of hypercriticism as well as for the short- 
sightedness of many attacks made on mod